Subject V DECAY SOVIET UNION AND THE FORMATION OF INDEPENDENT UKRAINE
§ 21 Social and political LIFE OF UKRAINE in the 80's
1. Changes in senior party and state leadership after the death of Leonid Brezhnev
In the early 80's it became clear Soviet society that needs fundamental reform of all walks of life.
General public understand that drastic changes can begin only when coming to higher party and state offices of politicians, able to realistically assess the situation rethink old dogmas, refer to the experience of developed countries develop and implement new approaches to development.
Meanwhile Leonid Brezhnev in recent years his life has ceased to delve deeply into affairs of state. Instead of updating management personnel, allegations slogan stability training that is consistent interests of the party-state nomenclature.
With the death of Leonid Brezhnev in November 1982 transition began in the reorganization of the highest party-state leadership. Successor by Brezhnev was Yuri Andropov.
Its transient leadership characterized by attempts to strengthen the administrative and command system. Yuri Andropov was considered skilled Soviet politician, is well aware in the party-bureaucracy, able to make changes, but not managed to realize his intentions, as Secretary General of the CC CPSU was only two years.
When Yuri Andropov died, his place replaced A. Chernenko – supporter conservative bureaucratic regime that did not want reforms are needed country.
A growing alienation from the Communist Party people dropped its prestige in society. Sharply increased the population to distrust official authorities. The country was on the verge of the general political crisis.
2. Mikhail Gorbachev and searches way out of crisis
In March 1985 General Secretary of the CC CPSU Gorbachev became the youngest member at the time of the Politburo. His election testified departure from the then ruling traditions when occupy higher positions, usually an older footage.
Mikhail Gorbachev S. (1931р.н.) - Soviet political and statesman. In 1966-1968 - first secretary of the Stavropol City Committee of the CPSU. In 1968-1970 - the second, from April 1970 - First Secretary Stavropol edge of the CPSU. In 1978-985 - Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee. Since 1980 - Member CC, from March 1985 - Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee, since 1988 - Chairman Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR in 1990 - President of the USSR. From December 1991 - President of the International Foundation for Socio-Economic and Political Studies (Gorbachev Foundation"). Nobel Peace Prize (1990).
New leader, based on innovative wing in top management tried to carry out reforms so as not to change socio-economic and political system, and only update it, keeping in the planned economy, a strict centralization of power and domination of the Communist Party.
Нand April (1985) CPSU Central Committee plenum was announced need radical changes in the economy, social and spiritual life.
Such a course of time was named "Realignment" and consisted to Zac-lykiv "Acceleration, "Democratization" and "glasnost". Updates planned society conduct a series of measures introduced to central management and strictly controlled its structures on the ground.
"Perestroika" began with the economy, attempts to withdraw it from the crisis and ensure effective development.
Central Authorities under the traditional optimistic slogans and created a widely touted various long-term programs that focus on accelerated socio-economic development.
However conceived reforms, although called radical, did not could lead to radical changes.
It was assumed, in particular, widely use advances in science and technology, enhance activities of producers based on the law on employee groups, to implement a system State acceptance produced products, partly to reorganize the management structure. Priority attention paid to the engineering industry, its planned modernization.
Economic reform was to reorganize administration of the principles cost accounting, self-support and self-financing. Expanding law firms lease and began implementation of corporate entities created cooperatives in the trade and industry.
Success was associated with acceleration decentralization Management national economy. Integral element of this reform in Ukraine was to be introduced by April 1988 with general control scheme, providing for transition of enterprises from a command to Economic methods of management.
New management was put task significantly increase productivity through new technology, technology, international achievements in this direction. Meanwhile, the 80-level application of science and technology, technology in the USSR, including fatigue and in Ukraine, was ten times lower than in U.S., Japan and Germany.
Based on the accelerated transformation economy is also expected to solve social problems.
With this mstoyu at the state level taken numerous programs, including: Food, Social pereustroyu villages, residential etc..
Planned intensive expansion production of consumer goods and the volume of paid services to population strengthening logistics major tovarovyroblyayuchyhindustries.
In addressing social problems had a significant role to play Enterprise and local authorities.
