§ 29 POLITICAL LIFE UKRAINE 1993-2000 years
1. Parliament convening XIII
1993 – 1999 for Ukraine full of important political field. In 1994 were early election Parliament and the President of Ukraine.
In March 1998 elected a new parliament of the state. At the same time improved electoral laws. In the election campaign began to actively to political parties.
Important political event was the preparation and adoption new Constitution of Ukraine.
In walls of the Parliament, as in the Ukrainian society felt the confrontation between the executive and legislative branches power. The main debate took place around constitutional process creating the legislative framework of market reforms, privatization, fiscal policy, defining national and regional (Local) rights з'Identification of the geopolitical interests of Ukraine.
Decision to hold early parliamentary elections and the President of Ukraine caused acute debate around new electoral law.
Democratic Opposition required to choose Parliament for mixed majoritarian-proportional system, where some deputies have been elected on party lists. But most MPs Parliament favor preservation majoritysystem.
Political parties, their electoral blocks with labor collectives and groups voters have the right to nominate candidates in deputies.
Accepted November 13, 1993 set the law on elections that the new Parliament will on a regular basis, combining the deputy's mandate with state or administration of prohibited. It provided that reduce the term of office of elected Parliament from five to four years.
Preparation elections to stimulate the formation of blocs and unions.
Bloc leftists consolidated Communist Party of Ukraine (CPU) Socialist Party of Ukraine (SNU) and the Peasant Party of Ukraine (SelPU). In the election slogan Left used the discontent of the population of the transition period, lack of a clear, coherent strategy of reform to voters, the presence of economic wing and a considerable decline of living standards.
Perplexity found in this situation of national-democratic orientation. They made several unsuccessful attempts to consolidate. As a result formed Good Association "Ukraine". His head L. Lukyanenko.
In December, 1993 created Interregional Bloc of Reforms. which led Kuchma and V.Hryniov. Participants block participated in the election, asserting the need for fundamental reforms in politics and economy, empowerment of regions and moving to federally-land system of Ukraine, recovery strait alliance with Russia.
On 450 seats were claimed by 5833 candidates. In the elections that took place in two rounds – of 27 March to April 10, 1994 – 338 deputies were elected. From 188 people women deputies, who ran for a new term, 138 were elected.
Parliament elected as a professional, but so completely did not, as many deputies for various reasons refused to go to regular work of the parliament. On end of the thirteenth convocation of parliament (May 5, 1998) 17 MPs did not arranged their employment relationship with him, and yet 27 deputies were at the two positions.
In Parliament was fewer deputies з academic degrees, but in his stock increased layer economists, lawyers, statement secondary schools, increased by 40% of national minorities.
Parliament significantly upgraded in terms of political representation. If this Parliament was represented by 5 Political parties, the in the new 20.
More total seats won CPU – 101. Communist Allies – SPU and SelPU – won 14 and 18 mandates. Movement took 20 mandates. The remaining parties failed to hold in Parliament from one to nine representatives.
Left party in the newly elected parliament was controlled More than a third of seats. Chairman Parliament was elected Moroz.
Frost Alexander (1944р.н.) graduated from the Ukrainian Agricultural Academy and Higher Party School of the Central Committee of the Communist Party. In 1976-1983 and 1989-1990 he worked in Kiev Communist Party regional committee in 1983-1969 - Secretary of the Kiev oblprofrady. Since March 1990 - deputies of Ukraine, Secretary of the Commission on agriculture, in 1994-1998 - bare Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. Since 1998 - Member of Parliament Ukraine. Leader of the Socialist Party.
The elections revealed deep differences in political preferences between regions: if the left won a majority in eastern and southern areas in the West have had some success nationalists (UNA-UNSO and the NUC).
Implications election reflected voters' deep dissatisfaction policies of the ruling elite that has failed to lead the country and deep crisis. Some people, desperate severe social and economic position, voted to return to the past and the rest were supposed hope for a strong nationalist government.
Work Parliament began on a background of mounting crisis of the country, government.
Parliament XIII Convocation Council adopted 753 laws and 1627 regulations, including law "On parliamentary elections Autonomous Republicpublic Crimea. Was initiated reform of education and science compulsory social insurance.
In whole parliament strengthened its control functions. To this end began be days of government in which his Representatives invited to the Parliament and discussed with them issues related to work of the national economy, social protection, defensive state, the state budget.
But by opposition political parties were not completely resolved a number of issues such as land reform were not taken Civil, Criminal. Land Code et al.
2. Presidential elections in Ukraine / June 1994 /
26 June, 1994, was elected President and heads of local councils.
Part they took 70.4% of voters. In the first round vote none of the seven presidential candidates (V. Babich, Л.Kravchuk, Kuchma, V. Lanovoy, Moroz, I. Ivy, P.Talanchuk) not received more than half of voters that participated in voting.
