§ 19 Increase the crisis in education, science and culture
After the change of party and state leadership Soviet Union in October 1964 the reform process in education, occurred in the times of Khrushchev, stopped for a while, but eventually reform Education was continued.
In particular, since 1966 began widespread introduction mandatory ten-year education And she introduced not only in school, aj in secondary special education and vocational training.
However, increased centralization management education. In 1969 was established Ministry of Education USSR which assumed the functions of a number of Ministry of Education USSR, the former significantly limited the independent existence of the latter.
A salient feature of 60-70's was politicization of the educational process. In addition, since 1968 was restored military training in universities and since 1972 it became compulsory in all secondary schools of the republic.
In 1984 Parliament approved the USSR "The main directions of reform of secondary and vocational schools, that konkretyzuvaly education policy of the state "under developed socialism." According to this document increased noticeably ideological school training, but continued to occupy important issue of labor education, students learning specific knowledge of natural, economic and social sciences.
Quantitative indicators of overall Education in Ukraine in 60-80-ies were generally positive. Yet felt that every year education level of secondary school graduates steadily declining. Especially low was the level of training of rural schools.
Meanwhile, severe economical problems requiring constant updating of the leading sectors of the economy, science, Education and Culture of highly trained specialists.
To somehow solve the complex problem, in the 60-80-ies was significantly strengthened material base of universities, built new academic buildings, dormitories, dining, sports complexes for students.
On the basis of Donetsk, Simferopol and Zaporozhye Pedagogical Institute universities were created. In addition, the republic was established new institutions. As a result, 60-80-ies twice increased the total number of students. According increased and the number of specialists educated in the USSR national economy: in 1964 their there were 2.3 million, then in 1985 7.3 million people.
But despite these very serious quantitative indicators, the problem of qualified personnel in Ukraine remained sharp enough.
A considerable number of places in universities Republic held Students from the socialist countries and countries that have evolved. Yes in 1971 only in universities and colleges Kharkov trained more than 2 thousand students from 22 countries.
On the other hand, challenge continued quality of specialists. She is still in general was low, especially in correspondence and evening offices. In the early 80-ies, because of the increased demands scientific and technological revolution, it became particularly evident the level of training specialists in the USSR as a whole and the USSR was inferior to world standards.
2. Development Science
Senior Research Scientist Centre of Ukraine in 60-80-ies Republican Academy of Sciences was headed by famous scientist B. Paton. AN USSR consisted of three sections: physical, technical and mathematical, chemical and biochemical technology and social sciences. They determined main directions of research scientists.
In academia steadily increased number researchers. While in the early 60's they numbered 3.6 thousand, in 1985 – is 15,3 thousand people. During those same years the number of doctors and Ph.D. in the republic increased 5.5 times.
The achievements of domestic science in this period were significant. In particular, at this time was a unique melting installation "Hurricane" to study plasmas and controlled thermonuclear reactions.
In possession of Ukrainian scientists 1966 was the biggest in Europe linear accelerator electrons.
Theoretical development of mathematicians used to calculate orbits of artificial satellites.
National researchers have been opened mechanism of transmission of genetic information that was of great importance for the problems of heredity.
Cybernetics Institute, headed by academicians V. Glushkov, and subsequently В.Mikhalevich was leading in the USSR on a systems design computers.
Accelerating technological implementation promising results of basic research contributed scientific and technical complexes and engineering centers, created by the Academy of Sciences. The most powerful there were Electric Institute, the Institute of Cybernetics, Institute superhard materials.
Ukrainian scientists have for the first time in the world practice offered brand new vysokotryvkohoiron, beznikelevoyi corrosion-resistant steel et al. Through basic and applied scientific developments geologists in Ukraine of the capacity development of mineral resources.
To better research continually improved organizational principles connections between science and production.
Especially popular was the conclusion commercial contracts research institutions with production teams. This form of collaboration between scientists and producers bring significant benefits result, during the 1970-1985 biennium was introduced into production over 13 thousand scientific research scientists of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. It gave tangible economic effect.
However, the practical implementation of scientific development was difficult. This is because contemporary economic system was not focused on the implementation of advanced ideas and research technologies. They found its practical expression only after applying power administrative measures, orders and instructions "from above".
Strict planning usually pushed business executives in search of more light, extensive routes and methods which brought quick results, rather than resorting to the perspective of intensive production development.
