§ 27 SITUATION IN THE FIELD OF SOCIAL
1. Changes in Ukraine's population
Deep economic crisis has caused serious social ills.
Still usual safeguards of the state: the provision of work, stable wages, pensions, financial support –gave unusual and not acceptable to most former Soviet citizens task daily struggle for survival.
Economic decline that occurred during 90 years, significantly restricted the filling State budget, the real income workers fell sharply, there were delay payment wages, pensions and scholarships.
Volumes wages, pension benefits significantly behind the growth in prices goods and commodities. If before 1992 average old-age pension slightly higher than minimum wage, in December, 1997 it was no more than 40-50% of this figure.
Personal savings were devalued. In 1992 current consumption of the population (food, services, transport, housing) had slipped to the level of end
Sharp there is a pressing issue in the case of health care. Top 90's, Ukraine was medicines provided only by 30-40%, medical equipment – 30%. Increased level of cardiovascular, cancer and other diseases. Is constantly growing population is that need of social protection by the state.
Fall of Life level of people directly affected reduction natural population growth of Ukraine.
Mortality began to exceed birth. In Ukraine were dying every year for 150 thousand people more than created the. Especially, this tendency became manifest after Chernobyl disaster. Children deaths in Ukraine was the highest in Europe.
By six years post-totalitarian development of Ukraine's population fell by 1.2 million. In our country gone, figuratively speaking, the whole region.
Sharp decrease in fertility meant acute crisis of the family as a social institution.
Number marriages per thousand inhabitants of Ukraine decreased during 1991-1992 he with 8.8 to 7,4, while the number of divorces increased respectively from 3,8 to 4,2.
In the years in Ukraine, there were about 15 million retirees, more than 12 million veterans, 2,3 million people with disabilities, 3.5 million victims of the consequences Chernobyl accident, about 600 thousand people were recognized as victims of war and political repression.
Markedly reduce the fertility rate increases aging NationDemonstrates the growing share of older generations compared to middle and younger. The state ratio working youth (Age to 30 years) and elderly is 20 to 80. But for normal transmission of professional experience while preserving the necessary dynamism innovative changes in production activity ratio should be 40 to 60.
In general in Ukraine, the proportion of people of retirement age is 23% of the population in rural areas – even 29%. In early 2000 youth Ukraine (ages 14 to 28 years) was 22.9% in total population. It is believed that a very low percentage.
The need for deep restructuring of the economy з to its reorientation to human needs. This age population structure, on the one hand, increases capable of loading part, on the other – puts into question the need introduction of social programs, which would have increased fertility, reduced mortality.
And This would contribute deep restructuring of the economy з to orientation of a person, to its requests and needs.
On situation in social field affecting migration, thus intensified. Ukraine was open within the existing rights of entry, residence and movement through its territory of foreign citizens.
On native land began to return its former inhabitants, who for various reasons were outside their home country. Among them – former military Armed Forces of the USSR, repressed Ukrainian, who were in exile, deported peoples. For 1991-1996 in Ukraine from the former Union arrived 1.2 million.
A marked of migration flows went to Ukraine from countries near and far abroad. Ukraine for the first time in its history faced such problem, as mass entry of foreign nationals. In recent years, annually in Ukraine settled pas residence about 200 people, among them – refugees. First to apply for refugee status to Afghan representatives diaspora.
After tragic events in Transcaucasia summer 1989 arrived in Ukraine thousands of Turks Meskhetians.
Most influx of refugees was linked to hostilities in Transnistria. In August 1992 Ukraine adopted Over 60 thousand people, half of whom were children.
For From 1995-1996 permission for temporary asylum in Ukraine received 1883 refugees who came from the zone Russian-Chechen conflict.
Except addition, about 2,5 thousand refugees Abkhazia asked the Ukrainian authorities to decide on their be in Ukraine.
Except Immigrants from neighboring countries, in Ukraine are refugees from many countries Africa, Southeast Asia and Middle East. Some of them on legal grounds is in Ukraine and for various reasons did not want or can not return home, but many foreigners coming to Ukraine illegally and "Settles" in different cities. According to expert estimates in Kyiv and its suburban young in May 1999 lived about 20 thousand so-called illegal immigrants. In this regard acutely the question of legal settlement status of foreigners who for various reasons in Ukraine seeking asylum.
