Kievan state in the reign of her and Sviatoslav
- Home domination Olga.
- Reforms Olga.
- Olga Foreign Policy: a visit to Constantinople, trying to establish relationships with Hermanskoyu empire.
- Measures Princess of spreading Christianity.
- Prince Svyatoslav's foreign policy: a campaign against Khazaria; Balkan campaigns.
- Sviatoslav domestic policy.
Chronology of events
945 - 964 years
Princess Olga's reign
Olga Journey to Constantinople
beginning of the reign of Sviatoslav
Hiking Sviatoslav against the Volga Bulgars and Khazar Khaganate
First Balkan campaign of Prince Svyatoslav
| 969-971 he
Sviatoslav second trip to Danube Bulgaria. War with Byzantium
death in battle with Sviatoslav pechenegs
Svyatoslav I. (c. 939 - 972 years) - Grand Duke of Kyiv (945-972 years). Son of Prince Igor and Olga. All public events like Sviatoslav I. objected Olzhyni: princess was zealous Christian, and Svyatoslav stubbornly clung paganism, during Olga was not any confrontation with neighbors, always fighting the same Sviatoslav; Olga cared about the internal affairs of state, and Svyatoslav despise them that reproached for Kiev him: «You, prince, a strange land and dbayesh looking about her, and his left ...» But despite this chronicler tell of Sviatoslav with extreme sympathy, bending before polkovodnytskym talent, courage, and chivalrous zvytyazhnistyu and sincerity: «was very brave and easy. Walking by, Jako pardus, many wars he did. Wagons for the same s oboyu he driving or was told no, no meat is cooking, but potonku narizavshy horse or beast or Wolowyna spikshy and corners, he ate it. Even he had no tent, and pitnyk fame and put a saddle at the head. These are all the other warriors with him. And he sent messengers to other lands, saying: "I want you to go». That Sviatoslav put in the mouth expressions, which was destined to become cruise: «Dead shame not know," Do not land posoromymo Rus » and others. Interesting evidence of Svyatoslav and keep a foreign source. For example, the Byzantine historian Leo Deacon left the sketch Ruthenian Prince: « emperor the spot agreed at talks in gold-plated weapons, the horse came to the shore of the Danube, accompanied by a large detachment riders sparkled weapons. Sviatoslav pereyizdyv the river in a boat and sitting on an oar, the tomb along with other without any difference. In appearance he was: average height, not very high, not too low, bushy eyebrows, with blue eyes, flat nose, with a goal enoyu beard and thick mustache. His head was completely naked, but only on one side hung a strand in itolossya that meant distinction of race; neck chunky, strong, broad shoulders and the entire state rather slim. He seemed sullen and wild. In one ear sticking up for his gold ring, adorned with two pearls with rubies, set among them. Clothes on it was white, nothing but purity, the other not great ».
1. Home rule Olga
The tragic death of Prince Igor forced the state to take over the wheel of his wife - Princess Olga : as the son Igor, Prince Svyatoslav, according to the chronicle, was still too small.
- According to scientists, Igor death was fl ' connected with the desire of union of tribes, including Derevlyany, get rid of power Rurik dynasty and establish his own dynasty in Kiev .
- To put an end to harassment derevlyanskoyi nobility, Olga had to act prudently and decisively.
- not survived until today no details of how it overcame Olga antyryurykivski Derevlyany mood. Winning the Kiev authorities and the final conquest Derevlyany embodied in the legendary chronicler of the three stories of revenge Olga.
Double Olga came ambassadors from Derevlyany, seeking his posvataty derevlyanskoho Little Prince - and twice found in Kiev death. Then Olga cunning overcome derevlyanske army and Iskorosten (derevlyansku capital) took up the siege. After imposed on the vanquished iskorostentsiv tribute light - a few sparrows and pigeons from the court. Derevlyany not understand in what sense this puzzle wise Olga - and suffered a final defeat.
Olga for the first time in the history of the Rus resorted to measures that involved the elimination of local knyazhin: it abolished the Board derevlyanskoho Little Prince, subordinating derevlyansku land directly Kyiv.
