Post andV UKRAINE IN THE PERIOD Escalation of the crisis of the Soviet system/ 1965-1985 gg /
§ 16 Political and ideological CRISIS OF
1. Neostalinizm and Ukraine
У October 1964 was a change of party leadership of the USSR –instead of First Secretary Nikita Khrushchev to the CPSU Central Committee was elected Leonid Brezhnev.
Personnel rearrangements that occurred after the October plenum of the Central Committee, showed turn from reformism to visible, partisan conservatism, to some extent even prostalinskoho sample. But this trend during the Brezhnev leadership has manifested itself not immediately.
First L.Brezhnev were fixed only some so-called "Voluntarist moves "in the activities "Great reformer". But soon was evident that Leonid Brezhnev put forward the slogan "Stability" actually means normal rejection of any attempt to commit radical changesThat it is empowered to satisfy conservative Sit.
"Brezhnev period " Ukraine's history was the period of partial resuscitation Stalin administrative-command system, the period of social and economic stagnation.
On the other hand, this period was a time of active search progressive forces of society by the Soviet system and update youdoing it with Deep Crisis condition.
Neostalinizm Policy Leonid Brezhnev detected in the USSR in new wave Political repression against dissidents, first of all advocates the idea of national revival and sovereignty Ukraine.
Already in August 1965 in certain cities of the republic has beenance arrests, because of who were detained about 30 people from environment "Sixties." Most They had brought with traditional accusation в anti-Soviet agitation and propaganda. "
Spring 1966 in the course of legal processes for 'anti-Soviet " different terms deprivation will received 20 people. In Mordovian camps were: scientists –take Michael and Bohdan Horyn, workers and university teachers Michael Osadchy, Yevgeniya Kuznetsova, Valentin Moroz, artist Athanasius Zalypala, workers Ivan gel and Anatoly Shevchuk engineers Alexander Martynenko, and John Rusin, teacher Michael Lake et al.
Along with open repressive actions Ukraine in the second half of the 60's unfolded active "prevention Work those who supported and compassion "antyradyanschykam. This local power oriented "closed list" of the CC CPU, which was given justify repressive measures carried out and was asked objective to enhance "educational" work with the liberal intelligentsia. In accordance with the document in the country were generally open caucus with the public, pas which condemned the criminal acts "Renegades". Latter that personally perelichuvalys у letter CC (About 30 people.), To "education." Liberated from work, excluded from the party and Komsomol driven з institutions. With all harassment and subjected their families.
A wave of arrests and prosecutions that swept In Ukraine 1965-1966 biennium, showed a change political rate Soviet leadership and was inspired in the republic with it Federal center. where events unfolded as the similar scenario.
It should be noted that the range of repressive action in Ukraine was much greater than in other regions of the USSR. Ukrainian leadership on led Shelest, as always, carefully and obediently executed instructions received from above, while not was just interested in such developments in the republic.
Significant changes were observed in ideological sphere. Ukrainian media have been filled Articles, against "Bourgeois ideology and "Ukrainian burzhuazfoot nationalism.
Intensified censorship was real "cleaning" newspapers, magazines, publishing houses, academic institutions humanities. These events remind largely already known in Ukraine Stalin's ideological "Cleansing" 40-50-ies However, the repressive measures 60 years after their significant scalebut inferior Stalin.
But social and political life of Ukraine Brezhnev period characterized by not only increasing persecution of dissidents. were there and manifestations so called inertia "Thaw" that are reflected in mass protests by "Sixties."
In particular, 4 September 1965 Cinema in Kiev "Ukraine" to premiere S. Paradzhanov Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors with a sharp condemnation of repression that took place in Ukraine were Yuri BadzoIvan Dziuba, Vasyl Stus and Vyacheslav Chornovil.
