§ 24 HOME FORMATION IN MULTI- UKRAINE
1. Crisis Communist system
In the late 80 - early 90 years in Ukraine caused unprecedented in Soviet times political situation: were created new party was formed multi, а Communist the party that rules in the Union for decades, has lost its monolithic, found itself in deep crisis and was disintegrating.
This peak was due to the fact that between ruling party and society have a fundamental contradiction. Available pluralism, the weakening power of control over society contributed democratization of society and the Communist Party, promoting conservative views, continued protect old political system which found itself in deep crisis.
The situation in society radically minyalasya, Communist Party did not succeed in progressing events. its bureaucracy has shown his inability to lead a political struggle in the new conditions. In order to counter the social and political upheavals of the CPSU leadership (CPU) tried to form various associations, committees protection Lenin USSR, socialism. But they have not become popular.
Among the reasons that led the Communist Party (KPU) to crisis was inability to predict areas of social development. Caucus lost control over the processes of perestroika and Figuratively speaking, they plelosya in the tail. A Central Committee Communist Party of Ukraine was practically political body, but rather body of the national economy republic performing teams and the decision of the central party-state leadership.
Communist Party of Ukraine is actually split. Part of the Communists understood the need for reform and renewal of life of the republic and wanted to participate in their implementation, the rest of –opposed the changes.
In the CPU there are cells "Democratic platform, its supporters held in Kharkiv in May 1990 first National Conference party clubs, which culminated association forces that were in positions of democratic party since the middle: reforming party structures, non-democratic principle centralism, the Communist Party to transform the party parliamentary type.
The emergence of "Democratic platform" showed that ruling party began to crumble. It is not the only in ideological terms, which meant that soon will and organizational differentiation.
Proponents of "Democratic platform" participated in the XXVIII Congress of the CPSU and the XXVIII Congress of the Communist Party of Ukraine used the convention podium to announce his position but is not found support the decisions taken by the party.
Part of the Communist vidmezhuvalasya official party line and formed an organizing committee for a new desk. In December 1990 based on the "Democratic Platform" created Party of Democratic Revival of Ukraine (PDVU).
Against the background of strengthening the centrifugal process in the Soviet Union and worsening socio-economic situation in the republic authority CPU significantly weakened.
Donbass miners strike in the summer of 1989, which condemned the leadership of the Communist Party, testified that the party is substantially lower than developments.
Rank and file Communists were despair in the communist ideology, voluntarily left the party not trusted governing party organs. Over 1990 statement of withdrawal from the Communist Party Ukraine gave 220 thousand people. Hundreds of thousands of party stopped paying contributions refused to participate in the life of the party organizations.
In the early 90's party structures has not kept a crucial impact on developments in the republic. Political initiative came from the Communist Party Central Committee to Parliament.
2. Occurrence multiparty system in Ukraine
Deepening democracy accompanied by separation of the political forces in society, active part in the party began to unite to win the state power and to keep it.
The emergence of new parties contributed substantially to the cancellation of October 24, 1990 sixth article of the Constitution in the RFA. which were defined position of "leading and directing role of the CPSU. Communist get rid of party political monopoly in society, lost the functions governance.
In Ukraine adopted a law which affirm the right of citizens to associate in political parties, other public organizations to participate in movements. In the Republic started to consist multiparty system.
In April 1990, place Congresses Ukrainian Republican Party (URP) based on Ukrainian Helsinki Union, which announced the dissolution, and Ukrainian Christian Democratic Party (UHDP).
In May, held a constituent assembly Social Democrats.
In June 1990 at the congress in Kyiv Ukrainian People's Democratic League transformed into Ukrainian People's Democratic Party. A few days later was found Kiev liberal-democratic union announced the establishment Ukrainian Peasant Democratic party (USDP).
Spring 1990 in Kiev held a founding congress Green Party of Ukraine (ROM) and Liberal Democrat Party (LDP). In Dnipropetrovsk occurred People's Party of Ukraine (NPU).