On basis of the election law July 10, 1994 was conducted repeatsorne vote on two candidates who received most votes Л.Kravchuk and Kuchma. Defeated Л.Kuchma He scored over 52% votes.
Elections in Ukraine. 1991 - 2004
Vij carried out the campaign under the slogan acceleration of market reforms restoration of economic ties with Russia ha other CIS countries, providing Russian language official status, promises to fight corruption and crime yu.
Hairy fur cap Leonid Danilovich (1938р.н.) - Political and statesman, scientist and designer, professor (1992). Graduated from Dnepropetrovsk University (1960). In 1960-1982 he worked in design office "South" in Dnipropetrovsk, 1982-1986 - First Deputy General Designer, with 1986 - general director of the Southern Machine-Building Plant ", October 1992 - September 1993 - Prime Minister of Ukraine, December 1993 - July 1994 - President Ukrainian League of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs, July 1994 - President of Ukraine.
But confrontation between the executive and legislative branches power after the election not only stopped but also exacerbated in basis confrontation lay different, sometimes even completely opposite view development paths state.
11 October 1994 elect President in a speech at the session of Parliament set out his plan of action.
That prevent a national disaster, the President submitted take decisive measures to his view, had to combine the urgent implementation of anti-crisis actions new economic and political strategy.
This meant refusal of the previous year: "Initially, stabilization and Only later reform.
Presidents The program included the implementation of financial stabilization, to overcome the payment wing, the deficit limit ofto the defense budget, accelerated privatization, enterprise development and strengthening private property, reduce the tax burden and more.
President expressed the intention to decentralize management of the economyCCW liberalize the scope foreign economic relations and strengthen social protection.
Proclaimed President of course was supported by the relevant decrees. In particular, it concerned Improvement of currency regulation in the country, strengthening of export controls goods. Great response came a decree on the establishment of financial and industrial groups.
Since November 1994 started liberalization of pricing policyki. After more as the annual closure was opened Ukrainian interbankments currency exchange. Began working agricultural Exchange.
Activity new president met opposition leftists.
At a time when Kuchma represented by its program, the fraction Communists began to demand cancellation of previously accepted by the Presidium Parliament decision banning activity CPSU on the territorythe area of Ukraine. Communists meet requirements of democratic opposition factions. After double Parliament vote not reversed the previous decision.
November 28, 1994 President signed a decree acceleration privatization industry, defined their number. At the day a session of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine, which was decision Communists to move in opposition to the presidenttion power
Decision Communists motivated by the fact that the president helps tostructure in Ukraine capitalist economy.
In protest the proposed program of economic Reforms passed in open opposition to the President and SocialistParty of Ukraine.
In terms of political resistance was acutely piquestions about system of political power and governance in Ukraine. Meanwhile, during the 3 years Ukraine has emerged coherent and effective power system, which would correspond to the transition.
Given evident incompleteness of separation between legislationted, executive and judicial authorities, and efforts of leftists who had a majority in Parliament in general revive the Soviet-moDel management.
July 8, 1994 first reading Parliament adopted thecon "On local People's Council Deputies, which provided deprivation President and Government impact on regional policies, responsibilities over the Soviet Parliament on principles of democratic centralism. Supposed to cancel local institution Administration.
In this situation, President Leonid Kuchma, his Decree of August 6, 1994 seeks to subordinate the presidential all the heads of government regional and district councils.
A topical issue arose constitutional development of the state, yousolutions to complex problems of territorial organization and territorial integrity of Ukraine. These and problems require more units of State and political reform.
December 22, 1994 President issued Decree "On the state and Local Self- where Pre proposed subordinatePresidential Government of Ukraine.
The law of power was the sticking point in the politicaltional life. Debate in Parliament on Presidential Decree zatyatys power for many months. In necessary distribution system in the state certainly was not the essence of the differences was limited to in-general policy issues, the choice of form of government.
The confrontation between the legislative and executive branches reached its peak in spring 1995, when Parliament Order rejected President on state power and local government.
President issued Decree in June of that year nationwide poll of confidence in President and Parliament.
In Ukraine, there constitutional crisis. required to overcome it solutions that would give you a civilized break the deadlock in which find themselves both branches of government.
June 8, 1995 Parliament votes to 240 in 1981 approved a proposal to conclude Cohnture agreement between the President and Parliament. Under no new Constitution became the main legal contract. dockParliament, which secured the principles of organization and of statemental bodies in Ukraine.
President has the right ofDetect all the ministers, half the members of the Constitutional Sulu, take in the event needs from office of elected heads of regional state populationradio stations. The President had no right over the contract ask questions to dissolve parliament.
Parliament had the right zasluhovuWool Program of the Cabinet Ministers, at the expressWool trust him
The contract had to act to the new Constitution, but no more one year after its conclusion. Adoption of the Constitutional dogsFaith between the President and Parliament showed that serious questions
government can decide democratic, civilized way.