Hundreds of famous Ukrainian figures Culture and Science, the ordinary employees, workers and students expressed their angry resentment of political repression 1965-1966 biennium, which is reflected in the collective letters of protest addressed to the government –Leonid Brezhnev, O.Kosygin, M.Podgorny. These documents were published in "samizdat" convey abroad. their authors are hardly persecuted by the authorities.
Terms and Notions
"Samizdat" - In 1960-1980-ies attempt of the intelligentsia in the Soviet Union despite the official ban and proceedings without the approval of the authorities to produce and distribute literature, publicist and others. works protesting the terror and comprehensive State control in the printed word.
A characteristic manifestation of the consequences of "thaw" events were May 22, 1967 in KievWhere a spontaneous protest against the ban REMEMBERING Shevchenko the monument by the representatives of the Great Kobzar metropolitan intellectuals and students.
Party leadership headed by the republic with Shelest, supporting in general the policy of the USSR leadership was not against sincere desire to use the nationally conscious Ukrainian intelligentsia in personal gain – against the Federal Centre for Extension their power.
Some progress in this direction were after a series of measures to raising the status of Ukrainian language and introducing it in training process of universities of the country. It is possible that this initiative and permit Republican party leadership in November 1966 at the V Congress Writers of Ukraine was set up very sharply language problem, its principal and the discussion was also notable event of that time socio-cultural life of the republic.
Another manifestation of the echo of "thaw" in Ukraine was the appearance in 1969 Book the First Secretary of Central Committee of Communist Party of Ukraine Shelest "Our Soviet Ukraine." The book is characterized by fairly moderate national motives, but it still caused strong discontent and even anger from union leaders.
Shelest Peter Y. (1908-1996) - Soviet State and Communist activist. From 1940 - to party work. Member conspiracy result of which was ousted by Nikita Khrushchev. In 1963-1972 - First Secretary CC CPU. In 1972, criticized the book "Our Soviet Ukraine." Translated to work in Moscow. In 1972-1973 - Deputy Chairman of USSR Council of Ministers. Member Presidium, Politburo in 1964-1973. Hero of Socialist Labor (1967).
Notably, Shelest figure in Ukrainian history is quite ambiguous and contradictory.
On the one hand, it was clear Stalin's representative of the administrative-command system. Ability to efficiently focus in difficult situations, timely certify their commitment to new leadership enabled Shelest a long period of time (from 1963 to 1972) maintained at the highest swords Republican Communist Party hierarchy.
As Leonid Brezhnev, Shelest belonged to among conservatives, the most consistent opponents of the process of de-Stalinization. They are both uncompromisingly opposed political reforms and to apply the most drastic measures в Combat dissident movement. It is known that it Shelest gave sanction to conduct mass arrests of Ukrainian intelligentsia in August-September 1965 According to one of the leaders "Prague Spring" 1968 O.Dubcek, Shelest was one of the initiators of armed intervention in CzechoslovakiaBecause it was afraid to spread democratic ideas of this country in Ukraine.
On the other hand, took the image Shelest moderate champion of national interests of the Ukrainian people. He loyally treated the policy's strongly acted to protect the Ukrainian language and culture.
In particular, Shelest tried Ukrainize managerial personnel and demanded that the Ukrainian language within the language of the republic was keeping. In 60 years of three-quarters of executive positions in the republican Party and Soviet apparatus occupied Ukrainian.
Shelest with great interest and undisguised sympathy treated labor І.Dziuba "Internationalism or Russification?". FirstSecretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party even ordered rozmnozhyty and circulate it among his environment, because it is adding the arguments in the debate on national problems з higher leadership of the Communist Party.
Shelest subsequently used some position of I. Dziuba work in his book "Ukraine our Soviet ". Regarding the latter, then, according to experts, it was a normal ahitka propaganda, but with minor excursions into the half-forgotten by postwar period of Ukrainian history. Especially with great excitement and warmth of the Central Committee of Communist Party First Secretary of Ukraine told about the glorious Cossack past the Ukrainian people. Stressing that he is Cossack origin, Shelest stressed that the Cossacks were heroic defenders of Ukrainian people for that and won the eternal glory.