Economic crisis led to the evolution of population movement.
From Ukraine became more travel, than come to it In 1994 traveled from Ukraine 345.9 thousand people arrived from abroad, 207.7 thousand of migration processes, as evidenced by actual data, not diminished in subsequent years. From Ukraine leaving the most capable and educated people.
Only in the 1987-1992 biennium the number who ever went to Israel Germany, USA, other countries amounted to more than 300 thousand citizens. Among them – scientists, technologists, activists culture, skilled workers, other professionals of high class. Characteristically, among migrants from Ukraine prevails young: almost 76% of them – people under 30, and among immigrants every tenth – pre- age.
Main part of Ukraine's population in contrast to European countries is engaged in production area. In 1990 in our country were employed in the production of 53,8% of the population, whereas, for example, in the UK – 29,6% in France – 30,3%.
У field Service in Ukraine, employing 26.4% of the population in the UK – 68.1% in France – 62,9%.
During 1992-1997 biennium in Ukraine the number of people engaged in material production reduced from 20 million to 15.6 million people, including the industry at 2.8 million (from 7.8 million to 5 million people). However, this reduction was not because he expanded the scope of services, through recession production.
On social situation in Ukraine significantly affected Emission government policy.
On 1993 assumed that money supply will increase in 1,9 times. Actually But growth was 18.9 times. To reduce the emission of unsecured commodity weight of money, the government of Ukraine went through increasing taxes on profits.
In result was found in the country highest rate in the world income tax – 90%. This led to hypertrophied growth of the shadow Economy " income from which is received by the state treasury.
2. The social stratification of the population
Transition to a market economy vylynuv to change the social structure of society: was stratification of the population, changed the overall scale of public values.
If Soviet-era among them were dominant power and access to material values that were kind of guarantor of material welfare, then in post-Soviet period –wealth, financial security person and determine the prestige level of its impact on power.
In structure of the population of Ukraine zayavylysya miserable, poor, poor strata. Share them in 1990 was 18,2%, and in 1992 – already 63,9% of the total stock population.
Characteristically, in the same period was observed an increasing tendency toward very rich in stock rich layers (5% – in 1990, 7% – in 1991, 8% – in 1992).
After price liberalization undertaken in 1992 Predominantly found itself under below poverty line: its earnings fell sharply.
If in 1990 the share of wages in national income was almost 60%, then in 1993 it dropped to 39%, and in 1997 was only 25 – 30%.
An great difference between the minimum and average wages. In October 1992 minimum wage was 10 times lower than the average in national economy, while in developed countries with market economies wages have generally not exceed the minimum by more than 3-4 times.
Changes in social class structure not formed Medium Class – reliable guarantor of social stability, and vice versa – sharply increased social tensions between poles "Rich" – "Poor".
Sharp fell purchasing power. During the 1991-1994 biennium it actually decreased in 5 times. About 70% of household budget spent on began to purchase products nutrition. In U.S. \, France, Italy, for example, this amounts only 18-20% of revenues.
Parliament The Council of Ukraine by its law in July 1991 defined the so-called "Consumer Basket, which, according to developers, citizens had to provide normal residence. According to the scientists, hygienists, incorporated in the "basket" rules food intended for man "Which take a very light physical work. But the World Bank came to a different conclusion: in the third Ukraine's population (which is 17 million) overall consumption of almost 10% lower than the level of physical survival. This confirms statistics: in 1992 below the poverty line were 11% of the population, and in 1996 – already 74%.
3. The intensification of the whole complex of social problems
One the most critical and most pressing social problems is unemployment which covered all levels of society and becomes mass character.
Introduction market, restructuring of production, reducing research institutions and other reasons led to that thousand able-bodied population were left without work.
Already in early December 1993 Employment Service of the country there were 127.4 thousands of citizens who wanted to find a job. Of these 80.5 thousand were status of unemployed.
In 1995 The same service registered 526.9 thousand citizens, not employed employed, are already 175.5 thousand were unemployed status.
Among unemployed prevail workers research and design institutes, workers and engineering workers previously worked mainly in defense industry. By the World Bank 34,5% of the total number of unemployed Ukraine composed of persons who have higher education and in industrial areas such as Dnepropetrovsk Donetsk, Kharkiv – 43-44% in Kiev – 58%.
