§ 31 AND SPIRITUAL LIFE OF UKRAINE
1. Revival of national culture
In close connection with development of the statehood of Ukraine the process of national culture.
Definitely oznachylysya departure from the ideological regulation of cultural life and focus on Shared values World culture. In literary and artistic life is affirmed spitralizm, come on changes peculiar totalitarian system uniform ideological Art display case. Reinterpreted dogma socialist Realism
In February 1992 Ministry Culture Ukraine prepared development programin national culture that practically we poryvala with totalitariannulym and directed development Culture the path confession higher humanistic values.
Parliament of Ukraine shortly approved that program. President Kravchuk predicted by decree social events protection culture and Art in the transition to market relations.
In the first years of independence created Committee і National Award them. Shevchenko. It consists of known figures of the Ukrainian culture.
Among the first winners Shevchenkovskaya Award independent Укobviously offers became a prisoner of Stalin's concentration camps B.Antonenko-Davidovich (Posthumous) nonconformity А.Kalynets, Т.Mel, artists М.Maksimenko, Synytsi, Bandura Capella University.Т.Shevchenko з Detroit (USA) and Choir. O. Kosice from Canada.
National Award 2000 awarded writer І.Hnatiuk, composer А.Karaman, artist M. Timchenko sculptor В.Chepelyuku, choreograph А.Shekera etc..
Among the winners State Award – writer І.Chenda, singer V. Zinkevich, art В.Ovsiychuk, artist А.Antoniuk, Scholar Р.Conquest (USA).
ReturnXia works knyhozibrannyaAnd archives and other cultural and spiritual values that з different reasons were removed from Ukraine abroad. For acceleratedyou return illegally the cultural values, createbut special government commission.
In February 1992 Ukraine signed appropriate agreement і countries CIS. For our country this agreement mage special value: by from Ukraine in different time were removed Scythian gold icons, pictures of Arttski articles, manuscripts and more.
In recent years, returned to Ukraine personal Archives О.Olesya and Olzhych. Public From Ukrainerymala Mozhity review with large archives unchanged for bonfiresoh years Head of Scientific Society. Shevchenko Academician Zhukovsky.
Ukrainian cultural treasury added and artistic heritageNoah Л.Morozova, which was among those risking lives, protecting St. Michael's Cathedral from destruction.
Great interest scientists cause transferred in Ukraine copies of documents State Archives Sweden covering relations Ukraine and Sweden у XVIII Art.
To Returned from Ukraine U.S. government archives in the UPR exile. Launched work to return to Ukraine Heritage Professor І.King James, work which comprising almost 2000 nayiv variety of disciplines.
Was published previously unavailable reader Ukrainian edition Literature of the Ukrainian emigration – Productions І.Scarlet, Mr. Barca, O.Teligy, S.Gordinskogo, L.Mosendz and many others.
In the Writers' Union of Ukraine established special Commission that actively was included in the revival of the names of those figures culture, which became victims of Stalinism.
On the bookshelves were forgotten works of writers Executed revival ": Zerov M., M. Wave, E. Snowka, H. Solitaire et al. Were published works of the Ukrainian dissidents – В.Stus І.Svitlychny, E. Sverstiuk Ruban AV, Rudenko.
In Ukraine only stored previously created centers of cultural life, but also faultemerge new. Created Odessa Philharmonic Symphony Orchestra. State Ensemble of Soloists "Kyiv Camerata» et al.
National revival stimulated the growth of online museum " in areas open 29 new public museums. Launched new historical and cultural Reserve Baturin, hissing, Dubna, Zbarazh Korsun-Shevchenko etc..
Restored Issue magazines "Kiev eld, "the lettertour of science Gazette. From 1992 Ukraine in publishing the monthly magazine of independent thought "Modern".