Originally Leonid Brezhnev relatively quiet perceived "Ukrainophilism" Shelest, although from time to time with him on polemizuvav specific issues of History of Ukraine.
A memoir of the First Secretary of the Communist Party Central Committee P. J. Shelest
... Well, and yeah from year to year navysav sword retribution. I'm not Brezhnev probachav anything either half a step. He was defiant and vengeful. And its biggest flaw - in everything completely rely on their "ideologist" - Michael Suslov. And this man by disposition - nesusvitniy chauvinist. He looked away to the treated all nations and nationalities, and Ukraine just hated cruel hatred. Him seemed to be just that - hnizdiv'ya nationalism and when, he thought, here zbuntuyetsya people, it is not easy to keep rein.
This apologist sought to philosophically justify their policies as mergers and nations. Even introduced a "historical period" of destruction of individual nations - the only Soviet people ... Now we reap the fruit of that terrible period that became a symbol social stagnation brezhnyevschynyAnd I would say and suslovschyny. This is - well designed and disguised propaganda against the rise of national consciousness of many nations of the USSR, it calls only connection to a common culture, to profess party postulates, in recognition of superiority "older brother". And his home, an ancient, that Historically, over the millennia, and topchetsya shelmuyetsya, blasphemed and destroyed ...
Inquiries to document
What Shelest explains Russification policies pursued government in Ukraine?
RESOLUTION CC КП About the Book UKRAINE P. J. SHELEST "our Soviet Ukraine"
Noted that the bookUkraineна нur Soviet"A number of vazhnыh pryntsypyalnыh issues othodyt from partyynыh, klassovыh positions. In no neutrality provides an chetkoho classes analyzing and assessing the phenomena otdelnыh in History, Ukrainian ydealyzyruetsya Zaporizhzhya Cossacks and Сech not pokazanы ostrota s complexity klassovoy combat on Ukraine in posleoktyabrskyy period, party struggle for the purity and boesposobnost svoyh routine against such uklonov lenynskoy heneralnoy lines, in number and volume against uklonov at the National Question.
Achievements of the republic in the economy, science Considering and culture in znachytelnoy least otrыve A common such luck USSR not raskrыvaetsya Cooperation ukraynskohо people with russkym and other fraternal peoples of our country.
Book "Our Ukraine Soviet" not sposobstvuet vospytanyyu trudyaschyhsya duhe in Soviet and patryotyzma proletarskoho internationalism, enhance the combat against burzhuaznoy ideology in particularly against the bourgeois nationalism of the Ukrainian.
Noted that the book Shelest P. J. "Our Soviet Ukraine, And others as his edition - "Historic calling young people "," Communist. - An active soldier of the Party, Lenin's Ideas win" were opublykovanы im with violations of establishing procedures without CC CPSU and vedoma Central Committee of Ukraine.
Razъyasnyt asset-party republic sereznыe metodolohycheskye, ydeynыe mistakes and shortcomings suschestvennыe book Shelest P. E. "Ukraine our Soviet».
Prepare and to publish in the journal "Communist Ukraine" retsenzyyu book-PYShelest "Ukraine our Soviet». Regarded as it necessary After this yzъyat ukazannuyu book from byblyotechnыh Stock republic.
Questions for document
1. What were blamed for the book "Our Ukraine Soviet "Shelest?
2. Reason for the party leadership has been deployed campaign to condemn this work?
As Nikita Khrushchev, Leonid Brezhnev sought fully Russify Ukraine. Under the policy of Russification of Communist Party ideologues summarized the theoretical basis – the concept of so-called "Soviet people", as new community of people formed primarily on the basis of unshakeable Unity three East nations – Russians Ukrainian and Belarusian.
In this situation, candid "Ukrainophilism" Shelest for union leadership became politically dangerous. Leonid Brezhnev, however, does not cross the event, and gradually prepared the pound for removal of Shelest power. Prerequisites for this was growing as consolidation of power by Brezhnev in Moscow and V. Shcherbytskyi position in Ukraine.