WITH CONSTITUTIONAL TREATY Between the Verkhovna Rada AND PRESIDENT OF UKRAINE (June 8, 1995)
Availability ... deep economic as well as onGeopolitical Ukraine crisis leads to social voltage society, its criminalization of the political and againststanding local authorities and to avoid inconsistenciesformalities in the existing provisions of the Constitution (mainlystake) of Ukraine and norms of the Law on state power and Local government in Ukraine and the introduction of this law in legal legislation that would define the constitutional system of Ukraine;
further development and successful completionty constitutional process in Ukraine, seeking forware proper Protection of Rights and Freedoms Rights and thunderdyanyna in crisis;
establishment of reliable guarantees the existence of sovereign Ukraine, preservation integrity and inviolability of its territory;
reform of the government on the basis of a clear distributionthe work functions between the legislative and executive branches as necessary prerequisites for the economic, Social and constitutional crisis;
the political and legal environment for the economybloating reforms, maintaining production, to ensure financial stability and social protection;
prevention political confrontation of power structures of its possible devastating consequences for the fate of the country and society;
ensure civil peace and calm in Ukraine and to create conditions for decent life and labor rights, the consoleDaci all healthy forces of society.
Inquiries to document
1. Why was the need to conclude Cohnture agreement between the President and Parliament? What are the reasons making Constitutional Treaty contained in the document?
2. What are the goals put the parties that concluded Constitutional contract? Were, PA your opinion, achieved these goals?
3. Adoption of new Constitution Ukraine
Наpatency Constitution is a major signs of the country.
Constitution of Ukraine, adopted in 1978, undergone substantial changes to it made Parliament more than 200 amendments.
In Ukraine adopted laws that are often entered into conflict with the existing Constitution, which undermined the principles of legitimacy negativeworked actively influenced the stability of the state.
Preparation draft Basic Law began Upon declaration ofOn Ukraine's sovereignty.
Createdня Constitutional Commission October 17, 1990 Parliament pidtyscom Worker, starving students opposition demands forces adopted decision to bring the current Constitution in accordance with the Declaration on State Ukraine's sovereignty. In June 1991 Parliament adopted the concept of the future Constitution established the Constitutional Commission.
Along with the project Constitution designed the constitutional commission, started offering its Projects of a political party, some authors-academics. In 1990-1996 15 projects proposed Constitution of Ukraine.
One of the options proposed by the faction of the Communists, beforeBachava preserve the title of USSR, restoration of the Soviet form of governnnya to limit the President, Ukraine's accession to new Union.
Unveiled its project and Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists, who advocated unitary Ukrainian state without saving Crimea status autonomy.
У Society was not Unity of mechanism adoption Constitution (Constitutional Assembly, or Parliament).
Discussions also around zav'yazalysya forms of government Ukraine (presidential, parliamentary-presidential republic).
Proved difficult question of constitutional definition ownership, principles of Parliament, the organization of electionsislative system, the issue of state language and symbols of others.
28 June 1996 Parliament adopted new Constitution Ukraine.
In the Basic Law Ukraine declared sovereign, independentNoah, democratic, social and legal state.
According to the Constitution ofpyramidal poplar isunitary ie –single state. Thus the idea of Federation ofralizatsiyi Ukraine, the division of land through consolidation of separate regions, which suggested some parties rejected.
This approach due to the fact that at a time when society is in deep crisis necessary for the national association across all regions, using their resources and collaborative efforts.
Ukraine is national derzhavoyu, since its formation was based on the realization of the Ukrainiansupplemented nation, all the Ukrainian people their natural right to self-determination.
The only source of power in Ukraine is the people who exercise power as directly and through state bodies.
Constitution provides that people have the right to resist anyone who attempts to eliminate the statehood of Ukraine, raise its unity, state sovereignty, constitutional order.
System of rights and freedoms that guaranteed by the Constitution Ukraine, designed to suit international instruments: Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966r.), European convention on the rights and basic freedom Rights (1950), the Paris Charter for a New Europe (1990) etc..
July 17, 1997 Ukraine ratified Convention for the Protection rights and fundamental freedoms. The account these important generally documents came natural, as Ukraine is subject international, in particular the European Community.
At the constitutional level fixed position that the rights and freedoms citizen can not be canceled, a citizen of UkraineUkraine can not be banished their state or issued foreignhis authorities.
Constitution strengthened safeguards human rights and freedoms and thunderdyanyna. One of them was introduction of AuthorizedOn the Parliamentary Human Rights. The Ombudsman relies task to implement parliamentary control preserved bying constitutional rights and freedoms man and citizen. Leavebut its parliament hearing annual reports on the observance and protection of human rights and freedoms in Ukraine.
The most important number of civil (Natural) rights are the right to life. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of life. These guarantees this right is first of all, the state and same person. The state must – protect human life. Together з by the Constitution recognizes the right of everyone to protect life and health /Orthodoxy, life and health of others from unlawful actions.