2. Olga Reforms
- According to the chronicles, Olga pryborkavshy Derevlyany, zahodylasya arrange collection Dani - to prevent future outbreaks of discontent, similar to those that made and lost her husband.
- Princely power was provided in different sizes and types of tributes: to chronicle their named statutes, the lessons handling .
- Nearby cities Olga pozakladala pohosty - administrative and commercial centers, where representatives of princely power regularly collected tribute set, the court did and others. So Olga, according to this interpretation, replaced the regular season polyuddya collect tribute in pohostah.
3. Foreign policy of Princess Olga. The visit to Constantinople.
strategic partners during the Rus Olga remained Byzantium.
- more or less the usual date for the trip to Constantinople is Olga was 957, though the chronicler calls another. Installed it on the testimony of the Byzantine emperor, party events, Kostantyna Porphyrogenitus , who left memoirs of two imperial feasting Ruthenian princess, pointing not only to give each and days of week in those who fell.
- Embassy Princess consisted of 100 most respected persons, among them - Olzhyn nephew, Russians and Princess boyar, priest, ambassadors and interpreters, merchants. Together with the servants, soldiers and sailors suite Olga was almost fifteen hundred people.
- Purpose of the trip to Constantinople Olga vytlumachuyetsya ambiguously. Chronicler of hagiographic literature and the reasons of the visit saw the effort of Olga baptized.
- Chronicle was told that he came to Constantinople, the prince became a Christian and that her godfather was the Emperor. However, Constantine Porphyrogenitus' baptism of Olga in his memoirs did not mention a single word.
So Going to Tsarhrada, Princess Olga wanted to restore peaceful inter-State agreement between Rus and Byzantine Empire - after the manners of the times acted agreement until the lords were living, that concluded it. Death of Prince Igor and Olga encouraged to go to Constantinople, the new text of the agreement. However, it concluded vochevydyachky was not. And the relations of Russia and Byzantium, quite naturally, became cooler.
Attempts to establish relationships Germanic empire
Some easing of relations with Byzantium Olga forced to look for another strong ally.
in Western sources preserved testimony of the embassy Olga, was sent 959 to the Germanic Emperor Otto I .
- Ruski envoys were authorized to request the Germanic prince sent to Kyiv high priests to spread Christianity and also seek the establishment of relations of "peace and friendship."
- Otto I granted the request of the princess and in 961 was sent to Kyiv several priests led by Bishop Adalbert, however, expand in the Ruthenian lands they could not.
- end of life of Olga princely power weakened. Evidence of this was a complete change in state policy voknyazhinnyam 964 p . Olzhynoho son - Sviatoslav .
4. Measures for spreading Christianity
- Named Olga link building of several churches in Kiev, including the church of St. Nicholas on the grave of Askold and the church of St. Sophia.
- Persistence in the spread of Christianity was properly marked by generations, for which Princess Christian, was shaped by the expression of the chronicler, «peredvisnytseyu Christian land, as dawn Morning dawn before the sun and to the world».
For several centuries, according to historians - not later than 13 centuries., Olga began to honor as holy.
5. Foreign policy of the prince-warrior
campaign against Khazaria
- Year 964 , as evidenced by the record, Svyatoslav went to hike at Oka and Volga, with the aim to conquer the Khazar Khanate.
- trip lasted two years. During this time, was overcome Volga Bulgars and burtasiv (Mordvinians) yasiv and Kasogi.
- Ruthenian not resist swords and powerful fortresses of Khazaria - Semender city, located on the Caspian Sea city Sarkel that Don, and the capital of Itil Khaganate that the mouth of the Volga.
military presence in the lands of Rus Khazaria so undermined the strength of the State, to restore the former greatness, it failed and soon fell into decline.
- But despite the resounding victory of Svyatoslav, few historians evaluates its policy on Khazaria positively. It Khazar khanate, as if a shield, protecting the land from the Russians many raids eastern nomads. With the demise of Khazaria nomadic hordes moved to Russia.
