Theme VI UKRAINE IN THE INDEPENDENCE
§ 26 Expanding the state building process
1. The formation of power structures
From declaration of independence of Ukraine began the transition period in which needed to achieve radical transformations in all spheres of life, a new degree of social Development:
– в political sphere expected to move from totalitarian system to democracy;
– в economic – of directive command to market economy;
– в social – from "man-screw, which was controlled by vigilant Soviet system, the active creator of their own fate;
– у humanitarian – from class to universal values;
– у International – of Soviet policy of confrontation to international integration community.
Must was to take decisive steps by systematic updating of all areas social life, annexation of the Ukrainian people to modern heritage civilization.
A it meant a transition from republic of extremely limited sovereignty to the full independence.
For achieving independence, Ukraine has chosen peace, evolutionary way. To Constitution was amended: the name "Ukrainian SSR" replaced ancient name "Ukraine". Reformed existing and created new government agencies.
In the first months of independence, Ukraine has developed peculiar political situation.
Ruling The Communist Party was deprived of power functions: its activity was prohibited. The new government has not yet been established – in the center and locally formed vacuum executive power.
An urgent need to strengthen presidential power. That time the Constitution was added provisions that "The President is the head of state and head of executive power. "
As Head of State President of Ukraine was the guarantor of national security, freedom citizens, national sovereignty, respect the Constitution and laws. He represented the state in international relations, took measures to ensure its defense and national security.
For exercise of executive power was formed by the Government of Ukraine – Cabinet of Ministers. General management of its activities carried out by the President as head of the executive.
Near The Constitution provided the President and prime minister, who directly supervised the operations of government.
In Ukraine reformed ministry, created institutions such as National banks, embassies and consulates, export and import of etc..
This way, the laws of that time provided a strong attraction to presidential power, thus creating conditions for formation mixed rule – presidential-parliamentary.
Parliament The Council began to create new legislation.
In first years of independence has taken a number of important laws and regulations on human rights, rehabilitation of victims of political repressions in Ukraine, freedom of conscience and religious activities of organizations about the rights of national minorities and others.
Special place assigned to formation of its own Armed Forces.
24 August 1991 was established Ministry of Defence of Ukraine. Military Force formed on the basis of military units that were placed in Ukraine, which –Over 700 thousand soldiers.
Parliament Ukraine on behalf of the people expressed high confidence over the troops, located on Ukrainian territory. Soldiers have volunteered their choice, sworn allegiance to Ukraine.
Building Armed Forces based on democratic principles. Military Doctrine of the State adopted by the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine on October 19, 1993 recognizes that Ukraine provides military-political course in accordance with its national interests State refuses to use its own armed forces for political solution on its territory.
Military doctrine of our country clearly defined masses defensive. It noted that Ukraine does not find in any of its neighboring enemy.
WITH MILITARY DOCTRINE OF UKRAINE (1993)
Strategic goal of Ukraine in the field of defense is to protect its State sovereignty and political independence, the territorial integrity and inviolability of borders.
Proclaiming its military doctrine, which has a defensive character, Ukraine is of that it is a potential opponent of any particular State.
1. Military-Political aspects.
1.1. Military and political goals of Ukraine and international priorities software National security.
The main purpose of the military Policy of Ukraine with safeguard national security of Ukraine from external military threat, preventing war, maintaining international peace and security.
Ukraine is building its relations with other countries on the principles equality, mutual respect, mutual benefit, non-interference in internal affairs and other universally recognized principles and norms of international law ...
In its foreign policy and military-political course by national interests, Ukraine:
imposes no territorial claims against other states and does not accept any territorial claims for itself;
strictly adheres to the principle inviolability of existing state borders;
respect for state sovereignty and political independence of other states ...
Questions and Tasks
Based on document, give description of the basic principles of military doctrine of Ukraine. What it differs from the military doctrine of the Soviet Union?
