August 23, 1939 between the USSR and Germany signed a nonaggression pact and a secret protocol of the Molotov-Ribbentrop, who defined the zone of influence of the two countries in Eastern Europe. Under this protocol eastern Polish territory (ie the former western region of Ukraine) were to be transferred to the USSR.
Soviet-German agreement to hand Hitler unleashed aggression in Europe. September 1, 1939 Nazi troops invaded Poland border. September 17, when the main forces were defeated by the Polish Army, Soviet troops crossed the Polish-Soviet border in Western Ukraine and Western Belorussia. Started "liberation campaign" Red Army, and the actual implementation of secret Molotov-Ribbentrop protocol. In fact, the USSR entered the Second World War on the side of Germany and joined the division in the world. Polish troops did not resistance.
September 22 the Red Army entered the city. On the same day in Brest-Litovsk after successful completion of the Polish campaign, a joint parade of Soviet and German troops. September 28 Soviet-German military-political alliance, sealed compatible fighting almost defenseless against Poland (before German troops occupied Warsaw), was confirmed by the new agreement - on friendship and abroad.
to legitimize the Soviet regime in Western Ukraine, October 22, 1939 under the control of the new government held elections to the People's Assembly, which adopted the Declaration in late October to join the Western Ukraine into the USSR and its reunification with the USSR . In November 1939 the Verkhovna Rada approved the USSR The relevant laws.
in Western Ukraine was officially incorporated into the USSR, was established six regions: Lviv, Stanislavsky, Volyn, Ternopil, Rivne, Drohobych.
Less than a year were legally formalized and incorporated into the USSR territory of Northern Bukovina and the Danube riparian land. In June 1940, considering the Soviet-German agreement on the delimitation of spheres of influence, the Soviet Union announced an ultimatum to Romania to transfer him Bessarabia and Bukovina. June 28 southern group of Red Army troops under the command of G. Zhukov crossed the Dniester River and came to these territories. August 2, 1940 by VII session of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR created the Moldavian SSR, and organized in Northern Bukovina Chernivtsi region and handed it to the USSR. The composition of the USSR were also included Khotyn, Ackermanskaya and Ismail areas.
in November 1940 between the USSR and MRSR was a new border. As a result, Ukraine from Transdniestria was alienated from the ethnic Ukrainian population.
After inclusion of the Western Ukraine, USSR, Northern Bukovina and Bessarabia three districts of Ukraine's population has increased by 8,8 million people and the middle of 1941 was more than 41.6 million people and its territory expanded to 565 thousand km2.
with the accession of Western Ukraine to the Soviet Union began the process of Sovietization, ie changes in all spheres of life produced according to the years of Soviet designs. During Sovietization allocated two stages:
- until spring 1940 when the regime at least from the outside to save democracy and reform met its majority population;
- from spring 1940 is the deepening of the socialist content changes, accompanied by massive repression through rejection of these reforms the majority of local people.
support from the population met the following measures: elimination of the Polish state apparatus, the confiscation of large land owners, the nationalization of trade and industry (these areas were in the hands of Poles and Jews), Ukrainization and strengthening the education system (number of Ukrainian schools increased to 6,5 thousand, while reducing Polish), Lviv University was renamed in honor of Ivan Franko, Ukrainian was the language of instruction, etc.), development of the welfare system, especially health care.
displeasure caused: replacing Polish officials on local communists and people sent from the East of Ukraine, forced collectivization (in June 1941 in the collective farms were combined 15% of households), the pressure on the church (as the Greek Catholic and Orthodox), the defeat of political parties and public associations, including such respected in the nation as "highly active", as well as mass repressions.
Repression began almost immediately after the occupation of land by the Red Army of Western Ukraine, but first they spoke mainly Polish - was deported to the East of the USSR a million Poles and shot 15 thousand Polish officers.
Among Ukrainian before others suffered repression activists of political parties. The only organized resistance force of the new government remained OUN.
spring of 1940 launched a broad regime of repression: to Siberia and Kazakhstan were deported 400 thousand Ukrainian, while tens of thousands of people have moved on Polish territory occupied by the Germans, people were persecuted without trial, but the purpose of intimidating sometimes people held demonstrations processes.
Since autumn 1939 to autumn 1949 in Western Ukraine on the political basis was repressed and deported about 10% of the population (318 thousand families, about 1.2 million people). Mortality among the deportees was 16%.
sovietization western regions of Ukraine carried out particularly strongly after the expulsion of the Nazis. In the postwar years, this process had the following main stages:
- organizational and personnel work (sending various personnel workers from other regions of the USSR: 44 thousand teachers, 29 thousand workers, 2 thousand engineers and technical workers, 15 thousand specialists of agriculture, creating network of party and Komsomol organizations, trade unions);
- industrialization and collectivization (created new industries: garment, chemical, expanding production and processing of natural gas to search for new mineral deposits, formed the system of production and trade and consumer cooperatives, by mid-1950 into collective farms were merged almost 93%, and by mid-1951 - more than 95% of farms);
- elimination of the Greek Catholic Church (1946) and its transition into hiding;
- fighting OUN - UPA, the deportation of the Ukrainian population, etc..
Association of Western Ukraine from the USSR was positive: for the first few centuries of its history were in a Ukrainian state. But brought to the Red Army bayonets repressive regime finally persuaded the Western population that its future is in creating an independent, united Ukrainian state.