For 1996 The employment situation of the population even more exacerbated in the country already there were 400 thousand unemployed. Minister of Labour of Ukraine said: "We are on the verge of mass relieved.
Broad scale has become hidden unemployment. A simple administration of forced to send workers and employees in the long vacation. In 1996 about 4 million employable Ukraine were actually unemployed in this way.
On early 2000 4% unemployment struck bodied population of Ukraine.
In Ukraine increased number of incidents of non-industrial nature.
By period 1991-1998 he worked the country's non-industrial accident character died 567.5 thousand people, 38 times as many killed at work, thousands of people become disabled.
On vehicle fatally injured about 76 thousand people, almost 82 thousand died from poisoning, 108 thousand people committed suicide from violent Action 50,8 thousand people were injured, 37.3 thousand utopylosya, 12,7 thousand people died in fires.
Economic and social chaos led to increase in crime. By 1994 there were 572 thousand crimes. The offense was carried out every six minors. It is 2-3 times more than in the 70's and 80's. Significantly increased economic crime. Despite the general decline of morality in society. Such property rights, as honesty, generosity, kindness were away at the back. Becomes more valuable skill to make money by any means, including speculation, fraud, theft, extortion and more. It happened also that honest work does not provide earnings for a normal life.
Complicated and left for Ukraine housing problem. Suffice it to say that 13% of the population Republic live in dormitories, nearly 3 million families need better housing. Meanwhile in terms of housing Ukraine in 1994 was at 50 years old.
Great burden on the residential sector fell Ukraine The Chernobyl accident: by past nine years from the zone of unconditional (mandatory) resettlement in purpose-built houses resettled 14 228 families and provided home 12 828 families who migrated alone, improved living conditions 4786 families with disabilities.
That little to solve the housing problem in Ukraine since 1998 started realization program long-term housing for young people. The population began to be given credit for housing.
Negatively impact on the living population of Ukraine acute environmental crisis, that hit most of the republic.
In tons of air pollutants emitted. In many cities, pollution air is 15 times the permitted norm. This state of Ecology deteriorating health of the people of Ukraine: many children are born unhealthy, increasing incidence of people.
All above extremely exacerbates the issue of social protection of the people of Ukraine.
On beginning 90 years the state has increased the funds for pensions and social subsidies services. Introduced cash aid and compensation. This state tried at least partially soften the blow inflicted to the people price liberalization. In 1992 general funds allocated to social security, amounted to more than 40% of the budget.
Reduction revenue too complicated financing of social protection population. Financial difficulties forced the government at the beginning of 1993 refuse of wide-ranging and comprehensive social protection and redirect the destination address assistance to the least protected groups population.
On practice, this meant that circle of those who received public assistance, more zvuzhuvalosya, despite the fact that the cellar there was a lot more people.
4. Interethnic relations in Ukraine
Ukraine – The poly-ethnicalstate. According to the census of 1989 reside in Ukraine over 51.4 million people, including more than 37.4 million Ukrainian, 11.3 million Russians, 486 thousand Jews, 440 thousand Belarusians, Moldovans 324.5 thousand, 219 thousand Poles 163.1 thousands of Hungarians, Romanians and 134.8 thousand representatives of other nations.
Total Ukraine has about 130 nationalities, nationalities and other ethnic groups. The peculiarity of the Ukraine national since the postwar years was that Ukrainian share in the general population including fell from 76.8% in 1959 to 72.7% in 1989, while the proportion of Russians in this period increased from 16,9% to 22,1%.
Also an increase the number of Moldovans, Armenians, Gypsies in Ukraine. However, the number Some nationalities decreased, especially the Jews (at 23.2%).
Parliament Council adopted in November 1991 Declaration of Rights of Nationalities Ukraine, in which it was announced that the State guarantees to all nations, national groups, citizens living in Ukraine, the level political, Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. This confirmed that Ukraine becomes the home for all nations and nationalities that zridnylysya with Ukrainian land.
State guarantees all nationalities the right to preserve their traditional settlement and ensures the existence of national administrative units, assumed duty create appropriate conditions for the development of national languages and cultures.
Important importance in the consolidation of the Ukrainian people has declared the state to guarantee all citizens to freely practice their religion, use their national symbols, to celebrate their national holidays, participate in public life.
Ukrainian State law prohibits discrimination against its citizens on a national sign.