However, applications were again declared targeted to distant future and therefore mostly worn declarative character. In particular, convened in February 1986 XXVII Congress of the CPSU approved housing program to ensure every Soviet family until 2000 separate flat. Program for scientific and economic relations was unfounded, its implementation is not ensured adequate resources.
Socio-economic reforms, proclaimed by Mikhail Gorbachev, did not produce tangible results.
The very model transformations in konstruyuvalasya center, without regard to urgent needs and capabilities of the regions to implement these transformations were allocated small material and financial resources.
And most importantly, kept the departmental dictate so, for example, transfers of undertakings to become self destructive for the economy. It remained a plan and he dovodyvsya centrally from above, and it not encourage managers to increase profits by efficiency and quality of work, and pushed them to higher prices for goods products As a result, this led to the complete neglect of the interests consumer, uncontrolled growth of the monetary costs of production development.
Gradually the central leadership come understanding that economic reforms should be conducted in parallel with at least some, even limited political changes, with liberalization of the political regime.
Therefore, at the January (1987) Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee spoke about conservatism, criticized those who would not abrogate the principles and pushing to the forefront is not accelerating, and democratization social life.
At such a change in policy emphases largely influenced by mass popular movements and fronts, informal organizations, emerging in all regions country. They demanded sovereignty of the republics, democratization electoral system, solving the national question, not a superficial, and radical reforms.
3. Management policy Ukraine during the years of perestroika
Occurred gradually in the republics liberalization of political life.
Since 1986 produced at will dissidents who have been isolated from society. In prisons, concentration camps and exile has returned to Ukraine over 300 political prisoners. Among them V. Chornovil M. Horyn, later L. Lukyanenko. Since the Criminal Code of Ukraine were deleted pages on which they judged people for their ideological beliefs or even the critical word to the party and government.
New phenomenon of social life in "Perestroika" was declared the top "Glasnost", that evolved into the freedom of speech.
The government was forced to cancel on censorship media. This demanded democratic forces in the republics there was a considerable number of pozatsenzurnyh publications newspapers and magazines. Ceased "Jamming" foreign radio stations.
Thanks to the "publicity" people began to receive unbiased information and make your own conclusions about events of public life, society nazrivalo division of political forces.
Democratic forces demanded that the government Recovery started in the Khrushchev "thaw" Rehabilitation of Repressed Persons and undeservedly forgotten names.
In Ukraine, the second half of 1988 began rehabilitation of those who were arbitrarily sentenced to 30-40's and early 50 years. To coordinate the work was created special Republican committee.
Already at the beginning of August 1989 was rehabilitated more than 59 thousand people who are unfairly affected by the repression totalitarian regime.
However, the work in this direction carried out inconsistently. Continued to considered cases in court case another 370 thousand people. The authorities did not respond to the demands of the public rehabilitate people who were persecuted by the authorities and were sentenced and 60 to 80 years.
In June 1988 in central Guide to intensify people's idea and use of to strengthen his party power.
The idea was the gradual transfer power from the party apparatus to the authorities. It was decided to combine positions of secretaries of party committees with the position of heads (Provinces, cities, districts). Planned to skip the local party leaders through election order to ensure unity of party and state power.
But partaparat who initially agreed with this decision, soon became afraid that voters may not support the party range of secret elections, and thus achieved the abolition of this innovation.
Then it was announced that elections delegates of the Congress of People's Deputies of the USSR and the proposed new electoral law.
The first time in Soviet times the law contained elements alternativeness, providing for election of deputies from several candidates. But at the same time, gave a third party for representatives nomenclature, as well as organizations that were influenced Communist Party. As a result, much of the deputies did not elected by voters and actually meant the party apparatus.
In March –May 1989 was elected the delegates of the Congress of People's Deputies of the USSR It were the first free elections in Soviet times. The composition of deputies, along with communist nomenklatura were elected representatives of democratic forces.
In May of that year he began his work First Congress of People's Deputies of the USSR. Ukraine MPs including community representatives was 321 person, including 50 were supporters of democratic reform. Voters in part use available opportunities to express distrust candidates partaparatu conservative, particularly expressed distrust head of the Kiev Executive Committee, the Black Sea Fleet commander and Southern Group of Forces. Then But lost in the election first secretaries of the four regional committees of the Communist Party of Ukraine: Voroshylovhrad, Transcarpathian, Lviv, Chernihiv, and First Secretary Kiev City Committee.