As a result, much of the interesting and promising scientific developments and remained not implemented in practice or subsequently found its way by outside the Soviet Union.
The only exception here was only development for the military-industrial complex and global research. They had an unquestionable national importance for Soviet countries tried to maintain its status of "superpower".
Enough difficult was for 60 to 80 years and for humanities scholars. Instead of a cult – Stalin –others came – Khrushchev and Brezhnev.
In favor of each academic forced to "do" science, that accommodating exalted one or another regime. Mandatory elements parts of research social scientists of that time were called "Class approach" and malicious and hostile criticism of socialism bourgeois-nationalist views and concepts.
However, despite total control governing bodies and ideological censorship, some Ukrainian scientists could publish valuable for its objectivity and fairness of the research.
Among them should be called work Michael Braychevsky, devoted origin of Rus, the emergence of Kyiv and other ancient cities. High ratings deserves the attention of his polemical work "Annexation or unification", in which deals with events of interest.
In it, in particular, was subjected reasoned criticism of the official interpretation of the Ukrainian-Russian agreement 1654 and attempt to objectively assess the work of managers Cossack Ukraine. This work was written during the Khrushchev "thaw" for "Ukrainian historical journal, but has appeared only in 1972, and then – abroad.
Extremely valuable for development historical studies of domestic work were also О.Apanovych, in which truth told about the history of Ukrainian Cossacks.
In 1979, completed work on known historical and philosophical works "Letter to Russian and Ukrainian historians " Ю.Badzo, where the author investigated origin of three Slavic nations – Ukrainian, Russian and Belarus. True work on the history of the Ukrainian people and its culture prepared at this time Є.Pronyuk, Dzyuba other national historians, philosophers and literary critics.
In addition, 60 to 80 years of research teams of social scientists created such multi-publication, as History Ukrainian SSR. "History of Ukrainian Art, History Ukrainian literature. " Dictionary of Ukrainian language " в This period saw the light "Ukrainian Soviet Encyclopedia. " "The Soviet Encyclopedia of History of Ukraine et al.
However, not all real issues events and phenomena found in objective coverage of these journals. That is why these fundamental Labour have not received a positive assessment of the scientific community, especially foreign.
Not all departments of the Academy of Sciences SSR worked effectively. Some were made of situational reasons, without good reason. It is clear that the "activities" such scientific centers did not work, but only rozporoshuvala scientific potential and led to wasteful public funds.
In a monopolization of science group scientists, administrators Moscow and Leningrad even minor displays of dissent and opposition research Among Ukrainian scientists immediately prydushuvalysya.
Many of them had been deprived opportunity to engage in scientific work в During ideological "cleansing" and political persecution 70 years.
3. Literature and Art
Ukrainian literature 60-80's was adequately represented by one of the great works of ideological inspirer of the movement "Sixties" Honchar ("Cathedral." Beach Love "," Black Gully, "" Your star and etc.)..
Especially publicity and numerous discussions in Ukraine caused his novel "Coboron, In particular, first secretary of the Dnipropetrovsk regional party committee О.Vatchenko recognize themselves in one з negative novel, in this period of new ideas and forms also enriched art M. Stelmaha ("Truth and Lie", "Thinking of you") P. Zagrebelny ("Miracle", "Crackdown"). I. Bilyk ("Sword Ates»). Huge interest has been in the national historical novel reader Yu Mushketyka. R. Ivanchenko, R. Fedorov.
Information Dnipropetrovsk regional committee Party first secretary of the Communist Party Central Committee P. J. Shelest assessment of novel Honchar "Cathedral" at a meeting of party organizations of the region (May 15, 1968)
Communists in svoyh involves speech podverhly principle for a new novel criticism Honchar "Cathedral." While the unfortunately, but in many ways vozmuschenye topics that zrelыy master hudozhestvennoho words author of famous produced a wide reader "Znamenostsы», «Taurus "," Tronka"" Man and arms in novom novel Cathedral otoshёl from Pravda life and in Kryvyi illustrates mirror work, and bыt duhovnыy peace and metallurhov kolhoznykov Dnieper, provёl some kind of hostile vodorazdel between leaders and masses subъektyvystskyprotyvopostavyl dalёkoe proshloe modernity ...
In the assembly of some Individual communists vozmuschalys zahvalyvanyem novel to some Kiev and by local critics particularly in the newspaper "Literary Ukraine"Vыrazhaly mistrust Gonchar as a Communist and head of the Writers' Union of Ukraine.