Citizens of Ukraine are guaranteed freedom of movement, free choice of residence, immunity housing secrettion of correspondence, telephone conversations, protection from unlawful dismissal, the right to freedom of opinion and expression, their absorptiondynamics and beliefs.
The priority right, which belongs citizens Ukraine is the right participate in management Statestheir affairs, national and local referendums, free elect and be elected to public authorities and local government.
Citizens of Ukraine have the right to freedom of association inGeopolitical organization. Members of political parties may be only citizens of Ukraine. Constitution notes that no one can be athaving to to join any association of citizens or be restricted in rights based on political affiliation parties or communitygovernmental organizations.
However, The Constitution provides certain restrictions on activities of political parties and NGOs. In particular, prohibited parties and organizations, program goals or actions are primamalized for the elimination of Ukraine's independence, constitutional change order by force, violation sovereignty and territorialtion integrity state, undermining its security.
The Constitution guarantees citizens extensive economic rights. It is noted in particular that no one can be deprived of property rights and private property is neporushhim. One of the articles are: "Everyone has right to entrepreneurshipnytsku activities that are not prohibited by law.
The largest number rights enshrined Constitution, Social law. Citizens have the right to work, on strike, to education, to rest, to social protection, housing, right to an adequate standard of living, the right to health, medicalmedical aid and health insurance and more.
One important principles, which was confirmed in Ukraine and found fixing the new Constitution, is the variety of its development.
Political diversity (Political pluralism) predicttions of political freedom and a multi- activity.
Economic diversity (Economic pluralism) recognizes diversity of ownership and management.
Ideological diversity is the ideological diversityogy. Censorship is prohibited in Ukraine, and no ideology can be determiningthat can be used by the state as required, although this does not exclude the presence of athalnonatsionalnoyi ideology.
State power in Ukraine carried out by its division into legislative, executive and judiciary.
Each type of power through separate organs or through systemsubject of public authorities.
The only authority Legal power in Ukraine is the Supreme Council of Ukraine. Parliament empowered to make changes to Constitution to enact laws approve the budget, determine wanadynamics of domestic and foreign policy.
Under the new Constitution Head of State is its President. He is guarantor State sovereignty, territorial Ukraine's territorial integrity, abide by the Constitution, human rights and freedoms and citizen. The President is the supreme Chief of the Armed Forces of Ukraine may terminate the powers of the Supreme Board if within thirty days of a regular session of the plenary meetings fail starts, has the right to veto laws adopted by Parliament laws.
Bodies executive is a Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine Ministries and other central executive authorities and local administrations.
Under the new Constitution proceedings in Ukraine is Constitutional Court of Ukraine and courts of general jurisdiction.
Form of government in accordance with the basic laws
Items for comparison
The Constitution of 1978 amended and supplemented 1990-1993 he
Constitutional Treaty in 1995
Constitution of Ukraine, 1996
Amendments to the Constitution of Ukraine of 8 December 2004
The parliamentary-presidential republic
Parliament of Ukraine
Parliament of Ukraine
Parliament of Ukraine
Parliament of Ukraine
President of Ukraine, Cabinet Ministers of Ukraine
President of Ukraine, Cabinet Ministers of Ukraine
Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine headed by the Prime Minister of Ukraine
Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine headed by the Prime Minister of Ukraine
The Supreme Court of Ukraine
The Supreme Court of Ukraine
Constitutional Court of Ukraine The Supreme Court of Ukraine
Constitutional Court of Ukraine The Supreme Court of Ukraine
Form of government
Unitary state and territorial autonomy of Crimea
Unitary state and territorial autonomy of Crimea
Unitary state and territorial autonomy of Crimea
Unitary state and territorial autonomy of Crimea
4. Activity Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, elected in March, 1998
New Constitution laid the basis for legislative revitalization processes in Ukraine. Ukraine's parliament adopted laws that determiningChile principles of Cabinet state adminisradio stations.
April 17, 1997 started the Constitutional Court. He began to consider compliance with the Constitution and laws other legal acts of Parliament, decrees Presidential decrees and orders of the Cabinet, the Parliament Acts Autonomous Republic of Crimea.
In the legislative agenda was regulated activity High Council of Justice. Parliament Commissioner for human rights.
Accepted in the new Received Law "On Citizenship of Ukraine " and the Law on appeals.
Udoskonalyuvalosya legislation on the economy: the issues property, property relations, privatization, entrepreneurial activityity of fiscal and tax systems, anti-trust activities.
Parliament expanded its control function. It was early and hear the annual report of the President Ukraine on internal and external situation state. However, opposition power structures is not stopped.
Pre-election fight through increased economic instabilitynal position of the state.
Continued to steep decline in production, increased arrears Wage fees, increased number unprofitable enterprises, reduced cash flow in the economy: increaseschuvalas share of barter operations due to constant Destabilizatsiyi national currency.