Important importance for democratic states, implementing the rule law was obtained judicial reform, called to creation strong, independent judiciary.
In July 1992 Parliament debated the areas of judicial reform, identified competencies Ministry of Justice, prosecutors, the legal profession.
Trial show a power beyond the prerogatives of the President. The election of the Supreme Court, judges of regional and Kiev city court, a referee of the Supreme arbitration, judicial arbitration and Kyiv regions carried Parliament of Ukraine. Ukraine's parliament had intended to build a fundamentally new judicial system.
But of the judiciary was slow and incomplete. During 1992-1996 he Parliament did not accept the concept of judicial reform was not formed in these years and Constitutional Court although the law about its feasibility had been enacted in June 1992
An need revision and preparation of new codes of Ukraine; Civil, Labour, Administrative and others. However, because of differences in parliament conceptual approaches in this regard due to their excessive politicization has been unable to accept.
Important measure to protect the interests of the independent state was the creation of a law enforcement body – Service Safety of Ukraine (SBU).
In their work is guided by the constitutional rules of the SBU and the law "On Operational Activities. Security Service of Ukraine and subordinated to the President controlled by Parliament. Security Service, an independent, committed only requirements of the laws of Ukraine.
Parliament Council approved the attributes of statehood:
15 January 1992 – State Anthem "Ukraine has not perished" (Words written by the famous Ukrainian poet and ethnographer P. Chubynsky а music – М.Verbitsky);
28 January 1992 – blue-yellow flag as the National Flag of Ukraine
19 February 1992 Parliament adopted its Resolution trident, as small Emblem of Ukraine, considering it part of the Great State Emblem.
State symbols of Ukraine and its historical origins
The state symbols of Ukraine is the flag emblem and the anthem that defined in Article 20 of the Constitution of Ukraine. Description of the state symbols of Ukraine and their application are established by law that adopted by no less than two thirds of the Parliament Rada of Ukraine.
After the proclamation in 1991 independence, factual and legal registration of Ukrainian statehood faces an urgent need in their own state attributes and symbols. Measures to state level - visits, receptions, signing international agreements - had conduct, with its own flag, anthem, emblem, seal, etc.. Some time with their absence had to put up. Prior to the adoption of new state symbols authorities, institutions and organizations operated symbols of the Ukrainian SSR.
Establishment of a new identity was under acute political struggle. The developments in the country, rapid expansion of its international relations led to the introduction of new characters before relevant decisions of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. Already September 4, 1991 over its house hoisted the national flag. Same flag raised during the visit of Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine Leonid Kravchuk to U.S. Canada in September and October, 1991
January 28, 1992 Parliament Ukraine adopted the national flag. State flag of Ukraine - a banner of two equal horizontal bands of blue and yellow. These colors have long used in the symbols of the Ukrainian lands, and in Galicia in the XIX century. were considered national. Sometimes Ukrainian patriots preferred and crimson red. However, at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries. established itself yellow-blue flag. It was used with some modifications during the UPR and Ukrainian Hetman State Skoropadsky, in the Western People Republic, as the national flag of the Carpathian Ukraine, and Ukrainian centers in exile. U1949 was Ukrainian National Council abroad, decided that to the final installation of state symbols independent authority Ukraine National flag is a blue-yellow (light blue above and yellow below).
Great State Emblem of the Constitution Ukraine is set taking into account the small national emblem and coat of arms Zaporizhzhya. The main element of the Great State Emblem of Ukraine is the Emblem Princely State of Volodymyr the Great.
In the historical literature is recognized that emblem - is stationary under the laws of heraldry image that is State, city or family. The oldest emblem of the Ukrainian state - land Vladimir the Great and his dynasty - trident, known from the X century. In Galician Princes lion emblem served as a soldier Zaporozhye - knight Cossack with a musket. After the Unification Act and WUFR UNR in 1919 trident was adopted and at Western. Dynastic character of Vladimir the Great was symbol of a united Ukraine.