In March 1972 Shelest and it led the Central Committee Communist Party of Ukraine were subjected severely criticized by the Politburo for "Shortcomings in the international education of workers and primarenske attitude, nationalism. In May the same year he Shelest released from his duties as first secretary of the Central Committee of Communist Party of Ukraine and without his consent appointed one of the Vice President of the Council of Ministers of the USSR.
Soon on behalf of М.Suslov the Academy of Sciences of the USSR was prepared smasher Book review pas Shelest "Ukraine is our Soviet" in which the author has directly charged in Ukrainian nationalism. In April 1973 this review without byline published journal "Communist Ukraine" entitled "On serious shortcomings and mistakes in a book. "
Brutal criticism that was contained therein, Shelest forced immediately to apply for retirement for health reasons. This post has caused many smiles Central Committee members who could only envy strong Cossack health Shelest.
3. V. Shcherbytsky
In May (1972) Central Committee plenum Ukrainian Communist leader of the Republican Party organization, was elected Vladimir Shcherbytsky. which was more than seventeen years in this post.
Shcherbytsky Vladimir (1918-1990) - Communism and statesman USSR. Since 1946 - the party work in Ukraine. In 1961-1963 and 1965-1972 - Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR. Since 1961 - Member of the CPSU Central Committee. In 1972-1989 - First Secretary of the Communist Party Central Committee. Winner of Lenin Prize (1982). Double Hero Socialist Labor (1974, 1977).
The political career of Mr. Shcherbytskyi started back in the days of Stalin in Dniprodzerzhinsk late 40's - in the first half of the 50's.
In thirty six-year age he was elected to a second, and a year later the first secretary Dnipropetrovsk Regional Party Committee. Chairing the powerful, highlyindustrial region of Ukraine, V. Shcherbytsky reputation capable organizer and business executives.
In 1961, He was appointed Chairman Council of Ministers of the USSR, elected candidate member of the Presidium of the CPSU Central Committee. His principled position, cool and stubborn nature was not like Khrushchev. So when Mr. Shcherbytsky tried to deny the appropriateness of division and regional committees executive administrations in urban and rural, in 1963 it again returned from Kyiv Dnepropetrovsk to the previous post and removed from the Presidium of the CPSU Central Committee.
New climbing V. Shcherbytskyi the top Republican authorities have already happened during the Leonid Brezhnev. Despite the urgent counteraction by П.Shelest, at active support of union leadership, he in October 1965 again led Ukrainian government. At the XXIV Party Congress in April 1971 V. Shcherbytskyi as Shelest, elected member of the Politburo.
It was obvious that the presence of two representatives of a republic in the top leadership of the party – it temporary phenomenon, which they found their confirmation in May 1972 when V. Shcherbytskyi elected first secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine.
To strengthen his position, Ukrainian Communist leader newfound leadership for several years gradually and consistently pozbavlyavsya supporters ShelestAnd to exempt positions appointed by their people.
Among nominee V. Shcherbytskyi were "Tireless fighter against Ukrainian nationalism В.Malanchuk (Secretary of the Central Committee on Ideology, Science and culture), A. Lyashko (Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR) І.Grushetsky and О.Vatchenko (In different time –Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR) Victor Sologub (Chairman Ukrprofrady), В.Fedorchuk (Chairman republican KGB) and others. As a result of staff movements V. Shcherbytsky received the necessary support and stability of government.
In human innovations in higher power, a major change and in its lower levels. "Shoe" covered all levels of the Republican party.
Under the exchange of party tickets was stubborn half of 70 years, the party was excluded in 1937 thousand people. Withdrawal of party ticket then meant the end of career and in Soviet society was regarded as one of the harshest punishments.