Negative effects provoked the appearance of slogans demanding "Elimination by anti-constitutional regime. "
Acute struggle between parties left, centrist and right direction. In the aspect of home among them were principal differences in matters of reform. in zovnishnopOLICY – in the treatment of CIS and the restoration of the USSR.
Centrist forces expressed for the Reformersrskoho rate, while Left were adjusted to restore raSoviet system.
Politics past was to restore the Union of Russia and other CIS countries. Leftist forces used mass nevdovoing people to their social position, criticized the government for failure to provide minimum living standards.
Elections to the Parliament Rada of Ukraine were held March 29, 1998
For the first time in history Ukrainian parliamentary they were on the principles of mixed (Proportional and majoritarian) system which provided an opportunity for political parties to implement them given the Constitutiontion u right.
Number candidates from political parties and blocs in anticipation 3539 election consisted of persons. New Law elections. adopted on 24 September 1997, greatly expanded opportunities not only candidates MPs, but also voters.
For the first time in electoral law states that you participate in publicpine is voluntary. Citizens Ukraine got a right to do choice not only between individual candidates for election, but also between political parties.
Under the new Law was considered the favorite candidate for deputy who received a simple majority voters who participated in voting.
In the 1940 election campaign vklyuchylosya political parties that were Suppression to overcome four-percent threshold to win the party list.
21 Party in the elections appeared alone and 19 combined in 9 blocks, but only 8 of them got the victory. It – Communist Party Ukraine, People's Movement of Ukraine, the block SPU – SelPU"For humanDu, for the people of Ukraine, Party Greens of Ukraine, People'sDemocratic party, the All-Ukrainian Association "Hromada" Onprogressive socialist Party, Social Democratic Party of UkraineUkraine (VCohesive).
Among the selected Deputies in the single (majority) districts were also representatives political parties. In total, 449 elected deputies were 335 Representatives of 22 political parties, representing 74,7% of deputies.
In the new parliament Left Party received 174 seats, the party Center – 108, right Party – 53. No political party received explicit advantages in parliament.
In the Parliament only 11% MPs under the age of 30 years. Meanwhile, youth in Ukraine is one third of the population. 36 MPs – women, although Women of state in our constitute 52% of voters. Only a few MPs –of the retirements workers and agricultural professions (Workers and peasants make over 65% of the population of Ukraine).
One-third of MPs – nonpartisan, most of them entered different parliamentary factions. More than a third of Parliament present a convocation engineering or similar professions. About hundred – entrepreneurs.
As a result of a long search and a compromise of different political forces Speaker Ukraine was elected Oleg Tkachenko (RepRepresentatives of the block SPU – SelPU), his deputies are A. Martyniuk (CPU) and Medvedchuk (SD (u)).
New Parliament balanced approached solution Crimean problem regularly fierce and negatively influenced the stability of the UKfolks society.
The fact that declaration of independence of Ukraine в Criticalth emergence of regional political forces that stated at intention ofunite Crimea to Russia.
For this purpose, and was Adopted Constitution Autonomous Republicmedicine Crimea with separatistcity.
Destabilizing affected the situation of the peninsula elected in January 1994 President of Crimea Yuri Meshkov, which was opened carry out separatist policy ignored the laws of Ukraine,mahavsya create a "state within a state."
Violating the laws and exceeding their authority, Meshkov arbitrarily dismissed officials and their appointed place their humandei. Between Kyiv і Simferopol started "War of decrees".
Crimean authorities proposal ignored the UK Parliaments prospects of bringing the Constitution into conformity with the Crimea Constitutionthat of Ukraine. Based on its mandate, the Council Verkhovyna Ukraine eliminated in the Crimean autonomy presidency.
October 21, 1998 Parliament Crimea adopted a new Constitutiontution, based on the concept of an autonomous republic within the UKHot Line.
This legal document stipulates that the authorities Crimea in its activities must reconcile the interests of carnominal ii general state interests of Ukraine.
In turn, central authorities in making decisions relating to the Crimea, required to consider under Cohnlishing a Constitution Ukraine features of autonomy.
З adoption of the Constitution of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and shvaventilation and its Supreme Council of Ukraine and President ended eight-year period instability in the relations between central power and authorities of the Autonomous Republic.
Important event was adoption January 15, 1999 law on the capital of Ukraine – Hero City Kyiv.
The law defines city status as the nation's capital, features of it executive and local authorities. Officials identified and their functional responsibilities.
Important have articles of the law, which reveal especiallyArkalyk interaction between local governments and agencies usethorities capital з other authorities, enterprises and missions.
After a long political battle in Ukraineobviously offers в enactment the functions of local state administrations
Law of Ukraine of April 9, 1999 found that the local state administration is a local executive government and part system of executive. It is within its powers carries executive in relevant administrativeterritorial unit and implementing powers delegated relevant Council.
Local state administration headed by of the respective local government administrations, they appointed The presidentVolume Ukraine on the submission of the Cabinet of Ministers for a term powers President.