February 19, 1992 Parliament Ukraine recognized the trident small State Emblem. Sketch of the Great State Emblem developed but not yet approved.
In the XIX century. Ukrainian, who had no own anthem, sang "Many summer, songs and poems "God grant, in good time", "Peace be with you, brothers, all bring" "Testament" Shevchenko, the prayer "God, the Great One" and other works. In 1863 Jeremy Strong magazine "The aim" was printed verse Chubinskogo P. "Ukraine has not perished ...». That same year, composer M. Verbitsky wrote to him music. The song quickly spread to the Ukrainian lands and abroad. And in 1917 was officially declared the anthem of the Ukrainian state.
March 6, 2003 Parliament adopted the Law on the National Anthem of Ukraine ". According Article 1 of this Act, the State Anthem of Ukraine is the national anthem at M. Verbitsky music on to the first verse and chorus of P. Chubinskogo with minor modifications.
In During the development of an independent state special attention was paid to the reorganization the executive structures of government.
President by decree, February 25, 1992 abolished the institution of public Ukraine as having failed to justify themselves, abolished several ministries. 26 ministries was introduced to the system of central government. These ministries deprived right to directly manage the industry and had respond primarily by the state policy in relevant sectors national economy.
In December, 1993 adopted a law "On Civil Service in Ukraine" which regulated activities of civil servants of the country. The public service was recognized as extremely important state institutions. Officials of state bodies were designed to ensure the effective functioning of the economy, institutions public education, health and science.
On Civil Service a great responsibility for maintaining stability state, the rights and freedoms. In Ukraine, organized training, retraining and advanced training of civil servants.
The first steps of reforming the state system, of course, have made radical changes in society.
State order of Ukraine combined elements of a parliamentary republic, the presidential rule and Soviet power. Despite the wide range of powers, The president was denied the right to form government, because the decision the appointment and dismissal of the Prime Minister had to get approval majority of the parliament. With the consent of parliament also appointed by President leading ministers.
Especially weak and ineffective vertical was the executive branch. Government practically lost control of the regions, In these conditions the state apparatus worked irregularly local power was incapacitated. It was therefore by reform of local councils, limiting their responsibilities local and regional governments.
In return in March 1992 Institute was formed of representatives of the President – Heads of local state administration, formed on the basis of former executive committees of local councils. Representatives of the President provided enough broad powers, they were designed to make executive power in oblasts, districts, and local control government in terms of performance has given the state functions. Introduction Institute representatives of the President contributed to strengthening the executive vertical power.
But these reorganization affected more form content remained unchanged: term trend in which executive, legislative power swing.
To Moreover, the former remained in power Party-Soviet nomenklatura. Natives from the democratic camp were a small part of the administrative apparatus, not had practical experience, were unable to radically change the situation for the better.
2. Regrouping party-political forces in the independent state
On time of independence, Ukraine had more than 20 political parties. None of them, speaking for the independent development of Ukraine, failed to take advantage of a favorable moment to take responsibility for the fate new state. One reason for this choir in controversy proclaimed lots of slogans, which often did not correspond to the real situation, there were inconsistent actions and organizational nesformovanistnew parties.
After August events 1991 and ban the Communist Party in Ukraine's political life became dominant parties and movements of national-democratic orientation.
On numerous meetings, they continued to condemn the imperial totalitarianism and supported the development of national power, their statements were noted in certain euphoria to quickly update all walks of life.
National Democratic power possessed by that time the political initiative, but failed influence of radical reforms, especially economic.
The formation of political parties left direction. Spring 1991 declared himself left political movement.
Revitalization it is connected with the creation Socialist Party of Ukraine (SPU) led Moroz. Before the party entered most members of the Communist Party, which at that time was prohibited.
After another six months proclaimed the existence Peasant Party of Ukraine (SelPU). She advocated for revival of the peasantry as the basis for strengthening the new state.
In October 1993 after lengthy debate in the legislature and pages Newspapers revived Communist Party of Ukraine (CPU).
