emergence of human life in Ukraine
- appearance and resettlement of people in Ukraine. Life arhantropiv early Paleolithic period.
- Mastering men territories of Ukraine Middle Paleolithic. Paleoantropy (Neanderthals), training and the beginnings of spiritual life.
- emergence of Homo sapiens and its lessons. The most famous park of late Stone Age.
basic concepts and terms
Archaeology - the science that studies the history of society to the material remains of human life and activity - real (archaeological) monuments, explores some antiquities and complexes that opened up by archaeological excavations, based on which play history eras who have little or no written sources covered.
- richest material for the study of human ancestors found in Africa. Archaeological finds confirm the appearance of there creatures called Australopithecus, more than 5 million years ago. Australopithecus believe monkeys, which were on the verge of humanization, because they had features that zblyzhuvaly of their man: pryamohodinnya; greater than in monkeys, the average volume of the brain, significantly higher than in monkeys, the ratio of brain weight to total body weight; strong opposition of thumb to others and so on. The remains were found at the earliest Australopithecus oz.Turkana in Kenya, his age 5,5-5,0 million years. Last Australopithecus have age 850 thousand years.
- oldest man scientists believe prezyndzhantropa or habilisa homo - man could that occurred within 3 million years ago and disappeared 1.1 million years ago. The people prezyndzhantropa counted on the basis of the first signs of labor, typical of him, because along with the bones of living creatures were discovered and artificial tools.
Next step anthropo associated with the appearance or Nomo Pithecanthropus erectus - a person with direct pace. According to scientists, Pithecanthropus were 1,5-1,0 million years ago. Findings of their very numerous and found in different parts of the world. Pithecanthropus were 150-180 cm tall, the average brain volume was greater than that of Australopithecus. Their hands were more skilful, as evidenced by the more advanced and diverse tool partsi. They settled in caves or did some primitive housing on their own. Prezyndzhantropiv Pithecanthropus and join the provisional title arhantropy .
Even more close to humans in the modern sense of Neanderthals. The oldest finds date back to their period of 150-100 thousand years ago. As for human beings, Neanderthal was slightly lower than the growth of modern man, but distinguished hardihood. The volume of brain volume reached the brain of modern man, but retained many archaic features: development nadbrivnyh arcs and back of the combined low sloping forehead. This testified to the underdevelopment of a share of the frontal brain responsible for complex thinking, and the city center brake process. So, as suggest that Neanderthals were incapable of abstract thinking, their distinctive features - irritability and aggressiveness. Neanderthals and complexity of the problem is that the last of them survived to modern times of human physical type.
Actually such a person kromanyontsya researchers believe, the remains of which were first discovered in 1868 in southwestern France. Modern science claims that culminated with the emergence kromanyontsiv of modern man. It happened about 40 thousand years ago.
Periodization ancient history of Ukraine (archaeological)
- Stone Age
- Paleolithic , or old Stone Age , lasted from 1 million to 10 thousand years ago. Its share in
- early (1 million - 150 thousand),
- average (150 thousand - thousand 40-35)
- late (40 thousand - 10 thousand) - an era and the emergence of a modern human existence.
- Mesolithic , or middle Stone Age , in Ukraine lasted from 10 thousand years to 7 thousand years ago.
- Neolithic , new stone age , - to 7 thousand to 5 thousand years ago.
- Copper-Bronze Age
Copper Age, copper-stone - 4 - 3 thousand BC Bronze - from early February to the 1 thousand BC
- Iron Age (early) - the beginning of ths BC (9 century BC. - Article 4. BC)
1. pralyudey emergence and settling in the territory of Ukraine. Life arhantropiv early Paleolithic period
- People first appeared in Ukraine about 1 million years ago . The oldest monument in Ukraine is a parking lot near the village Queen Vynogradiv district in Transcarpathia.