In recent years the attention of the Supreme People's Deputies Rada of Ukraine has focused on Interparliamentary Assembly (IPA) which includes the country's parliament, caused by thorns and cocial USSR.
Ustavlenni deputies to IPA prostezhuvalosya three approaches: be Associates member of the Assembly, as soon as possible join to the Assembly; not support no ties і Assembly and denial-creep even from an associate membership. During discussions Parliament Council in May 1999 majority votes decided to join IPA.
In addition, the delegation of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine takes part in the Assembly European Parliament, the Parliamentary Assembly on Security and Cooperation in Europe.
With the Supreme Council on the activities of international and interstatethese institutions became for her a source of enrichment parliamentary experiencementaryzmu, increasing its rate of state status.
Ukraine has many spheres of life not provided with good law.
In fact none of spheres economic activity end of 1999 country had logically Terminated legislative software. Constant changes in legislation undermined the business activity.
Particularly damaging for the economy was the adoption of laws that did not consider real socio-economic situation joined in conflict Constitution of Ukraine, budget previously taken laws.
In 1998-1999 President of Ukraine was forced to veto legislation to 117 acts.
Meanwhile, in early 2000 in Ukraine is not consistent with the requirements Constitution land, housing, labor law, не taken new codes – Civil, economic, tax etc.. By years of independence failed to take such significant legislative acts as Criminal Code and Law on employment.
5. Election President of Ukraine in 1999
In March 1999 Parliament of Ukraine adopted the Law "On election of PresiPresident of Ukraine, " which provided for elections on the basis multiparty, free and equal nominating candidates for President of Ukraine.
Elections held on October 31, 1999 The election process took place in acute political struggle between different поGeopolitical forces around the candidates for high office and their neredvybornyh programs.
Central Election Commission registered 15 applicants the President, but two of them at the last minute withdrew their candidatesdatury. Among applicants were are already known political and public figures as Л.Hairy fur cap, People MPs, political leaders Parties Vitrenko (Progressive Socialist Party), E. Marchuk (Bloc Social Democratic Union) Moroz(Socialist Party) П.Simonenko (Communist Party), Udovenko та Kostenko (People's Movement) and others.
However, in the first round none of the candidates received the required number of votes.
In the second round fan participation incumbent president Leonid Kuchma and Communist leader П.Simonenko. Kuchma supported the bloc of political parties "Our choice – Kuchma, and Dr. P. – Left Bloc Political forces.
In the second round, which held on 14 November 1999 by L. Kuchma was filed more than 56% of voters who participated in voting, and by Dr. P. – near 38%. So. Presidents Ukraine on five-year term was chosen Leonid Kuchma.
During the inauguration President of Ukraine of 30 November 1999, Leonid Kuchma, in its onlanguage outlined the main approaches to internal and external Policy state.
His efforts, he said, he directs deepening of fundamental reform economy to introduce market relations on active and progressive social policies.
In broad terms, President Leonid Kuchma became the task ofcontain in economic and socialу plane center of gravity for community and publicilnyh cases.
In foreign Ukraine Politics should follow bahatovektority to cooperate and strengthen friendly relations with countries like East and West.
With the election of the President was change government. In December, 1999 Prime Minister of Ukraine appointed In Yushchenko.
Yushchenko Viktor (1954р.н.) - State and political activist. He graduated from the Ternopil Finance and Economics Institute (1975). In 1977-1985 - chief of the Department of the USSR State Bank in the village Ulianivka Sumy region. In 1985-1987 - deputy. Head Office Ukrainian Republican Office of the State Bank of USSR. From 1988 - Head management, since 1989 - deputy. Chairman of Republican branch Agroprombank in 1990 - deputy. Chairman, Deputy Chairman AK Bank "Ukraine" Since 1993 - Chairman, from 1997 - National Chairman Bank of Ukraine, control of Ukraine and the IMF deputy director of Ukraine in EBRD. From December 1999 to April 2001 - Prime Minister of Ukraine. In 2005-2010 - President of Ukraine
6. Ukraine on the brink millennia
Outstanding division, which positively contributed to accelerating state aboutprocesses and reforms in Ukraine was the formation in Jul stockSupreme Council Parliamentary majority.
In January 2000, MPs eleven parliamentary groups and factions, some belong to any MPs в number 237 Deputies expressed their desire to actively promote an efficientministration of its implementation Parliament constitutional powers.
Formation of a majority in parliament significant especially contributed atdiscontinued dangerous to the Ukrainian parliamentary trends that existed before this – use rostrum For Parliament togeneral policy battles to meet its ambitions of different party-political forces.
Before the most nearly within eight years Ukrainianty Government had no support in parliament. At the end of 1999 to the Parliament had introduced 573 bills, and Accepted was only 171. Of the 27 bills identified The presidentVolume Ukraine as urgent and early, was made only nine.
StrategyGovernment, task most is to establish constructive robots in parliament, taking responsibility for legislative process and by concerted cooperation of the Verkhovna Rada з President and Cabinet Ministers.
