30. POLITICAL LIFE OF UKRAINE 2001-2009 years (textbook)

§ 30                                                         POLITICAL LIFE OF UKRAINE 2001-2009 years

1. Ukrainian referendum (April 2000).

April 16, 2000 was Ukrainian referendum on popular initiative. Over 80% of voters who took vote for a bicameral parliament expressed their, by reducing the number of Deputies from 450 to 300 for eliminating the right of parliamentary immunity, for granting the President the right to terminate early the powers of the Verkhovna Rada Ukraine, if the last one month does not form a permanent parliamentary majority or if it was not approved within three months prepared and submitted to by the Cabinet of Ministers of State Budget of Ukraine.

Enforcement referendum set on the agenda the question of making significant changes to the Constitution and the Electoral law. The process of implementation for various reasons halmuvavsya.

2. The political crisis (Winter-Spring 2001).

Winter Spring 2001 Ukraine found itself in a political crisis, which was connected with the murder of opposition journalist Georgiy Gongadze. In process of inquiry began to show adverse effects in the upper echelons of power. To this has added SBU Major Melnichenko recordings he made in the office President, who "testified" about the involvement of senior people to this and other high-profile crimes. The opposition decided to seize the opportunity to change the power in the country. Were organized demonstrations and promotions protest, which ended even clashes with the police (9 March 2001). However, to achieve their opposition could not. She hopes to get support from current Prime Minister Viktor Yushchenko were not justified (April 26, 2001 ASE expressed confidence in Yushchenko's government, and April 28 it was dismissed. The new prime minister was Mr. Pustovoitenko). In late spring offensive of the opposition went into recession, the government was able to overcome the crisis. But its credibility was significantly blown, as in the middle of the country and abroad. The political crisis has influenced the elections in 2002

3. Elections to the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine 2002

Important event political life 2000-2001, was the realignment of political forces in the country, especially on the eve of parliamentary elections in 2002 In fall Winter 2001 is formation of electoral blocs. Under the new law on elections in Ukraine a mixed electoral system, under which 50% of deputies elected by party lists, and 50% in majoritarian constituencies.

 

Elections in Ukraine. 1991 - 2004 рр.

 

Following voting in a national multi-district of the 30 electoral blocs 4%-overcame the threshold: the block "Our Ukraine" headed by Yushchenko 23.55%, the Communist Party of Ukraine (CPU) 20.01% bloc For a United Ukraine (Volodymyr Lytvyn) 11.79%, the Bloc of Yulia Tymoshenko 7.25%, the Socialist Party of Ukraine (SPU) 6.87%, Social Democratic Party of Ukraine (united) (SD (u)) 6,27%.

At the beginning of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine new convening the parties and blocs that won the elections, established their faction. Go to the faction "United Ukraine" became 177 deputies (the specified amount deputies after their formation, there were further changes) to faction "Our Ukraine" 118 deputies to the CPU faction 64, to the SD (U) 31 to YTB 23 to SPU 1922, 12 MPs want belong to any stay. At the beginning of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine struggle broke out and a majority leadership positions in parliament. 28 May 2002 elected leadership of the Supreme Council: elected chairman Lytvyn ("One Ukraine"), Deputy Vasil'ev ("One Ukraine"), Deputy O. Zinchenko (SD (u)). Heads of key committees of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine were representatives of Our Ukraine. Faction "United Ukraine" has appeared unsustainable and in June 2002 broke up into six fractions: fraction Party of Regions 52 deputies, faction of the party "Working Ukraine" 31, Faction of the Party of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs 20, Faction "the People" 17, Faction "Farmers of Ukraine" (Agrarian Party of Ukraine) 17, Faction "Democratic Initiative" 15. Despite the opposition of powerful parliamentary pro-presidential forces were able to form a majority, which in its turn formed the first modern history of Ukraine coalition government, headed by Viktor Yanukovych (December 2002)

4. Political development in Ukraine 2002-2004,

2002-2004, in Ukraine was in acute political struggle. Kuchma sought to implement political reform, which included redistribution of power in the triangle President - Prime minister - Parliament Rada of Ukraine. Around the President formed a powerful political forces that try to keep economic and political positions. In turn, opposition forces relied on the support of the middle class, have been fighting existing regime for democratization of political life.