In March 1995 delegates of the Second Congress proclaimed successor of the Communist Party parties that existed within the Communist Party and was banned in August 1991
Refers to the left and Progressive Socialist Party of Ukraine (Progressive)Incorporated in April 1996 Party emerged from the differences in the leadership of the Socialist Party. Group led by the Socialists Vitrenko withdrew from the party and proclaimed a new one.
It appears that the left movement not yet lost their political influence. In the elections to Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine in 1994 Left-wing parties won 123 seats (With 397 elected MPs).
Software provisions and requirements of leftist parties were close or very similar. They practiced forms of government priority of management, are careful to private property, condemned the social stratification of society, acting for the elimination of unemployment, the development of the Councils and providing them with the executive functions of government.
In foreign advocate for stronger ties with countriesCIS and first all – with Russia.
Left forces declared that they intend peacefully come to power.
Right wing political forces representing the party national and nationalist directions.
To Parties belonging to this direction People's Movement (Rukh), Democratic Party Ukraine (DPU), the Ukrainian Republican Party (URP), Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists (CUN), Christian Democratic Party of Ukraine (HDPU) Ukrainian National Assembly (UNA).
Proclamation Independence allowed to move to Ukraine activity Organizations Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) formerly operated abroad.
In 1995 total number of party members the right orientation was about 150 thousand people. In parliamentary elections in 1994 Representatives right parties won 47 seats.
The most influential among the parties the right orientation was National Movement of Ukraine. ANR has gone from public association with political Party, formed in 1992 Motion declared himself the opposition (but constitutional, parliamentary form) of presidential power.
During 1991-1993 biennium nearly 28 political parties declared their centrist position. Representatives of centrist parties more than others were Related presidential power structures, with the Government of Ukraine. Party centrist direction in 1992 established social and political association New Ukraine.
Party who declared themselves centrist, at this stage were minoritiesand had little influence in society.
In 1994 only 6 parties of the central direction had its representatives to Parliament.
Among centrist political forces lead directly owned Liberal Party of Ukraine (LPU)Created in September 1991 It comprised mainly representatives of the eastern regions. Liberal faction "Socio-market choice" in Parliament in 1994 consisted of 27 deputies.
Noticeable role in centrist movement played Labour Party of Ukraine (NPU). Some political analysts believe PPU representative Directorate of powerful industrial unions of the country.
To centrist direction joining social-democratic wing, represented by Social Democratic Party Ukraine (SD) and Social Democratic Party Ukraine (United).
In policy documents political parties who regarded themselves as centrist, significant differences existed. These parties have focused on issues of freedom, justice, solidarity and development of socially oriented market economy use of science and technology, the involvement of Ukraine into European processes integration.
Party-political PA forces stage of Ukraine's independence were зand development independent state, but diverged in their policy priorities.
Presidential rate supported Party centrist direction. Left and right force in fact, were in opposition to the presidential power.
Top Political Party of Ukraine in early 1990
Communist Party of Ukraine
Peter Simonenko N.
Social Democratic Party of Ukraine (united)
Victor Medvedchuk V.
All- Association "Rodina"
Drachenko Victor A.
People's Democratic party
Labour Party Ukraine
Michael Sirota D.
Ukrainian People Movement
Yuriy Kostenko I.
Socialist Party of Ukraine
Alexander Moroz A.
Green Party Ukraine
Vitaliy M. Kononov
People Movement Ukraine
Gennady Udovenko Sosis
Reforms and Order
Victor Pynzenyk M.
Congress Ukrainian nationalists
Stetsko Yaroslav Iosifovna
Peasant Party Ukraine
Being Sergei V.
Progressive Socialist Party of Ukraine
Natalia Vitrenko M.
3. Economic problems of independent Ukraine
Reform public authorities, the emergence of new political parties were accompanied by serious deteriorating socio-economic situation in Ukraine.