With the formation of the majority in fact started new stage Development parliamentarism in Ukraine.
Created unique opportunity adoption of the legislationted acts necessary for a certain President of Ukraine course of radical reforms contained in the message strategy of economic and social development of Ukraine of 2000-2004
In April 2000, Parliament approved the government program activityNosta Cabinet Ministers "Reforms for welfare.
Head of the Coordinating Council of the parliamentary majority Kravchuk inform MPs on the situation (January 2000)
Formed most of the President Parliament elected І.Ivy, and his assistanting – Medvedchuk та S. Havrysh.
It was reelected parliamentary committeesinstrument, amending Regulation on toline voting Із 24 committees of the Verkhovna Rada started in 19 housetions should Representatives factions and parliamentary groups which participate in pairslamentskoyi majority.
The parliamentary majority focused on the effectiveness of Legal work for the consolidation of efforts of all branches power. Characteristically, that during three months of the fifth session Parliament adopted as laws, as all previous Thursday session.
Parliament began to discuss and adoption Codes Criminal, civil and Commercial. Important value is also taking Tax Code.
According analysts, the biggest obstacle rozpytku domestic economy has become a crisis payments. Among the reasons it has arisennennya and long-term existence is excessive tax and administrative burden enterprise, weak sophistication credit and bankments systems. З adoption Tax Code should be removed these obstacles.
Parliament will make changes legislative acts of Ukraine on Uses of Nuclear Energy radiation safety.
Manifesting care protection of the population і territory of overordinary situations of technogenic and natural character Ukraine's parliament adopted special law. He steps involved of officialsing individuals, NGOs, state authorities if youcancellation of the warranty emergency.
New Law which establishes the legal and organizational bayou planning, development or other use territory і primacomplicate for sustainable human settlements development.
У new wording of the Law "On Protection cultural declineTHICKNESS.
Amending the Law of Ukraine On libraries and library andwell case. Law determine the status of libraries, legal organizational ha principles of library and library, guarantees the right to free access information knowledge involvement to value of native and world culture, science education ha, Stored in libraryso deeply.
Parliament passed the Act "On Compensation loss of income in connection with violation Terms their benefits. "
Essential in social Support poor population has adoption March 16, 2000 Law "On Stateresponsible for the state assistance for needy families.
Citizens Ukraine for the first time in Ukrainian history The constitutional used theiriynym right contribute adjustments organization of state power в country – April 16, 2000 was National Referendum by onOrigin initiative.
Over 80% of those who took part у referendum, supported by need of bicameral Parliament and also withmenshennya constitutional of Parliament.
Voters are called for to President had right earlyQuantity stop powers of Parliament, if the latter for one month not can form permanent Parliamentary majority or in the case Disapproval her for three months prepared and submitted in by the Cabinet Ministers of the draft State Budget of Ukraine.
Enforcement Ukrainian referendum on popular initiative on the agenda set Essentially the question of makingtyevyh changes to Constitution of Ukraine and the election law.
In usement of presidential decrees made administrative reform, which aims to improve system of public administrationment, improve their performance and simultaneous reductioning the cost of their upkeep.
The defining challenge of administrative reform should be strengthening mechanisms that can guarantee the realization of the principle rule of law, significant strengthening public control over the parliament, government and other bodies power. The reform includes the development and adoption of the provisions of the Ministry, state committees and other bodies of executive power.
Description of reforms in particular, is to improve relationssons Government – ministry, deprived them of unnecessary to bureaucraticloading, to eliminate duplication of each other and through that strengthen executive vertical. In turn, the Ministries of delegationsWang additional functions and their leaders given additional terms of increased their responsibility for implementing government policy.
Realization administrative reforms are needed in Dform of public service, increasing its prestige, improved system for selecting employees. Introduced the practice, followed by STARTbe the first time credited to civil service, taking crouchedGu civil servant.
In the local administrations, їх structural units introduced HR reserve subject to annual review and approval. On fill the vacancies introduced competitive selection.
However, during reform was that the estimated process elimination of some of executive power too long, and some keequator decentralize the functions of government ministries understood UkraineDoes decentralization as its powers, the right not to perform or performed on your own government job. This created significant redamage in the reform of public administration.
Development in Ukrainebegan a new phase of land reform.
President issued in March December 1999 Decree "Some urgent measures acceleration reforming the agricultural sector.
The decree authority the executive to undertake the reformsformation of collective farms (PCB) on based on private ownership of land.
The government provides all members of the PCB right to free access of these enterprises з giving them the land land and property and create based on them private enterprises rural (farm) lathouseholds, business communities and other entities economy based on private property.
Allowed to contractual basis to transfer land in rent з payment owner of a share of rent in kind or cash.
On the basis of presidential decree citizens are Certificates ownership rights Land plots (payem) and state Acts the right of private ownership of land.