Statements of opposition against the policy President Kuchma

Action

"Get up,   Ukraine! "

Creation   opposition bloc "Our Ukraine"

"Ukraine without   Kuchma! "

Year of establishment

December 2000

2002

2002

Occasion

The murder of opposition journalist Georgiy Gongadze,   disclosure of records of telephone conversations made in Kuchma's office Major   Melnichenko.

Parliamentary elections

Create a pro-presidential majority in parliament   nevilyuvannya opposition win in parliamentary elections in 2002

Activities

Rallies, demonstrations led to clashes with   Militia (March 2001)

The victory in parliamentary elections on party   lists

Rallies, demonstrations

Result

Consolidation forces the opposition.

Fall authority Kuchma

Creating a powerful opposition force in parliament

Consolidation forces the opposition. Getting experience, working   strategy of political struggle for power

 

5. Presidential elections in Ukraine in 2004 "Orange revolution"

Presidential elections in Ukraine in 2004As predicted, were crucial in the history of Ukraine. Even before the official beginning of the campaign, all political forces, both governmental and opposition, began to prepare for them. Long been a confusing position President of Ukraine Leonid Kuchma. Constitutional Court of Ukraine recognized that it in accordance with Constitution of Ukraine (1996) has been in power only first term, although actually stayed in power for two terms. After Kuchma refused the election of 2004 Candidate from the existing power became active Prime Minister of Ukraine Viktor Yanukovych. To create a positive image of him was involves all possible and impossible means: direct use of administrative resources Open to spread false information. Using his official situation, Viktor Yanukovych has taken a number of populist measures, including pensioners were provided additional pension payments increased wages. However, such measures are almost led to economic crisis in the country.

Opposition forces around zhrupuvalysya leader of "Our Ukraine, the former chairman of the National Bank of Ukraine, Prime Minister and 1999-2001 Viktor Yushchenko.

One feature of the campaign has become a big number of candidates for President of Ukraine more twenty. But the main battle was fought election between two candidates: Viktor Yanukovychand Yushchenko.

Presidential elections were held October 31, 2004 As a result voters voting was as follows: President 39.26% of the vote, Viktor Yanukovych 39.11% Moroz 5.82%, P. Symonenko 4.97% Vitrenko 1.53% of California 0,93%. The other candidates gained less than 1% of the vote.

During the election manifested bias Central Election Commission (CEC), headed by S. Kivalov that within ten days has not published the final results of the vote. In addition, it appeared that the CEC of the computer network suffered an external intervention.

Such distribution of votes did not reveal the winner of election races, which would gain more than 50%. The second round was appointed on November 21, 2004 The main political rivals in this round, as in the first, were Victor Yushchenko and Yanukovych. After the first round of support for Yushchenko and Moroz said of California. Yanukovych supported Vitrenko.

New in the second round was that between the two candidates Presidents of Ukraine held open debates.

Second round was held with considerable fraud and fraud schemes in favor of the government candidate. As a result, CEC published data about the victory of Viktor Yanukovych strikingly different from the data ekzytpoliv (polls at the exits of polling stations), which certified Yushchenko's victory. Indignant this situation, voters responded to the call opposition candidate to defend their choice and later this evening November 21 gathered for a rally on the central square of Kyiv  Independence Square. The next day, a rally into a peaceful mass action protest, which lasted until December 8, 2004 and was named "Orange Revolution.

At the request of Deputies met in an extraordinary session of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine to discuss the situation and take appropriate action. However, pro-government factions and the Communists refused participate in it. At the meeting, Yushchenko accepted as a political act oath of the President of Ukraine. This action added inspiration protesters, whose number every day increased. On various dates during the campaign of civil protest on Independence Square was located from 500 thousand to 1,5 million people.