There are new periodical journals such as "Ternopil in –Ternopil, "Threshold" in Kirovograd, Borisfen "in Skypetrovsk and others. In Kharkiv, updated edition "Collection Harsic banking Historical and Philological Society, published journal "Milky Way". Widely deployed publishing An academicve Company name. Shevchenko in Lviv. Kiev book "GloAgora started republication in Ukraine, the famous "Encyclopedia UKrayinoznavstva " prepared Ukrainian diaspora.
His own periodicals are companies, associationstion and political parties. Virtually every regional center of Ukraine (Have new publishers, including those work on Commercialinnovative basis. Since 1992 in Ukraine receive military press – started publishing newspapers "People's Army", "Aircraft of Ukraine" et al. Appeared journal "Military Ukraine, who converted to printwell-founded authority of the Ministry of Defence of Ukraine.
Enlargedworse thematic range of literary and artistic works, uriznomanitnyuyutsya their stylistic form.
Gained great popularity of Ukrainian Festival contemporary songs and popular music "Red Rue". Entered the practice ofRodney holidays Competitions "Lesin sources, "the Fair"; international Festivals Ukrainian Folklore "Keeper", the author Song of the Golden Gate. Lviv (in particular, in June 1999 was X International Festival of Arts "Virtuosos».)
Becoming independent Ukraine has started to play and shake their historical and cultural heritage.
Decree President in 1996 created All-Ukrainian Foundation reproduction of famous monuments historical and architectural heritage them. Honchar. The work preparation monuments of history and Culture of Ukraine.
State has in its custody over 160 thousands items that millennial history. 49 outstanding ensembles and historical complexesRico and architectural heritage proclaimed State Reserve.
After Ukraine's independence the most significant monuments of our States were included list UNESCO World Heritage. It ensembles of Saint Sophia Cathedral and Kyiv-Pecerskoyi Monastery in Kyiv, historical monuments and buildings of the city. Already updated Michael Golden Cathedral Reproduced УсPensky Cathedral of Kyiv Pechersk Lavra. A appropriate роbot with restoration of historical and cultural heritage in many regions country.
Economic crisis has slowed the process of cultural development, established for state institutionsyou have a complicated problem not only in terms of development but maintenance cultureWriting Class infrastructure.
From 1993 have a tendency to reduce threatening edition Ukrainian-language books. Decreased circulation issued, periodicals. stopped out newly newspapers, magazines, almanacs.
In Ukraine, broke the state system of book trade, publishers do not state received government support. Almost discardednylo Issue literature Publishing "Ukrainian Encyclopedia, заNepal Ukrainian Publishers of fiction.
Instead, the book market literally Ukraine littered with bookwe are from Russia, that the best result conditions created there for knyhovydavnychoyi cases have lower costs, and therefore you are replacing Ukrainianpublishers.
Commercialization of culture in the absence of powerful privateand sustainable sector of drew on the traditions of philanthropy limit виtion significant number of creative teams of talented individualsLed to the almost absolute dominance of money on aesthetic values and benchmarks.
2. Education Contemporary Ukraine
Ukraine inherited from the Soviet-developed and widely ramified education system that in education had occurred negativestructive party due Constrained educators with experience developed countries.
Education Ukraine focused on union needs that led to imbalances in placing higher education institutions and the structure of training.
Unification of education will carry that imposed central agencies limited study national history, culture ethnography.
With training process vytisnyalasya Ukrainian language. In generalEducation schools it enrolled less than half the students in higher education teaching carried out mainly in Russian, and vocational schools in almost Russian only.
Pernecks congress teachers in Ukraine December 1992 connuv and endorsed State Program "Education". Shortly Cabinet Ministers stated it his ordinance.
The program defines the strategic goals of education in Ukraine and provides its fundamental reformuvannya, overcome monopoly in education by creating opportunities to operate it on an equal basis alternative structures. The proposed program includes:
– fundamental shift in the pedagogical process;
– decentralization and democratization Management education;
– humanization of the educational process;
– continuity of education and its The multi.
The only thing in the constitutional order recognized binding – it total secondary education. The program provides reorientation all education on priority development personality and a for this appropriate conditions in society.