Parliament by law ox March 16 2000 wrote off budget arrears of collective and other agricultural businesses that are converted to private Society.
У Country started new stage of privatization.
May 18, 2000 Parliament adopted withAkono about State program privatization. It provides more market, in oncomparison with previous programs, approaches to Sales identified objects. Were determined State Responsibility for ineffective Management privatized objects.
7. Regrouping political forces
By the middle 2000 in Ukraine recorded over 90 parties of a different direction, The consequences of the presidential elections, the formation of parliamentary majority influenced on the revitalization of political parties.
During the first half of 2000 were many conventions of political parties, viewed and changed their programs, discussions were held, round tables around the treatment of presidential power.
April 22, 2000 the V Congress People's Democratic Party. He supported the policy President and determined to challenge the party neto 2004 phase of
XV congress Social Democraticst Party of Ukraine (united) in June 2000 adopted a new program. United Social-Democrats stated intention come to State power on these parliamentparliamentary elections.
At conventions поGeopolitical games Left-wing special attention paid elucidation the failures Left forces presidential election determined tactics their Action present stage.
On Congress Socialist Party of Ukraine що Held in May 2000 adopted a new edition of the program, which provided for the movement to "Democratic socialism", defined the goal of the party establishment in Ukraine Democratic People's system power.
Party announced on readiness for alliance with political powerwe who dare to speak Against current policies power. His political allies in fight for a new course of Ukraine party recognized Left, center-left and centrist forces.
Congress has determined tactic fraction SPU in Parliament: it initiatewill produce amendments to bills that expand guarantees compliance with government authorities constitutional rights.
Communists на Congress in June 2000 negatively assessed the market reform held in the country, which in their opinion, caused catastrofichne deepening socio-economic crisis disastrous decreasetion of living standards overwhelming majority. Tenor speeches of the delegates were motto "We can not solve the crisis and move forward, not moving towards socialism."
Conventions Parties showed that Socialists and Communists are in opposition to presidential power and try to fight for power and solving economic and social problems constitutional way.
Political parties and right pravotsentrystsWho direction (NRU, PSA, NUC UNIP and others) also had their congresses. In public documents, they positively assessed the consequences presidential elections announced support the Programme of Action President Л.Kuchma.
In May 2000, a congress Organizations Ukrainian Naterns. In addition to the messengers of the regions of Ukraine, the Congress were present Representatives of 12 countries. Nationalists support activity President and government.
In Ukraineobviously offers extended process formation new Political parties.
Typically, the leader of the new parties are the People's deputiestation. April 8, 2000 established party center-left direction – All- Association "Justice". Party supported government program aimed at curbing economiceconomic crisis in the country. At the same time. party said that pass in opposition to vlyly, if action authorities will conducted in the context з interests of society. Leader party was І.Czyz.
In June 2000, stated about party Solidarity Women Ukraine, which indicated that it was women's movement in Ukraine could be unifying force. Party stated that seeks serve not only as political, but also as a social force.
Passes perehrupu-ing Youth Ukraine's movement, increasing its polityzatsiя.
In March 2000, was constituent congress Ukrainian whomnistychnoyi Union of Youth (UKSM). Union claimed to be the all-Ukrainian youth organizations, has the structure in regional-states. The organization supports update Communist movement association all representatives of leftists on the principles of the Ukrainian state-building, mass intention to come to power constitutionally probHom.
In May 2000, there was political Alliance Organizations "Young Ukraine" and "Youth Party of Ukraine. His goal - to win seats in Parliament at the next election.
1. When adopted the new Constitution of Ukraine?.
2. As decided Crimean problem to 1998?
3. He was a contender for the post President Ukraine during elections 1999?
4. What you know about activity parliamentary majority formed in January 2000?
5. What election blocks and Association participated in election 1994 th and 1998 th years? As changed arrangement forGeopolitical forces 1998 elections?
6. What steps have been made Л. Kuchma to reform economyperformance indicators after his election as President in 1991?
7. When the Constitutional Treaty was concluded between PresiNicholas and the Parliament? What does little adoption this document?
8. What are the main stages in the constitutional process 90th years. Why pass a new Constitution delayed?
9. Give a description of UK Parliamentobviously offers XIII Convocation (1994 - 1998's). Compare it activity з of the current Parliament Council.
10. What are the causes of confrontation between legislative and youexecutive branches of government in independent Ukraine in the 90's.
11. Describe the main directions for internalpolicy makers President Л. Kuchma in 1994 - 1999.
12. В why is historic new Constitution of Ukraine?
13. For what purpose performed administrativetent and agricultural reform in Ukraine?
14. What In your opinion, caused the emergence of resistance legislative and executive branches of government in 90 years?
15. Which electoral system (proportional, majority, mixed) is the best for Ukraine? Groundedtuyte their views.
16. How do you understand the expression Л. Kuchma: "Speeding up reformstion as the only condition and the main means to overcome the crisis and ensure economic stability? Is it acIntellectual today?