Despite everything, the CEC on November 24 announced 18.30 winner in the election of Viktor Yanukovych.

Such blatant disrespect and injustice contributed radicalization action protesters. Opposition leaders declared the establishment of the Committee National Rescue and a nationwide political strike. Started building the tent city and the capital's Independence Square. Kiev city authorities and residents of all assistance provided by Protestants. Opposition leaders called on protesters to besiege House Administration President of Ukraine, and subsequently the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine.

On the same day in Kyiv have come together and supporters of Viktor Yanukovych (About 20 thousand persons) who broke the tent camp front of the house of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine.

The country has developed an extremely tense situation: the threat of force as the law enforcement agencies, and from supporters warring camps, the political crisis, the threat of economic crisis.

Meanwhile, the Supreme Court of Ukraine banned publication of the CEC before the announcement of its decision.

November 27 meeting of the Verkhovna Rada Ukraine, which adopted a resolution on the political crisis in Ukraine recognized the fact of election fraud and in fact canceled the CEC decision. Parliament expressed confidence in the CEC and called unacceptable use of force against participants demonstrators.

Yanukovych's supporters on the way to separatism, the split the country. "The congress of deputies of all levels" called for in Severodonetsk proclamation Southeast of Autonomous Republic. Leading role in this process was played by the leaders of the Donetsk, Luhansk, Kharkiv and other areas. Meanwhile, in western and central regions of local Council decision on the recognition of President of Ukraine Viktor Yushchenko.

To solve a difficult situation to Ukraine mediation mission came the representatives of Poland, Lithuania, Russia, OSCE and EU. Eventually through international mediation parties to the conflict (President of Ukraine Kuchma and the candidates for President of Ukraine Viktor Yushchenko and Viktor Yanukovych) produced formula for political settlement of the crisis. But everything depended on the Supreme Court of Ukraine, which is November 29 began its consideration of complaint trustees Yushchenko to recognize the illegal actions of the CEC announcement winner of the runoff election and the abolition of an appropriate resolution of its results.

Meeting of the Supreme Court of Ukraine was broadcast widely, and all citizens could learn about the abuse and fraud that occurred during elections. By a decision of December 3, 2004 Supreme Court Ukraine declared invalid results of the second round of presidential elections CEC announced November 26, 2004, and appointed vote second round on December 26, 2004

December 7, Leonid Kuchma signed a decree to leave Yanukovych the period of the campaign and appointed Azarov acting Prime Minister of Ukraine.

To prevent massive fraud during the vote, was developed amendments to the Law on Election of President of Ukraine ". These proposals accordance with the arrangements were put to a vote in Parliament Ukraine in the package of amendments to the Constitution of Ukraine (political reform). As predicted in September 2005 was re- powers between the Parliament of Ukraine, Ukraine's president and Prime Minister. Also holosuvavsya in its first reading on reform system of local government. December 8 package was voted overwhelming majority of MPs. Once in the session hall voted Documents were signed by the President of Ukraine Leonid Kuchma. The session Parliament Ukraine and adopted the new CEC, who headed J. Davidovich.

Thus, the country's political crisis was resolved by compromise, the people of Ukraine defended their rights peacefully, the evidence its commitment to democratic ideals.

After this mass protest on Independence Square in Kiev stopped, but the tent city of the capital continued to function.

To vote Yanukovych team came in a new stock and new slogans. Viktor Yanukovych stated his opposition to Kuchma while remaining the prime minister is on vacation.

During the vote in Ukraine came to a record number of international observers12 thousand people who witnessed the democratic nature of voting December 26.

Vote December 26, 2004 gave the following results: Yushchenko voted for 51.99% of voters who participated in vote for Yanukovych– 44.21%. Inauguration of the new President of Ukraine Viktor Yushchenko held January 23 2005

Prime minister Yulia Tymoshenko has become.