In December, the difference in two weeks appear Party of Democratic Revival of Ukraine and Democratic parties of Ukraine. Throughout the 1990-1991 biennium in Ukraine responded nearly 20 political parties.
New parties are usually formed around individual or groups of deputies in Parliament. Such parties have best start possible, for it could propagate its views from the podium Parliament.
Some parties created "under leader. Special group among the leaders of these parties and their asset were former members of the dissident movement.
Among the leaders new parties appeared and many of those who formerly was in the Communist party. Many of them are forced to review their life views, but there were those who have learned to simply and accurately –perelytsyuvavsya.
Almost all newly created parties were unable to determine its social base, and, in fact, had no such.
Orientation substantial part of parties to middle class population does not take into account the time structure of society. The emergence of some parties were not related so much of a response to public demand, as a consequence of their aspirations initiators of the "log" in politics.
Such parties organizational entities are rather artificial nature, as not kept on the political community, not on a stable social base, and Unity of other interests, such as financial, professional, etc.. Original group included the party, the differences between them can be detected only in titles.
Start-ups parties and public organizations differently assessed the political situation in Republic and determined their attitude to the national status of Ukraine.
By way of USSR and the creation of an independent state by the Ukrainian Republican Party. Democratic Party of Ukraine, the Green Party. People's Movement of Ukraine Ukrainian inter assembly and others.
Constituent PSA Congress in April 1990 in your program, declared that the main aim party with a Independent Ukrainian State.
The second Party Congress in June 1991 held an urgent debate on the issue on the forms of struggle for independence of Ukraine. Supporters of the moderate line, which followed L. Lukyanenko, made by the parliamentary form conceded the possibility of cooperation with "Sovereign communists" (So-called Communists, who conceded the possibility of Ukraine's sovereignty).
Radically minded delegates led by S. Khmara rejected any possibility of cooperation with the Communists, called for supporters from deputies leave Parliament and raise people "The peaceful democratic revolution."
Majority Delegates called for moderate line.
Ukrainian Peasant Democratic Party в June 1990 announced its creation mstoyu "Independent self- Ukrainian people's state ", utverdyatsya where different forms of ownership, market economy.
Congress Democratic Party of Ukraine in December 1990 declared rate of "Achievement Ukraine became independent and build it democratic and humane society.
Democratic Party rejected any form of federal system in the USSR. Congress expressed for Ukraine's withdrawal from the USSR.
Private Party not directly asked questions about the independence of Ukraine, but the requirements put forward introducing the rule of law of the republic, creating its own financial system, national armed forces, establishing independent connections Ukraine with foreign countries and so on.
To implement these and other requirements to be provided only Ukraine became independent.
There was group of Ukrainian parties who occupied moderate position.
Referring the political unpreparedness of the population, there is a strong position center the presence of conservative forces in the republic, they expressed for the update union contract and Ukraine's entry into Confederation as an independent sovereign States.
That position occupied Ukrainian Social-Democrats and Democratic Party Revival of Ukraine (PDVU).
Last advocated the creation of a sovereign democratic state, establishing freedom and social justice. It offered a collective agreement on the Elimination of inter-USSR and the creation European-Asian Economic Cooperation.
Several emerging parties, including – Ukrainian National Party. Ukrainian national-democratic. Ukrainian Republican party –trying to implement so-called "Congress Way to independence Republic.
For this purpose they held July 1, 1990 Kyiv Inter-partyAssembly. The Assembly called for a boycott of the Soviet state structures estimating them as a colonial imposed by Moscow, and proposed to create public committees, record to the citizenship of the Ukrainian People Republic.
Supporters this way of thought that if so be, more than 50 percent population of the USSR, then it will give reasons for convening National Congress citizens of Ukraine which will be the parliament, declare independence Ukraine and deliver this power the USSR Supreme Council.