- On the left bank of River Tisza, on the terrace height of 100-120 meters, archaeologists discovered a unique archaeological finds: numerous stone tools - covered with pebbles, hand rubyla, hostrokonechnyky, comb, edge spears and knives.
- playlist ancient inhabitants of Ukraine so far reveal no luck. But scientists admit that they were arhantropy . They came to the territory of Europe from Africa at the beginning of glaciation. The climate was still mild, but have felt the cold breath of the glacier.
- For arhantropiv was characterized by:
- use fire, but they could not extract it.
- Our tools made of stone shaking.
- basic tools - rubylo Manual, which you can chop, cut, cut.
- stone, used wooden tools such as spears, sharpened at the end of the firing way over the fire.
- lived in large groups - droves . They built homes, constantly moving in search of food. For those times in our area have had a lot of heat-loving plants. So the ancient Ukrainian lands zhyvylysya their fruits, shoots, roots. Be used in food as meat, hunting for deer, antelope, horses, bulls, elephants, rhinoceros, hippopotamus.
- arhantropiv Rokosovo found near the village in Transcarpathia, near the villages of Luka Vrublovetska Babin and the Dniester and Amvrosievka in the Donbass, Crimea and others in the foothills.
Zalyudnennya in Ukraine took place through the Balkans and Central Europe. However, some scientists believe the likely paths and through the Caucasus.
2. pralyudmy Mastering the territories of Ukraine Middle Paleolithic. Paleoantropy (Neanderthals), training and the beginnings of spiritual life
- Archaeological finds that they belong to the time 150-40 thousand years ago , attest to the difference in the lives of primitive people.
- next steps after arhantropiv humanization of our distant ancestors were paleoantropy , or Neanderthals .
- In Ukraine found nearly 200 parking Neanderthals. A lot of their research in the caves of mountain Crimea. Known Neanderthal parking in our region, Dniester, in Zhitomir, in Nadporozhzhi etc..
changes of natural conditions
- posuvorishav climate: there were sharp contrasts of temperatures (hot summers and fierce winters), and rainfall was the same as in modern semi-deserts.
- Glacier advanced to the Northern part of Ukraine and along the Dnipro Dnipropetrovsk reached modern. With his strong duly constantly cold and dry winds.
- Territory, which directly adjoined to the glacier turned cold in the desert. To the south up to the Carpathians and the Black Sea stretched tundra and cold steppes.
- Under these conditions, heat-loving plants and animals have disappeared. Instead there north. The animals, for example, in Ukraine lived caribou, fox, mammoths, hairy rhinos, etc. vivtsebyky.
- Adjusting to severe climate, the people of those times often settled in caves . This is evidenced by numerous finds of traces of Neanderthals, found in caves in the Crimea.
- In areas where there were caves, Neanderthals built housing. They had a rounded shape. The basis for the first home of mammoth bones or stones. For walls usually branches that vstromlyaly between bones, and the top housing nakryvalysya jacket.
- At the time, people started using the clothes.
- mastered skills obtain fire .
- Our tools were made by using wood as vidschepiv or plates.
The most common tools Neanderthals were hostrokonechnyky and comb . Hostrokonechnyky ruled by the edge to spears, comb - with knives.
- scientists associated with Neanderthals first beginnings of spiritual life .
- Neanderthals belonged to the oldest person in Ukraine, which verified the existence of discovery not only homes or parking lots, and remains of the man himself.
- Kyyik-Koba, Crimea that were excavated Neanderthal burial: skeletons of a woman and small child.
This finding confirms
- improvements in human development. It enables us to conclude that Neanderthals cared for the dead. There is evidence and care for patients.
- suggests that Neanderthals gradually changed towards animals: they only ceased to be the object of hunting, and acquired value of the symbol, which linked the quiet life of a hunting team.
- example, in a small grotto near Odessa discovered a huge cluster of cave bear bones - traces of a magical ritual Neanderthals. From the time Neanderthals survived also scoop mammoth, densely pomerezhena carved lines that outline the contours like animals.