 

6. Political development of Ukraine in 2005-2009

After the appointment prime minister Yulia Tymoshenko's new government took an active exercise promises that were given on the Maidan. The program was supported by a majority government MPs, voted for it and the opposition. However, implementation of slogans and promises turned out to be not easy.

The Government has set itself some key tasks: 1) fill the state budget through the elimination of privileges tax-free economic zones and various shady schemes receiving income; stop smuggling, manipulation of the VAT return, 2) increase income by increasing wages, widening social payments and so on. 3) re-privatization of illegally privatized property. Besides there were significant personnel changes that led to the replacement of over 13 thousand officials of different branches. There were arrests of certain persons accused of corruption and other crimes. Resonance become suicide Minister of Transport Communication and G. Kirpy, former Interior Minister Yuri Kravchenko. Planned initiate administrative reform.

But implementation the course of the President and the government has caused divisions in the same team and resistance of those forces whose interests zachipaly transformation. Since the spring 2005 rapidly increased meat prices (incentive program was the Government's smuggling - smuggling - STOP! »and growing demand in result of growing incomes), then oil (provoked skyrocketing global oil prices and a conspiracy of Russian oil traders owned monopoly that the Ukrainian market) and then in sugar (the desire "Sugar Kings" to get profits) as a result - untwisted flywheel inflation. To overcome these difficulties the government resorted to administrative intervention, thus denying the principles proclaimed free market. Ukraine pushed by foreign investors question re. In general economic performance deteriorated. His dissatisfaction with government policies were express medium and small entrepreneurs, who most supported "Orange Revolution". Many times conflicts broke out in the governmental team, 80% of which were not associates said. Particularly exacerbated confrontation between the head of National Security Council of Ukraine Petro Poroshenko and Tymoshenko. Conflict erupted September 5, 2005, when the first Secretary of Yushchenko Oleksandr Zinchenko accused Poroshenko, Assistant to the President and leader Oleksandr Tretyakov faction "Our Ukraine" M. Martynenko of corruption. Three days later, President dismissed Tymoshenko, Poroshenko and Alexander Tretyakov. Thus in President's team was split. Trying to reconcile the forces during the celebration first anniversary of the Square was unsuccessful and the parliamentary elections earlier Orange forces went to different teams.

At the same time consolidation is anti the Orange forces. After the first months confusion and perehovuvan, they start to assert themselves using the failures of the Orange government. The first mass opposition speech in May 2005, when the streets of Kyiv she brought 10 thousand its supporters. Also, the opposition used to their advantage arrests I. cutters, Boris Kolesnikov (Chairman of Donetsk Regional Council) and Kushnaryov. But the biggest "gift" opposition gave President himself, who in exchange for support in Parliament candidates Yekhanurov as prime minister actually took all allegations of involvement in rigging the 2004 elections

This situation led to the Party of Regions around which opposition konsoliduvalysya forces quickly became to gain popularity, picking up in its ranks all "Offended" orange "government. This situation had a mark on the election company.

Another failure Orange authorities began negotiations with Russia on gas supplies. Gas price increased almost 2 times, and supply scheme itself was confusing and opaque through RosUkrEnergo intermediary structure.

In elections 2006 attended by 45 parties and blocs. However, the 3% barrier, only 5 parties. The most votes has the Party of Regions (32.14%) took second place Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc (22.29%), then walked the block "Our Ukraine" (less than 14%) Socialist Party (5,6%), Communist Party (3,6%).

 

Parliamentary elections Ukraine, 2006

 

Election 2006 first occurred in the proportional system. However, the main role in selecting played no party program, and the authority of leaders. Parliamentary company actually a continuation of the presidential election of 2004, and victory Regions Party was seen as revenge for a previous defeat. However pts Regions votes were not enough to form independent parliamentary majority. In addition, the Orange forces in the aggregate have more votes. This situation has led to long negotiations and hard struggle around the creation of a parliamentary majority.