A deideolohizatsiya democratization and improved learning process. In educational process started already refuse of dogmatic uniformity, which recognizes only single curricula, methods and textbooks.
Uriznomanitnyvsya range of educational ZakFrets taking into account the interests and inclinations younger generation.
From this end, School-depth study of certain subjects, open gymnasiums, lyceums, colleges, author and private schools. Already in the early years Independence 4,3 thousand employed schools in-depth study of certain subjects. 179gymnasiums, 130 schools were opened 17 private schools.
Law Ukraine of 13 April 1999 considered appropriate in September 2001 introduce 12 years term study in general secondary schools.
In 1992 was renewed activity Kyiv Nataliaylyanskoyi Academy openly National Academy of Management in Kiev Academy of Finance in Donetsk and other new universities.
Introduced system of state licensing and accreditedtion institutions.
There also many private schools, which are held acredytatsiyu and receive appropriate status with the permission of the Ministry education. The goal of these institutions – rapid response market needs by training in specialties that greatest demand in market conditions.
Universities have become more autonomous in its activities. Carried out transition to three-level training: BA, specialist, master.
In Ukraine there are training laid the different forms of ownership and accreditation.
Made visible steps in the humanization and humanistic. Considerable attention is paid to the study Ukrainian history, religion, ethnology.
Several new research institutes founded in system National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. In December 1991, created Institutehere national relations and political science. Archaeological Commission Institute of History of Science of Ukraine has been transformed into Institute Ukrainiantion Archeology them. Hrushevsky (With branches in Lviv and Skypetrovsk).
Openly Ukrainian Language Institute, Institute of Oriental Studies them.A. Crimean Institute of World Economy and International Relations Institute Sociological Research, Institute of PeopleStudies. As educational and research institution in 1992 at Kiev University established Institute Ukrainian Studies.
There were some progress in consolidation in the educational process Ukrainian language.
In many universities created Chair of Ukrainian Studies, Open or hundreds of updated schools with the Ukrainian language study you organizedsyachi Ukrainian Classes in schools teaching in Russian.
In 1999 ropi educational function in Ukraine 21 517 general school, they enrolled 6.7 million students. In the 995 vocational schools 511.4 thousand trained students (69% з them with profession received high school education). Comprehensive Schools with Ukrainian language learning accounted for 75,5%.
Near this Establishing abut conditions for the study of national minorities live in Ukraine, the language of their parents. In Ukraine in 1999 2571 worked with schools Russian training specialists from Russian cookingShafts in 11 universities and 25 educational institutions. Moreover, the country published 1356 in Russian newspapersand magazines.
In 1999 27.4 thousand students learn Romanian language, 21,2 thousand – Hungarian, 6.4 thousand – Moldovan, 1,1 thousand – Polish.
In 1999 in Crimea opened the first school Tatar language training. In the 1998/99 academic year has already worked six such schools and 27 special classes. In Crimea (Simferopol) State University studied more than 700 Crimean Tatars. It trains 500 specialists from the CrimeanTatar language and literature. Preparation National Education personnel (over 1 000 people) are in Crimean industrialTeachers Institute.
Notable event in the life of Jews in Ukraine was the opening International Solomon University. There are Jewish school, dozens of groups learn Hebrew.
In areas where Bulgarian public bodiesnizovano 137 groups of optional study their native language, training teachers Bulgarian language is in Kiev Nationalth University. Shevchenko, Izmail Pedagogical Institute.
Since 1994 в Ukraine began to function State revive programtion and Development education of ethnic minorities until 2000.
In our country education is recognized priority spheresSwarm and therefore should be ensured appropriate means and resources. Meanwhile, funding for education development declining annually. In 1992 share of the state budget, aimed at the development of education was 12,6%, 1993 - 11,7%, 1994 – 9,5% only in the last years due to economic growth in the country, the tendency to some improvements.
A partial solution was implemented the fundingtion contract form study which provides for studentwe study. In parallel with the state began band Schools extrabudgetary funding.