Already Spring 1992 in the country manifested all the signs of a deep economic crisis, which threatened the devastating consequences. Significantly decreased amount industrial production, consumer goods fell national income of the state. Threatening acquired deficit budget. For the 1990-1994 biennium, the production of gross national product, Ukraine dropped by 44%, the volume of industrial production – by 41%, national income – by 54%.
In 1994 decline in production in Ukraine has reached its maximum. Some analysts believe that the pace and depth of the economic crisis Ukraine have no analogues in world history. Inflation and high bank rates made it impossible to accumulate funds for their further investment in economy.
Catastrophic drop caused by the economy of Ukraine as objective factors, as industry and agriculture, which remained after the Soviet collapse, so and lack of economic development strategy of the state.
To Soviet Union produce the final product in the industry Ukraine took less than 20%, the rest was related to cooperation and integration. 80% of the balance of foreign trade of the Republic accounted for Russian Federation.
From collapse of all-economic complex of traditional porushylas industrial cooperation and specialization of Ukrainian enterprises. Hundreds of groups left without logistics, consumer products and funding.
High concentration of basic industries and defense industry, not give the ability to quickly adapt them to market conditions.
One from the mistakes of the politicians of that time was to big and immediately reorient the development of Ukrainian industry East to West.
Enterprises were not ready to produce competitive products, it is not found markets in the world market.
Economic situation is extremely uskladnyuvala energy crisis.
On beginning of its independent development of Ukraine can ensure its own resources only 25% of needs in natural gas and 10% – in oil. After Chernobyl disaster in Ukraine somewhat narrowed the possibility of using nuclear energy.
Ukrainian traditionally focused on the economy Donetsk coal basin. Between those coal is growing and shrinking significantly.
To same Russia took control of energy pricing, which accelerated inflation in Ukraine. We know that Ukraine has in its time direct part to create fuel and mining industry of Russia, invested in its development of material and human resources. However, Russia refused to sell energy in independent Ukraine discounted prices and late 1993 substantially raised prices on imported oil to Ukraine. Record inflation in Ukraine, which took place in 1994 and caused the economy significant impact was related primarily to this factor.
Becoming independent in the ideas of economic development. Ukraine began the transition to introduction market relations. This transition involved significant changes in property relations, primarily its denationalization and privatization. To meet these challenges laid down legal framework, adopted a law "On property". In early August 1992 adopted State program of privatization of state property enterprises in the 1992-1994 biennium
In During the execution of this program was clear that privatization – One of the most difficult problems of the transition period. Around it began a fierce struggle of different political forces.
Value state property subject to privatization, some artificial structures defined in depressed prices. Prior to the privatization began attached different financial intermediaries, psevdovlasnyky, which settled heavily and did not go as intended.
In solve these problems not always consistently been the position of Parliament. State privatization programs in 1995 and 1996 were not accepted, and in 1997 taken with a delay for six months by 1994 only a few percent of the people country benefited from his privatization property certificates due What state has not received considerable funding, which hoped.
From the start of privatization was introduced price liberalization. This policy led to catastrophic consequences: payment of deep crisis. imbalance financial and credit system, eventually – to the impoverishment of the mass population.
В цtheir conditions of most reoriented range of pragmatic political interests in economic. She started developing at the state enterprises of different types of commercial structure, under the guise raised prices, "perekachuvalysya" money informal sector and abroad. These processes were accompanied by proliferation corruption, economic and financial crime.
During the first years of independence, the country's leadership could not find optimal models of market reform which would correspond to the starting capabilities Ukrainian economy and ensure minimal losses for the population.
Was given evident lack of experience in the heads of state reforms in the economy. At the time of independence in Ukraine, there was no human resources for reforms.
Disservice reformers in the years done some scientists, economists, in their pereotsinyvshy Recommendations opportunities in Ukraine.