Questions for document
1. What a novel Honchar caused heavy criticism Dnipropetrovsk regional committee of the Communist Party?
2. Why resentment of party has caused not only the novel Oh, potters, but also support some part of the Ukrainian writer intellectuals?
Vitality of modern Ukrainian poetry convincingly demonstrated new collection of poetry D. Pavlychko Ivan Drach, V. Kolomiets B. Oleinik.
Immense popularity and the genuine love of the people enjoyed the songs written in words Malyshka ("Song of the napkin") M. Weaver (Marichka), M. Synhayivskoho ("Marigolds"), D. Patychka (Two Colors), M. Opportunities ("Steppe, Steppe), O. Pushyk (" We must go to fall ") and many others.
True talent Civil unbreakable will and courage in these times found young poet, literary critic and from Donetsk V. Stus, great poetry who was persecuted by the world not seen at home, but for abroad.
Notwithstanding constant harassment and ideological pressure from the authorities, continued work known writers, publicists Rudenko, G.Snegirev. E. Sverstyuk.
Real poetry a masterpiece of poetic romance L. Kostenko"Maria Churay" appeared in 1980
Creative works Ukrainian writers, poets and playwrights of this time showed increased their attention not only historical, but also to contemporary themes. their new work once again confirmed that domestic fiction is not at all inferior to that created by abroad.
Art Gonchara L. Kostenko, Yu Mushketyka, D. Patychka played a leadHuge role in preserving national traditions and education national identity of the new Ukrainian generation.
Next to the literature, through the thick ice stagnation and prohibitions, overcoming the artificial barriers, opening the way to a new ideas, traditions, innovation in the domestic film, music, visual and theater.
Prominent figures in Ukrainian cinema in this period were Ю.Illyenko S. Paradjanov, Kira Muratova, LA Osyka, Savchenko, L. Bykov, I. Mikolaichuk et al.
In the republic originated a new trend Film – well known "Poetic cinema". The biggest success (but, unfortunately, especially abroad) among the films the genre fell out on the fate of the film Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors director S. Paradzhanov. This picture put on the same story Kotsyubyns'kyi impressed spectators extraordinary depth of penetration into the essence of national life.
Unforgettable be left in the home cinema and film Yu Illienko "White with black bird sign ", Which tells about becoming Soviet power in Bukovina. Triumphant success This pictures on VII International Film Festival in Moscow where It was noted Gold medal for decades Soviet movies in Paris and Berlin, proved that Ukrainian cinema has achieved international level.
In 70 years huge popular movies director Leonid Bykov ("Go into Battle just" elderly. "Bata-Ata – Were Soldiers ") Л.Osyka ("Anxious month in September and I. Mykolaychuk («Babylon-XX»).
But it should recognize next to undeniable advances, new positive national traits which are manifested its development of Ukrainian cinema in the 60-80-ies, in general home cinema was in a state of crisis.
As long processes of denationalization has been deleted base screen art – National kinodramaturhiya. From Ukrainian word screen disappeared. Films that were created in Ukraine, the vast most were far from the national perspective.
Certain positive changes observed at this time in the development of dramatic art.
Known far outside Ukraine are Academic Drama Theatre. I. Frank in Kiev them. Shevchenko in Kharkiv and them. Zankovetskoy in Lviv, Kyiv Opera and Ballet them. Shevchenko, Lviv Opera and Ballet. Franko, Kyiv Russian Drama. Lesia Ukrainian.
Fruitfully in the republic work, enriching the theatrical culture, the brilliant masters of the stage N. Uzhviy, Canada and A.SolovyanenkoA. Mokrenko, B. Stupka, A. Rogovtseva, V.Dalskyy et al. Creative possibilities Ukrainian theater expanded through the creation of theaters, which in Republic was more than two hundred.
However, as cinema, theater and gradually Ukrainian lost its national color and uniqueness, with him actively vytisnyalasya Ukrainian, resulting rusyfikuvalosya Ukrainian dramatic art. Almost all Regional Music and Drama and the Theatre of Musical Comedy switched to staging performances in Russian. In higher education institutions of the republic, kultpratsivnykiv which trained personnel, the vast majority of subjects taught in Russian. Specialists out of them, were far ox problems of national and cultural renaissance of Ukraine.