However, the mass commercialization of education in terms of social differentiationdifferentiation of society is invalid, because the door shuts talentedthose children and poor families.
Schools are not provided with adequate number of textbooks, manuals and technical training. Time change not only requires humanities textbooks, but mostly translated from Russian Language: physics, chemistry, biology and other subjects. This, for growth printing costs, shortages of paper, became a huge problem.
Economic Crisis replaced science with state prioritiesrytetiv. The level of budget funding for science in the last seven years declined more than 17 times.
Insufficient financial situation resulted in principalmu that during the 1991-1998 biennium National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine left 1 500 people, mostly went abroad. Over the years, the total number of scientists decreased by 27%. Vyyihaly mainly specialists in the fields of mathematical analysis, physics solids, mechanics of solids, surgery.
Costs for science in 1998 did not exceed 0.5% of the state budget.
Under these conditions, science is not a good value. It may be influences are thesetunity that developed countries 70% of revenues get budget through the development of science, introduction of new technologies.
Despite large losses, Ukraine managed in independentpendence not only maintain and in some areas and significantly strengthen core scientific and technical technological capabilities.
The question is primarily about the potential of aircraft. Created three fundamentally new model airplanes. Ukraine participates in International Program space-rocket complex marine badosing the Sea Launch "and"Globalstar».
Nine Ukraine shipyards able to perform any order construction of modern ships as civil and marine use.
Ukraine is among the five countries with the development tank development. whose products not inferior to the advanced world analysisLogs.
Our country maintains high competitive production instrument, power equipment manufacturing and heavy mechanical engineering. In Ukraine saved the world recognized their own schools and the unique technology to develop new materials, able to provide development vysokotehnolohichnohat the production of the best world standards.
3. Religious Life in Ukraine
Changes place in religious life in Ukraine. January 26, 1990 synod representatives of the Greek Catholic Church declared leization Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church. For the first time after 1946 About 1 500 western parishes became Greek againCatholic.
In June 1990 proclaimed the restoration Ukrainian Orthodox Church prohibited from SovietCCW power in the thirties. Patriarch was UAOC elected MetropolitanPoliti Mstislav (Skrypnyk) UAOC who headed the U.S.. It immediately becomes a significant factor in the spiritual life of societyStudies.
Believers, feeling real right to itsBasic Income religion demanded the opening of churches. In many cases, even without official government approval renewed places of worship. For the first years of Soviet power believers themselves are build new temples.
Parliament Council of Ukraine April 23, 1991 adopted Law on Freedom of Conscience and religious associations. The state undertook to overcomeYou negative effects of previous policy religion, church and believers. Law Assigns political and legal conditions for exercising freedom of conscience, predicted non-interference in the affairs of the state church and stateorgans – in the affairs of the church. The law provided a human right freely choose outlook, the possibility of promoting their religious views and act accordance with them.
In June 1999 religious organizations have turned state 3,3 th religious buildings over 8 thousand religious items use.
Although the law and declared vidokremlennya church state, but government interference structureTour in religious matters not stopped.
In Ukraine inflamed sectarian conflicts. After Augusting Events 1991 Ukrainian government officials paid special attention most numerous Church – Ukrainian Orthodox Church (UOC) which subordinated Moscow Patriarch. This aim was asked to help her get on the path autocephalous (independence).
In November 1991 in Kiev the Council of Bishops of Ukraine He addressed to the Patriarch of Moscow with a request provide AvtokomFeliu UPC. On request UPC provide full canonical independence appealed to the Moscow Patriarch and the President of Ukraine Leonid Kravchuk.
But Moscow Patriarchate headed by Alexy IIcategorically rejected the request of the Ukrainian Cathedral and the Ukrainian power. Moreover, he removed the Orthodox Metropolitan of Kiev Church Filaret dignity and called in Kharkov Council of Bishops of UPC. Instead of Metropolitan Filaret of Kiev Ross was elected Metropolitantovskoho and Novocherkassk Vladimir (Sabodana).