July 6 2006 Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine O. Moroz was elected. This was evidence agreement to create anti-crisis coalition between the Regions Party, CPU and SPU. So, I switch to the Socialist Party of anti-Orange forces, orange suffered defeat. In addition, entered into force amendments to the Constitution of Ukraine considerably reduced the powers of the President of Ukraine.

In such conditions He made an attempt to save the situation by signing all political Universal unity by following the appropriate Roundtable. Although This document was signed, but he has not acquired any legal effect. Yulia Tymoshenko not signed the document and insisted on dissolving parliament and calling new elections.

He did not dare to dissolve parliament and submitted to the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine the candidacy Viktor Yanukovych as prime minister. Assumed a broad coalition between the Party of Regions and Our Ukraine ", but not working together came out: nasheukrayintsi ministers were in turn released. The struggle for powers of the President that they were finally separated by changes in the Constitution (2004). Besides, some deputies of Our Ukraine "and Tymoshenko moved to the Anti-crisis coalition, which declared itself the Coalition national unity. Created the threat of a parliamentary constitutional majority of 300 deputies under the leadership of the Party of Regions. It would be graded the will of voters, most of them voted for "orange" parties. Except that this majority could at any moment to change the constitutional principles Ukraine. In this situation, the President of Ukraine Viktor Yushchenko April 2, 2007 issued a decree on dissolving the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine appointment of early parliamentary elections on May 27, 2007 ".

Most members Parliament (Coalition National Unity) Does not recognize the decree of President of Ukraine considering it unconstitutional. They supported the Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych and members Cabinet Ministers Ukraine, which also refused to recognize the decree and urged his supporters to identify protest. The country broke acute political crisis, which was accompanied opposition demonstrators in the streets of Kyiv (coalition of supporters gathered at the Independence Square, and the opposition - on the European space), the struggle in Constitutional Court of Ukraine and the Prosecutor General's Office, new decrees President, the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. After May 27 2007, when both sides realized that the strengthening of the conflict is not perspective, as a result of political negotiations has been reached agreements. The parties to the conflict declared to end the political crisis. The agreement foresaw the collapse of 150 opposition deputies should be the legal basis for the dissolution of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine and purpose special election. The fourth President of Ukraine Decree of 31 July 2007 Elections were scheduled for September 30.

 

Special elections to Parliament Council of Ukraine, 2007

 

August 2 2007 election in Ukraine has started a company, which was attended by 20 parties and electoral blocs. Thus the results of parliamentary elections Ukraine March 26, 2006 and arrangement of political forces after they created prerequisites for early 2007 In the elections of 3% barrier three parties: the Party of Regions (34.37%), the Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc (30.71%), Block "Our Ukraine - People's Self-Defense "(14,15%), the Communist Party of Ukraine (5.39%) "Block of Lytvyn (3.96%). Socialist Party of Ukraine gained 2.86% to Parliament has not got.

The new stock Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine Yulia Tymoshenko bloc and Our Ukraine - People Self-formed parliamentary majority consisting of 227 deputies. Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine was elected Yatsenyuk and Prime Minister Ukraine - Yulia Tymoshenko. But the Democratic coalition proved unsustainable. Constantly there were conflicts between Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko and Administration President Viktor Yushchenko. In September 2008 coalition actually ceased existence.

Autumn 2008 Ukraine hit by the global economic crisis. The fall in core manufacturing industries accounted for 50-60%. Was devastating financial crisis. But the crisis is consolidated Ukrainian politicians: political confrontation intensified. In this atmosphere began election of the presidential election in Ukraine January 2010

 

Questions and Tasks

1. Objectives pursued a referendum in 2000?

2. What events in 2001 undermined the authority of the President Ukraine Leonid Kuchma?

3. As the political crisis in 2001 reflected in parliamentary elections in 2002?

4. How were leveling election results 2002?

5. Describe political action against the President Kuchma, 2002-2004

6. Why exploded in Ukraine "Orange Revolution"?

7. What are the results of the Orange Revolution?

8. Determine the outcome of Ukraine's development in In 2005-2009