It happened contradiction between the proclaimed state strategic direction aimed at transition to market relations, and tactical actions of the authorities for its implementation. From 1990 to 1994 government agencies proposed nine state economic programs. But all of them on nashtovhuvalys political debate and economic difficulties in the state.
Each with governments, since 1991, defined its priorities. Each The following program rejected previous due to the fact that she somehow did not satisfy the needs of society.
Negative made an impact on the production of continuous change tax law because of what it lost incentive motivation.
That collect more money, state continuously raised the tax rate. And from This economic interest decreased, which negatively affected the activity manufacturers. The crisis also aggravated errors in conducting financial credit policies of the banking system, the implementation of pricing policies.
Proclaiming Reformation course, state leaders are hoping for a quick and large inflows Western Investments Ukraine's economy. But their hopes were not realized. Gaps in the Ukrainian legislation to restrain foreign arrivals in economy.
4. The situation in agriculture
In October, 1991 lawmakers adopted the concept privatization and land privatization.
Supposed that by 1992 collective and state farms should be transformed into Association or business associations. It proclaimed the right of everyone collective farmer to exit from collective farm and set up private sector.
On based on this concept, parliament passed several laws, including Law "On peasant (farm) economy. " The law obliged the local authorities remove part of the land that was to use collective and state farms, and create Special Fund for those wishing to organize farm.
Through year Parliament declared that Ukraine may be the state, collective and private ownership of land. They declared equal. But lawmakers have not explained the contents of the collective ownership of land.
In result, collective and state farms continued to be an essential element agricultural structure. Sharing or sharing of property and farms state farms not zachipalo industrial relations, and the land remained in the collective use.
Farming economy of Ukraine has developed a number of reasons slowly.
For normal development needs of farming clear legal framework, the real State financial aid loans, the latest technology, including low mechanization.
But these conditions were absent. In Ukraine in early 1993 there were only 14.6 thousand farms in 1995 – 32 thousand, in 1997 – 39.9 thousand in 1999 become even less – 35 thousand
Tim time in agriculture in Ukraine their output steadily decreased, and its cost increased.
Agriculture economy was a factor promotion inflation. In 1999 85% of collective agricultural enterprises were unprofitable.
Vtrachannya collective and state farms require substantial government spending, unlimited credits, but more or less guaranteed positive results.
5. Financial crisis and making money reform.
This principle assistance needed and other sectors of the economy, particularly coal.
Because of of total central bank has an enormous size.
Ukraine covered inflation, which by their rates exceeded all still available indicators. Cash injections were conducted in a rise in imports, energy and the relentless decline in manufacturing.
Terms and Notions
Emission - Creation and production in the circulation of cash, by the state treasury.
Symptoms financial crisis were felt even in the USSR. To reduce social tension, the Soviet leadership issued in addition circulation of money supply. Money incomes are growing, but goods of Issue consumption fell –ended the essential goods.
To Moreover, in countries that have chosen an independent path of development, the value of ruble was different.
Using opening borders with Ukraine massively exported goods and products to neighboring state. In addition, from September 1991 generally stopped centralized arrival in Ukraine ruble mass which was printed in Russia.
In these circumstances, Ukraine was forced to withdraw from the so-called "Ruble zone". President Ukraine November 7, 1992 signed a decree "On the reform of the monetary system in Ukraine. To protect its citizens from "Washout" catalog neighbors, Ukraine added to rubles coupons without its territory could not make the purchase. With time in Ukraine began to let their own monetary (Coupons-crb).
Because of inflation, the money went to hundreds, thousands and millions. Such money lost their proper function and become a brake socio-economic development.
From second half of 1994 Ukraine began to curb inflation. In its dealing provided substantial assistance International Monetary Fund and European Bank Reconstruction and Development.
Ukraine took a course on introduction stable money: September 1996 in circulation was introduced modern currency – UAH.
But monetary system of Ukraine functions not isolated, but depends on the national economy and of financial shocks on world markets. This dependence showed Russian Financial Crisis (Summer-Fall 1998) which led to the fall rate and to worsening economic situation in Ukraine.