Moscow Patriarchate, based on the part of the Ukrainian episcopate, at this stage shattered hopes of achieving autocephalous Ukrainian Orthodox Church.
Kharkov cathedral was next step towards the deepening of split Orthodoxy.
Following за so Ukraine wave capture temples monasteries supporters of opposing faiths. Such actions often суprovodzhuvalysya conflicts.
With regard to decisions of the Kharkov cathedral with a special statement was made Council of Religious Affairs under the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine. In atJava stated that convocation indication Moscow Patriarchy Kharkiv cathedral is infringement decisions Bishops Cathedral Russian Orthodox church (ROC) of 25-27 October 1990 UPC gift of independence.
In June 1992 in Kiev in support of leadership Ukraine held Cathedral де supporters Metropolitan Filaret together with Ukrainian autocephalous Orthodox church formed Ukrainian Orthodox church – Kyiv stalemateriarhat (UPC КП). Its patriarch was elected Mstislav (SqueakWorker).
But доreach unity Orthodoxy has not succeeded. Cathedral UAOC their Patriarch elect Dmitri (In the world Yarema). In his all UPC КП in October 1993 Patriarch Church elects former Ukrainian human rights Volodymyr (Romaniuk). In July 1995 Patriarch Volodymyr went of life. His corpuscleRon in Kiev into a tragedy. During arbitrarily corpuscletion about the Patriarch gate Bell St. Sofia has come to clash with guards public order. Head Official UPC КП was mistseblyustytel, patriarchal throne Metropolitan Filaret.
On Top 1999 в Ukraine were: Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate) Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Kyiv Patriarchate, the Ukrainian autocephalous Orthodox Church, Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, the Roman Catholic Church.
On Top 1996 there were 70 general confessions and directions, andз which about 30 have in the independent state. They unite More than 17 thousand religious Commons. Among them – Swedish Evangelical-Lutheran, Armenian Catholic church Church of Christ, Mother Ukrainian National faith et al.
В Ukraine and many other denominations, including sectarian, whose number is substantially increased. Close those that exist on the legal basis, there are those that operate without registration government bodies are at illegal position. This particularly satanists, White Brother sectarian association Moon etc..
For Youth White Brotherhood "Unbelievers" parents were the enemywe are from them pidmovlyalysya. For Brotherhood physical destruction of human not was a sin. Respectively the religious tenets Material existenceing treated them as pay for the sins committed, but because it, withthe rest are not should strive for.
To interfaith tolerance called Declaration on social harmony in Ukraine which was signed in July 1997 representatives of all major religions and ethnic and cultural formations that live in Ukraine. They call upon all political forces of society drop secret accusations, misunderstandings and work for the welfare and prosperity Ukrainian people.
The number of religious communities in Ukraine
Name of church
Ukrainian Orthodox Church
Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Kyiv Patriarchate)
Ukrainian National Association
Ukrainian Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
(Data are for publication: ABC Ukrainian politics. – S. 260-263.)
Religious Life in Ukraine at the beginning XXAnd art.
Question and objectives
1. What new cultural venues occurred independenthas been providing Ukraine?
2. What outstanding monuments of our country included in the UNESCO World Heritage UNESCO?
3. What religious denomination exist in Ukraine?
4. What changes were in the cultural life Ukraine by years of independence?
5. What changes in the development of education took place in Ukraine in the 90th years?
6. How way in Ukraine provided Language and culturelaw tour minority?
7. Describe conditions Development Culture by back неdependence of Ukraine.
8. Define main directions Reform of educatedyou в Ukraine.
9. Give characteristic changes в religious life Ukraine, on в conditions independence.
10. Try to identify reasons Interfaith conflict « independent Ukraine.
11. What value on Your think should return forgettheir names prominent artists of Ukraine for education young generation?
12. Define most significant, на Your review, the disadvantages of a systemtem secondary education and propose ways their overcome.
13. What You see ways to overcome religious conflicts in Ukraine? What on What do you think needs to be done, to such conflicts not arose in future?