Gorbachev, the author of all "the restructuring"Processes also was perceived ambiguously. "With Who do you Mikhail? " – This was the slogan banners at numerous rallies in those years.
Summer 1989 the arena of political fight out labor movement.
In terms of social tension particularly active declared themselves miners. their strike –the first open for decades has covered the most important mining regions Union: Vorkuta and Kuzbass, Ukraine – Donbass and the Lviv-Volyn coal basin.
Miners expressed distrust bureaucratic unions. The government had to admit fair economic demands and the strike has taken steps to meet them. After recovery Strike Committees of the mines of Donbass not dismissed, they were one of the forms of social and political activity of workers.
Miners strike showed that the working movement politicized, it no longer trust the union leader, that represented the official party nomenclature.
The restructuring processes in Ukraine generally coincide with the All-social transformations.
Ukrainian authorities are steadily adhered to policies of the central leadership. Gorbachev himself, like his predecessors, is well aware of the importance of Ukraine to the Union until the last day his leadership closely followed the situation in the republic, trying anything keep it in the USSR.
Becoming Secretary, he has in June 1985 arrived in the republic, demonstrating in speeches and conversations its commitment to the ideas of the integrity of the USSR.
Changes took place in Ukraine, substantially behind the corresponding processes in other republics, especially the Baltic. While they performed changes stock higher party leadership, first secretary of the Central Committee of Communist Party of Ukraine until the fall of 1989 remained V. Shcherbytsky who had a reputation conservative.
Entourage V. Shcherbytskyi gave advantage command-administrative methods of management, abide centralism and strict regulation all spheres of life. Development Challenges independence of Ukraine, according to Mr. Shcherbytsky did not exist. Ukrainian people, he argued, satisfiedsocialist state and the achieved true national revival.
Nothing in the politics of the Communist Party of Ukraine and the heirs of W. Shcherbytskyi V. Ivashko, which initially showed full continuity of policy predecessor.
With its decades of monopoly situation in the Ukrainian society, almost three millionth Communist Party of Ukraine does not was prepared to work in conditions of competition, which began to create her democratic forces, particularly People's Movement, the Ukrainian Helsinki Union, Association "Green World" etc..
Governing party elite did not want listen to the voice of the critically-minded Communists, who under the perestroika suggested that the Communist Party of Ukraine withdrew from the Communist Party, declared its independence and pursuing a policy in the interests of the Ukrainian people. Party Leadership Ukraine turned down such proposals and continued to follow the traditional course that formed in Moscow and did not take into account national peculiarities and needs urgent Republic.
The first steps of political democratization system did not bring significant changes in the legal status of Soviet republics. Therefore, late 80's requirements for democratic forces to ensure real independence republics intensified.
In November 1988, State proclaimed sovereignty Estonia. On state sovereignty is also claimed Lithuania, Latvia, Azerbaijan, Moldova. June 12, 1990 was adopted a Declaration on State Sovereignty Russia.
16 July 1990 Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Republic Parliament adopted Rada of Ukraine. Proclamation of sovereignty Soviet republics was called "Parade sovereignty. "
"Perestroika" is not achieved the goals. She led the country out of economic and political crisis, did not provide stable development of society. Instead, it showed that the current system does not undergo fundamental reform.
The reasons for this were unitary nature of the centralized state, the existence of all-business complex, saving administrative-command methods of management.
Moreover, the initial period "Perestroika" was sometimes lost features because the conditions of existence of strong party and government could be held radical reform. However, the absence of clear and expanded programs "Perestroika" Reformation core weakness within the ruling party were prevented make a radical transformation.
"Restructuring" has not achieved the goals and that its proponents addressed the problem, which excluded one one, namely: to combine the independence of enterprises with centralized planning, political pluralism with a monopoly of the CPSU leadership, sovereignty republics to preserve the state union.
Life required the implementation of real steps in solving urgent tasks, "The restructuring" intensified processes of democratic forces in Ukraine, which started advocating real sovereignty of the republic.