6. Public and Social Problems of independent Ukraine
Deep worsening economic crisis in Ukraine, the social problems caused opposition between the government and workers' collectives.
Hope workers to improve their lives accrue, and they have resorted to protest. In February –March 1992 Miners strike was Krivoy Rog basin. Strike supported the miners Donbass. In early September of that year at the same time miners strike Donbass Krivbass and Lviv-Volyn basin air traffic controllers and train drivers.
Power treated extremely strike negatively, sentenced him and the organization national-democratic orientation, accusing the strikers that they allowed themselves to become instruments of both internal and external Antiderzhavnitska forces.
The September Events have shown that united front national-democratic forces and labor movement that began to emerge in the struggle for independence of Ukraine, was split.
Much powerful strike shook Ukraine in June-July 1993
He began stopping several mines in the Donbass, and soon joined him workers other productions of the region and beyond. Organizers of the strike were not only strikes and workers' committees, but directors of factories, regional, district and city councils.
Under the influence of leftist parties – SPU and CPU – strikers put forward political demands: a referendum on confidence in Parliament and the President, the local Councils join the CIS economic union.
Simultaneously railway strike began Kremenchug, Poltava and Mykolaiv. September 9 1993 the business Lviv region held one-day strike protest.
Soon the square the Supreme Council of dozen thousands picket demanded the resignation of government and early parliamentary elections. At the mines of Donbass was declared peredstraykova readiness.
That somehow change things for the better after a stormy debate decision about vypory early Verkhovna Rada and the President of Ukraine. Thus MPs have no moral right to again compete for parliamentary seats, and President – on more decisive action.
In a government Crisis President Kravchuk took over direct guidance of the Cabinet. It was at this time government managed to contain the deepening crisis in the economy.
7. Some results of state-building in the first years of independence.
During 1990-1993 he Ukraine had only laid the foundation for forming and of public-legal institutions, the rights and freedoms defense and national security, the existence of specific institutions civil society.
Simultaneously Rala Parliament's inability to complete the adoption process new Constitution UkraineNot gave opportunity to undertake a comprehensive reform of the government. Developed and reformed structure not time to solve urgent problems behind the vital needs society.
Situation complicated by the fact that this stage pa State Construction was given felt absence science-based program nation-building, economic reform, transforming it pa market relations.
Objective and subjective reasons caused sharp drop in production falling living standards of the people, caused social protest. Discontent of the people grew in intensity standard of living.
Output looked up, mainly to update the higher government, but it certainly not worked, so state- process in the early years independent Ukraine did not give the desired result.
But what is undeniable. it gradually ж still on the rise of democratic features, created a foundation for future reform.
1. How has political situation in Ukraine in the early 90's?
2. What attributes statehood were introduced after the Parliament proclamation Ukraine's independence?
3. Name you know the party that formed after independence of Ukraine.
4. Name the famous You leaders of major political parties of Ukraine.
5. As occurred the formation of Ukrainian power structures? What was his features?
6. What is an "issue"?
7. Spread the word political goals of right and centrist parties in Ukraine.
8. Define chronological sequence of events:
- Establishment of representatives of the President – Heads of local state administration;
- Put into circulation rate;
- Approval of the Parliament of Ukraine attributes of statehood;
- Adoption of the concept of denationalization and privatization land.
9. Select a reason economic crisis that engulfed Ukraine in the first years of independence.
10. Describe Agrarian Policy of Ukraine in the early 90's and expand its consequences.
11. Describe the process of regrouping political forces after proclamation Ukraine's independence. Which political currents were in the political arena of the country?
12. What was selection problem in the state structure facing Ukraine with declaration of independence? What form of government, in your opinion, is optimal for Ukraine?
13. Why do you, view, in the first years of independence, economic change much behind Political?
14. Submit their way of reforming Ukraine's economy. What changes do you think is necessary for this Donation to the government rate?