So Neanderthal times reaches the origin of art and religious beliefs. Cultivating spirituality prorostaly among Neanderthals tens of thousands of years. However, archaeological findings also confirm the initial ferocity and cruelty. Thus, many findings give grounds to argue that among Neanderthals were widespread cannibalism.
3. The emergence of Homo sapiens and its lessons. The most famous park of late Stone Age
- appearance Homo sapiens scholars date back thousand 40-35 years ago.
- Some researchers believe that Neanderthals were direct ancestors of their own rights. Pointing to the significant drawbacks of their mental development, supporters of this opinion believe that Neanderthals died out gradually. A man appeared quite suddenly in South Africa or Eurasia, later rozselyvshys to other areas.
- first find a place for ancient human remnants reasonable time in the late Paleolithic cave Kromanyon in France it is called kromanyontsem .
- Archaeological finds dated Late Pleistocene much more diverse and better. In kromanyontsiv tools were special-purpose:
- rake for leather, cutting to work with the bone;
- various spearhead , knives , axes, etc.;
- except stone, have been tools of bone and horn - needle , sewing , rukiv & rsquo and I different instruments;
- various ornaments and valuables ritual purpose, such as: bracelets, necklaces, statues, drums sticks.
- investigated several parking lots that they belong to the late Paleolithic times. The most famous of them are located in villages in Chernihiv and Mizyn Mezhyrich of Cherkasy Dobranychivka in Kiev. Knowledge is parking and Cyril in Kiev.
On the right bank of the Desna River in the village Mizyn Korop district, Chernihiv region of ancient settlement found at Mammoth Hunters. Archaeologists have examined the remains of game five dwellings, place of working stone and bone, deep hearth, filled with bone charcoal, ashes, meat pits for storage during the winter meat supplies.
ancient hunters in the village were found the remains of 100 mammoths and reindeer bones, rhinos, wild horses, vivtsebykiv, bison, bears, wolves, fox, hares, rosomah.
Of great value are discovered during excavation works of ancient artists: female statuettes and figurines of animals with tusks of mammoth, unique bracelets mammoths bones decorated with complex carved ornaments, jewelry, and mammoth tusk shells.
- was found several large bones of mammoths, painted with red ocher. According to the researchers, they were used during the holidays as musical instruments.
- In the settlement, that his remains are found in Mizyn, 20 thousand people lived years ago.
- lived in it, according to the researchers, up to 50 people.
Homo sapiens emerged at a time when the long ice age. The most severe climate in Europe vstanovyvsya 20-17 thousand years ago. By that time the northern territory of Ukraine occupied prylodovykovyy steppe, inhabited by mammoths. In southern rozlyahalysya endless cold steppes of numerous bison herd. These natural and climatic features of identified people's lives.
Hunters mammoths and bison
The leading occupation Homo sapiens during the late Paleolithic remained hunting .
- In northern Ukraine, primitive hunters hunted mammoths , and in the south - to bison .
- hunt large animals such one person was difficult. Because people lived and hunted in groups of 30 - 40 people. All were relatives. So the researchers call these groups communities generic .
- fits particularly great hunt, hunters are more united communities. Links to other communities also maintained in order to form new families.
- In river valleys, along which the animals lived, the community of hunters oblashtovuvaly their settlements.
- hunted using spears, organizing animal trap in the form of pits.
- Legally Harvested animals not only provided with food, but also gave the skins for clothing, footwear and covering dwellings, bone for making tools.
- bright sight of life hunters of bison is Amvrosiyivske camp in Donbass. It is located next to a giant cluster of bison bones. Nearly a thousand of these mighty hunters drove the animals into the ravine.
Numerous archaeological materials show steady population growth in Ukraine in ancient times human history. Our land - one of the richest in monuments of stone-age Europe. It is through Ukraine, which is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, was the settlement of the eastern part of the European continent.