Although for the sake of fairness it should be noted that Ukrainian theater artists were not the brightest or representatives Ukrainian intelligentsia: they are usually talking to each other Ukrainian, wore clothing with the elements of national dress, in short, respect the Ukrainian national traditions, while the remaining intelligentsia Ukraine mostly succumbed Russification, estimating it as a sign of its own education, belonging to a higher stratum of society.
Process Development Ukrainian music was characterized by improvement of all its genres, creating new operas, operettas, ballets, symphonies and songs.
With operas were most noticeable "Taras Shevchenko" and "Yaroslav the Wise" G. Mayboroди, "Mama," Vij ""Shelmenko-batman» В.Scenes, "Stolen Happiness" Ю.Meitus, "Forest Song" В.Kireyka, "Nazar Stodolya» A. Dankevych, "Bearers" A. Bilash et al. In these years in Ukraine is a whole constellation of great opera singers and singing: Canada and E. Smith, M. Condreabale, A. Mokrenko, A.Soloveinenko, D. Petrynenko G.Tsypola and many others.
Far beyond Ukraine became known National Honoured Academic Ukrainian Folk Choir. G. Ropes. The State Academic Choir "Dumka", State Bandura Academic Choir of Ukraine, Cherkassy Folk Choir. Gutsulsky and Bukovina ensemble. Polessky Folk Choir "Lonok" and several others. Best Songs A. Bilash, І.Shamo, G. Maiboroda, A. Filipchenko, Skorikov sang almost all of Ukraine.
>During this period there were flashes unique, multi-faceted talents of young composer, born in Bukovina V. Ivasyuka. Concluding verse structure to own the same musical works, he showed great talent and to the music, and poetry. His great song "I'll go to the distant mountains, "Red Rue". "Fountain" were popular far beyond Ukraine. From Light arms V. Ivasyuka began a brilliant career of young talented Singing S. Rotaru V. Zinkevicha, N. Yaremchuk.
Since its creative growth also experienced Ukrainian choreography.
Were put new Performance: Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors V.Kireyka, "Stone host V.Scenes, "Princess Olga "E.Stankovic, Kyiv National Anthem "Skorikov et al. Immense popularity at that time became well-known groups as State Dance Ukraine. Virsky P., and folk ensembles "Yatran" from Kirovograd. "Chornobryvets" with Mironovka, Kyiv region, "Darnichanka" from Kyiv. They demonstrated an ongoing emotional power and perfection Ukrainian choreographic art.
In the art 60-80's prominently seated subject of national history, creative work of the people.
These masterpieces of art created at this time. І.Zadorozhniy, M.Khmelko, M God, T. Yablonsky, W. Poltavets, M. Kasyanov et al.
During this period achieved outstanding creative achievements of famous artists such as sculptor and painter І.Gonchar, artists A. Gorsky, J.Semikina, O.Zalyvakha, G.Sevruk, I. Kulik, Mr. Melnichenko. Most characteristic features of their work were high professionalism, new ideas, national color.
Well. A. PaintingZalyvakha
Especially popular in Ukraine used the works of folk artists Pryimachenko M., K. blond, T Paty, G. Veres, G.Vasylyschuk.
Unfortunately, due to the fact that many kinds of traditional folk art of the Republic were in decline, such talented artists is the only one.
Questions and Tasks
1.Hto of the outstanding Ukrainian scientists worked 60-80's?
2. What are the achievements of Ukrainian writers in the 60 - 80th years, you know?
3. Which famous Ukrainian film directors working in 60-80's?
4. The heyday of creativity which Ukrainian composers accounted for 60-80's?
5. What new compositions enriched in 60-80th years, the Ukrainian literature?
6. Name the most famous Ukrainian film director films Paradzhanov S., Y. Illienko. What is the direction of cinema they represent?
7. What teams music and choreography were widely known in the 60-80's?
8. What were the manifestations of Russification of the Ukrainian theater Art in the 60-80's?
9. Describe the problems that existed in development of public education in the 60 SSR-80's. Identify the causes of their appearance.
10. Give a description of science in 60-80's. That impede the effective introduction of modern scientific achievements?
11. What was the controversy of humanitarian Sciences of Ukraine? What were they caused?
12. What are the consequences for Ukraine's economy had low percentage use in the manufacture of inventions and achievements of modern science?
13. What, in your opinion, was caused by significant Russification artistic life of Ukraine?
14. Do you think 60-80's were period of decline or rise of Ukrainian culture?