Liberal Democrat Party of Ukraine (LSPU) its primary purpose in seeing protection of individual rights, and seven'ї as higher values of society.
Party favor of a free and independent Ukrainian state, that only the results of a national referendum may conclude an agreement with the other confederate states.
Group "sovereign communists" believed that Communist Party of Ukraine should be independent, and the republic have real sovereignty.
Such a position shared by many ordinary Communists, but they were not organized. Over time "Sovereign communists" filled the ranks Labor Congress of Ukraine. Labour Party. Justice Party and others.
On the eve of independence Ukraine stood for the principle of the Communist "Soviet Federalism," under with which the republic would remain in the Union, but significantly expanded their law.
Supporters of this idea in October, 1991 created Socialist Party of Ukraine (SPU), which called for recognition sovereignty of Ukraine, causing its economic and political integration of land-us CIS.
There were parties that justify the idea association with the Slavic republics of Ukraine – Russia and Belarus.
Established August 7 1990. Party Slavic revival (PSV) their immediate goal proclaimed achieve full state independence of Ukraine. The ultimate goal PSV provided for the formation of an international organization Slavic countries, building "Joint Slavic House.
Software installation coincided with PSV the time position Civic Congress of Ukraine and Republican Movement of the Crimea.
The emergence of Ukraine in multiparty testified growth of political activity population, its ideological bundles.
One-party system and ideological monopoly in Ukraine began to disappear legitimate way without power fights and dangerous conflicts.
The vast majority of newly Parties in favor of democracy, sovereignty and independence of Ukraine, the evidence this interest in that republic joined the world civilization, practiced human values.
The emergence of new parties caused a significant blow to the monopoly of the CPSU (Communist Party) and created the preconditions for conquest republic sovereignty and independence.
Lytvyn. Ukraine Political Arena (Excerpt from books)
... In fact, in Ukraine there was multypartiynasystem with emphasis on the highly polarized, in other words - a real multi- brought to the absurd: in the presence of many parties with different political orientations, in including antisystem. Despite all the demonstrative activity, attempts to speak on behalf of the people and publish their interests by nationwide, the overwhelming majority of them at about the same impact in its minor dimension ...
Almost all of them and still can not define its social base, their electorate. Orientation significant part parties on the middle class does not include present structure of society and is suitable for the future unless ... Our socially differentiated society for party-building is not ready ...
Questions for document
1. As the author describes a multi-system, developed in Ukraine in the early 90's? Can you think, apply this characteristic to the modern multi-period in Ukraine?
2. What the author has in mind when talking about antisystem parties? How do you understand the concept of "antisystem Party?
Questions and Tasks
1. What evidence about loss of Communist Party political monopolies in the late 80 - on beginning 90 years?
2. What is evident crisis in the Communist Party of Ukraine?
3. What were the ways of forming new parties in Ukraine at the end 80 - Early 90's?
4. When formed "Democratic platform" in the CPU? From which position performed its supporters?
5. Explain that means "Congress way " the independence of Ukraine. Which party tried to act that way?
6. Explain the term "sovereign communists".
7. What is the significance of the emergence of new political parties for Ukraine's development?
8. Identify the chronological sequence of events:
- Creation of PSA and UHDP;
- cancellation sixth article of the Constitution of USSR;
- Creation PDVU;
- A Socialist.
9. What new political party formed in Ukraine at the turn 80-90's? Give them the characteristic to consider their application.
10. Give reasons for the collapse of the Communist Party of Ukraine.
11. Highlight conditions of emergence in multi- Ukraine in the late 80's - early 90's.
12. How do you think had the opportunity to reform Communist Party of Ukraine in conditions of perestroika? What could be this way reform?
13. Which ways of achieving the sovereignty of Ukraine, which offered Ukrainian party was most, promising? Give your point of view.
14. As You think could be achieved Ukraine's independence led independent of the Communist Party Communist Party Ukraine?