- reclaimed land in the east had to uphold, in order to force the Rus lacked.
territorial acquisition by Sviatoslav short time has been lost.
The First Balkan campaign Sviatoslav
smaller and not as little Svyatoslav campaign was effective in the Balkans. Launched by 967, it lasted several years and consisted of two trips.
How do historians believe, the first hike Svyatoslav urged against Bulgaria Byzantine emperor Nicephorus.
- knowledgeable about the defeat of Khazaria Sviatoslav committed, he sought to subdue the power of the Ruthenian troops arbitrary Bulgarian rulers.
- However, few researchers analyzed the events, concluded that Sviatoslav was in the Balkans and self-interest.
- actively pursuing offensive policy towards the south, he dreamed of the great new residence - closer to the areas where the fighting.
- So Svyatoslav over 968 quickly moved the Lower Danube, and soon " took eighty towns on the Danube, and sat down knyazyuyuchy there in the garden Pereyaslavtsi taking gifts ...»
This development does not meet foreign policy agenda of Byzantium, which would rather govern itself in the Balkans. So soon Sviatoslav had already fought against the troops of the emperor.
- not in favor of Sviatoslav consisted circumstances. In the summer of 968 to Pereyaslavtsya received the news of the mortal danger that threatened Kyiv: using lack of grand duke and his wife came to the capital of Rus Pechenegs bands and surrounded it.
- Svyatoslav had as soon as possible to return to Kyiv. On the Danube, he was able to return only 970 was
In the absence of Sviatoslav
- Balkans significant changes have occurred: in Byzantium became established on the throne a new emperor John Tsymishiy , who resorted to all diplomatic measures to persuade Sviatoslav abandon his assault the Balkans.
- The Bulgarian government signed an agreement with Byzantium and started Allied struggle against the Russians in the Danubian fortresses bail. So Sviatoslav had to take up arms again .
Second Balkan campaign
At the beginning of a campaign Svyatoslav conquered almost all of Bulgaria, crossed the Balkan Mountains and invaded Thrace.
- But in the battle of Arkadiopolem Svyatoslav defeated - first in life.
- This forced him to return to the Danube and a foothold in Dorostoli (now in Bulgaria Silistra). In spring, the 971 here came troops of Byzantine Emperor.
- Svyatoslav his wife was in the siege, which lasted three months. After bleeding the adversaries have agreed to negotiate.
- There were they at the highest level: personally met the prince and Ruthenian Byzantine emperor.
- Under the contract, the 971 Svyatoslav refused to claim ownership of the Byzantine in Crimea and the Danube, the Byzantine emperor was obliged to miss Rus home and continue to treat them as friends.
- Agreeing with Svyatoslav, the Byzantine ruler secretly informed khan Pechenegs Curia , which depleted long campaign Rusyches returned home with great booty.
- Near Dnieper rapids pechenigs blocked the way to Kyiv. Really appreciated the balance of power, Svyatoslav went to Biloberezhzhya, to winter there.
- In early March, the 972 Prince went to Kyiv. And he attacked the doors pechenigs. In combat, killing many Ruthenians. Head and put a great prince.
6. Domestic policy Sviatoslav
- Svyatoslav little concerned about domestic affairs. At first he charged their mother - the Princess Olga, after her death, the year 969, authorized to exercise the supreme power of his sons, giving Kyiv Yaropolk , Derevlyansku land - Oleg , and Novgorod - Vladimir .
- In this way the order was confirmed princely rule, provided that the right to govern the whole territory of the Rus representatives of a single dynasty - Rurik dynasty .
- With minor modifications, this procedure lasted several centuries. He was not some invention of the original Sviatoslav - so did everywhere in medieval Europe.
- sons did not escape mizhknyazivskyh squabbling. According to the Chronicle, the power struggle between Yaropolk and Oleg lasted five years, sometimes zahostryuyuchys to war, that it, eventually, both arrested the head.
- in the vortex of the events involved and the youngest son of Sviatoslav - Vladimir . It was he after death Yaropolk became established in Kyiv.