Lytvyn. Political Arena Ukraine (excerpt from the book)
Firmness ruling elite of Ukraine became one of the important reasons for spreading the allegations: Republic - Reserve stagnation. And indeed, although the declaration of "top" of course "Perestroika people began to look at many things through different eyes, see something not previously noticed, and doubt that until recently also granted, but is a special demand on individuals a real chance everyone feel really conscious of historical figures, for Ukraine some time (almost three years) was characterized by predominance of the executive "Syndrome", and for motivation to action team rules "from above". It thus created obstacles to the progressive tendencies of the release consciousness of the old ideas of "leaders" and "screw", "leaders" and "mass" and history.
The government of Ukraine strictly carried out "maneuvers" Center for restructuring, with a history of V.Sohrin distinguishes four periods: the first - March 1985 - January 1987, held under the slogan "more socialism", the second - 1987-1988 years, had a new leitmotif - "more democracy", the third - 1989-1990 years - period of separation and division within the camp of restructuring; fourth stage coincided with 1991 year and marked a sharp change in the balance of power in favor of radical reform groups, they came to power and the beginning connection ideological and political revolution of radical socio-economic transformations.
Questions for document
1. What arguments cites Lytvyn, Ukraine calling during "perestroika" Reserve stagnation? Do you agree with this assertion? Arguments his opinion.
2. Analyze reproduced in the text of the periodization of perestroika in the USSR. Can you believe, this periods apply to the performance times of "perestroika" in Ukraine? Try out my own periods of this stage of Ukrainian history.
DECLARATION OF State Sovereignty UKRAINE. Was adopted in 1916 UKRAINIAN SSR July 1990 (Excerpt)
Parliament Ukrainian SSR, expressing the will of the people of Ukraine, seeking to create democratic society, based on the comprehensive needs of the rights and freedoms, respecting the national rights of all people, providing for full political, economic, social and spiritual development of Ukraine, identifying the need in Law with a view to establish sovereignty and self- people of Ukraine, Ukraine declares state sovereignty as the rule, independence, integrity and indivisibility of power within its territory and equality in external relations.
I. Self-determination Ukrainian nation.
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic as sovereign nation state in developing the existing boundaries to implementation Ukrainian nation of its inalienable right to self-determination.
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic protects and defends the national independence of the Ukrainian people.
Any violence against the national independence of Ukraine from political parties, NGOs, other groups or individuals punished by law.
Citizens Of all nationalities of the people of Ukraine. The people of Ukraine are sole source of state authority in the Republic. Authority of the people of Ukraine realized on the basis of the Constitution of the Republic as directly and through people deputies elected to Parliament and local councils of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.
On behalf of people can act only Parliament of the Ukrainian SSR. No political parties, public organizations, other group or individual can represent all people of Ukraine.
Questions for document
1. As disclosed notion of state sovereignty and democracy in the document?
2. What position Declaration, in your opinion, testified to the departure of Ukraine from the Soviet model of the state? What is the historical significance of the Declaration?
Questions and Tasks
1. What changes have taken place in the party-state leadership Soviet Union after the death of Leonid Brezhnev?
2. What economic reforms took place during "Perestroika"?
3. How can you describe the leadership of the republic back "Perestroika" – as conservative or progressive?
4. When adopted the Declaration on State Sovereignty Ukraine?
5. That is "rebuilding"?
6. That such "publicity"?
7. Why elections in March 1989 called first free elections in USSR?
8. Identify the chronological sequence of events:
- First Congress of People's Deputies of the USSR;
- adoption of the Declaration on State Sovereignty Ukraine;
- Activation labor movement in Ukraine.
9. Give a description of major areas of policy "Perestroika".
10. What position on the proclaimed reforms took Ukraine's leadership in times of perestroika?
11. Describe the political situation, named as "parade sovereignty. "
12. Identify causes strengthening of centrifugal tendencies and USSR at the time of perestroika.
13. Think small or "perestroika in the Soviet Union a real chance to achieve the goals set by its initiators?
14. Representatives of some political parties claim that the "realignment" caused the collapse of the USSR. Do you agree and this statement? Point their arguments.
15. Why do you think, "restructuring" could not bring only to cosmetic, superficial changes planned as the Soviet leadership?
16. What, in your opinion, can be explained by the fact that changes in Ukraine during the "thaw" and "adjustment" occurred more slowly than in elsewhere in the USSR?