In national structure of the special place Russian speakers country. The vast majority of its members was born in Ukraine sotsializuvalasya in bilingual environment to some extent perceived values of the Ukrainian culture.
Concept and terms
Socialization - The process of human value systems, norms and patterns of behavior required in certain society, and skills that enable her to enter the world of public relations carried out under the influence of environment, people and educational institutions.
Large within the population is the proportion of Russians who came to Ukraine in adulthood, and this – 4,3 million people.
Many are difficult to accept that Ukraine became independent, that broke union state that there are other independent states. Indeed, in the minds of many Russians Ukraine was the only part of the allied countries. But the vast majority Russian-speaking population of Ukraine's independence as perceived independence their country.
Ukrainian State creates favorable conditions for development and operation Russian Language and culture and languages and other cultures of our country.
Noticeable role in the harmonization of interethnic relations in Ukraine play National-cultural associations, which number over 300 in Ukraine.
From their initiative and with the support of established national cultural centers, theaters, museums, schools, Electives to study their native language and history. In Ukraine established eight editors and main specialized publishing for release literature in minority languages.
Ukraine cares about return the land of their parents deported times of Stalinism nations.
From Ukraine's initiative in October 1992 Heads of CIS signed agreement on the restoration of the rights of deported persons, national minorities and nations.
In Ukraine established Republican Commission for deported peoples a fund for the deported peoples in Crimea.
In January 1992 Government of Ukraine considered an issue of returning Deported Crimean Tatars in Crimea and their life. In July 1997 to ARC returned more than 240 thousand Crimean Tatars fundamentally changed the ethnic makeup of the peninsula.
On Ukrainian land back many Bulgarians, Armenians, Greeks – is about 12 thousand people. In the southern region Ukraine Germans back 552 families consisting of 1.7 million people.
Our State to create conditions for development civilized relations between all people living on its territory.
In Ukraine, unlike some other states that have emerged in the former USSR there were no open ethnic conflict.
Democratic approach to international relations, in turn, creates prerequisites for solving urgent problems of socio-economic and political development.
Excerpts from the Declaration of Rights Nationalities of Ukraine (1 November 1991)
ParliamentUkraine based on the Declaration of State sovereignty of Ukraine Act of Ukraine's independence Guided by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and ratified by Ukraine International Covenant on law and individual liberty, seeking to instill in independent, democratic Ukraine sacred principles of freedom, humanism, social justice, equality of all ethnic groups, people of Ukraine;
Noting that citizens living in Ukraine 100 nationalities, together with Ukrainian is p'yatdesyatydvohmilyonnyy people of Ukraine and adopt the Declaration on Rights of Nationalities of Ukraine:
Article 1. Ukrainian State guarantees to all peoples, national groups citizens residing in its territory, equal political, economic, Social and Cultural Rights.
Representatives of nations and national groups are elected on an equal basis to public authorities at all levels, take any position in government, enterprises, institutions and organizations.
Discrimination based on nationality is prohibited and punishable by law.
Inquiries to document
1. Closely Read the passage from the Declaration. What Copyright state guarantees for national minorities?
2. Why do you opinion, after Ukraine's independence was needed to take Declaration of Rights of Nationalities of Ukraine?
1. As economic crisis has affected the social situation Ukraine's population?
2. What changes occurred in the dynamics of migration processes in Ukraine since independence?
3. What social phenomena indicate social stratification of Ukrainian society?
4. Representatives are nationalities living in Ukraine?
5. Name most painful, in your opinion, social problems in Ukraine in the 90-ies
6. Explain the term "hidden unemployment".
7. Explain the term "Socialization."
8. What value was for the Parliament "Declaration of the Rights nationalities for the development of international relations? When was approved this document?
9. Describe demographic situation in the modern Ukraine.
10. Give reasons Social population stratification Ukraine. Which social and political consequences resulting social bundles?
11. Describe the population structure of Ukraine. What changes there were between independence?
12. Describe steps undertaken by the state for harmonization of interethnic relations.
13. What real steps In your opinion, you need to make state to improve living standards?
14. Why do you think in Ukraine, unlike many other CIS countries, since independence is were ethnic conflicts? What can you suggest to prevent such conflicts in future?
15. How do you think you can solve the problem of unemployment? What advice you would give lawmakers and Government on this issue?