During the party leadership Shcherbytskyi V. republic in the second half of 70's again began to increase process Russification. On the initiative of Leonid Brezhnev in this period started to spread thesis about the merger in the near future of nations and nationalities of the USSR into a single "Soviet people. A huge army of social scientists, press, radio, television, all ideological sphere have worked hard over the propaganda and justification of this ideas.
Russian language, which filed as a means international communication, ousted from the Ukrainian education, science, culture and even of life.
In April 1978 adopted new Constitution of the USSR, which was almost a carbon copy of the Constitution of the USSR in 1977
Formally, the procedure for taking union Constitution was designed in a democratic spirit. Her project has been published for discussion in society, it lasted almost four months – with June to September 1977 Party and state leaders, media on all frets posited the "national debate which" project Constitution.
However, the very progress of this Propaganda campaign did not configured the various segments of Soviet society businesslike tone, objective analysis situation prevailing in the country. As organizers later testified that political action in During the discussion of the draft Constitution was received about 400 thousand proposals but included was a small part of them are usually editorial.
According to documents not taken into note offers citizens towards democratization of society, improvement of public administration, improving international relations and others.
Interestingly, during preparatory work suggestions were crossed out from the projects of the Constitution USSR The articles right out of the republics of the USSR.
V. Shcherbytsky, like most of his associates had nothing against such amendments. But this idea ran on strong resistance leaders Transcaucasian republics, and so it was not implemented in the Constitution.
Constitution of the USSR (1977) and SSR (1978) further restricted the independence Republic, especially in economic sphere.
Declared their liberalization political system, the broad rights of citizens of the republic the right to self- until the possibility of withdrawal from the USSR (which has been the fiction, because the mechanism realization of this right within the constitutional order was not determined) actually not impediment to the CPSU to practice well proven in previous period of dictatorial form of government.Attempts by individual citizens to take part constitutional rights severely persecuted.
In order to complete consolidation party dictatorship in Constitutions USSR and the Federal Republic was introduced special sixth article according to which the Communist Party proclaimed leadership and steering force Soviet society, its core political system.
This meant the official fixing full range of all-powerful party in all spheres of Soviet life society. No such provision is not contained even in Stalin's Constitution 1936
The new constitution guarantees a wide political and economic rights of citizens, but in reality they do not implemented.
In a high position of the first Secretary of the Communist Party Central Committee for quite some time, Mr. Shcherbytsky, of course, tried to make the most of develop national industry, agriculture and science.
However, he did resistance Russification that engulfed Ukraine. Saying that he completely went in Fairway Muscovite policy, not be fair, but to break and this "vicious circle" and he failed.
On Conscience V. Shcherbytskyi left and frankly anti-Ukrainian actions. In particular, his grave sin before the people of Ukraine was certainly Chernobyl -to a fatal explosion in April 1986 and especially after it. After This huge nuclear station in upper Dnieper River was constructed on a non-sandy soil of such facilities in densely populated place despite the protests of local scientists. It Shcherbytsky V. insisted on the accelerated pace of construction and the early introduction of NPP in action.
Under pressure Gorbachev he plucked up courage and did not inform in time the population of Ukraine about the terrible danger in the first days after the accident, failed to take necessary measures for immediate evacuation of residents from the danger zone for life, intentionally long zamovchuvav objective information about catastrophic consequences for Ukraine.
The destroyed reactor of Chernobyl
Questions and Tasks
1. Which of the famous Ukrainian "Sixtynykiv was arrested in 1965?
2. What event took place September 4, 1965 in Cinema Kyiv "Ukraine"?
3. What are the charges were removed from power Shelest?
4. What were the manifestations of the offensive neostalinizmu in Ukraine, which started in the middle
5. What is "samizdat"?
6. What new provisions on the political system of the USSR zafiksuvala The Constitution of 1977?
7. Identify the chronological sequence of events:
- Election of V. Shcherbytskyi first secretary of the Communist Party Central Committee;
- Adoption of new Constitution of the USSR;
- Output book Shelest "Our Soviet Ukraine;
- mass arrests "antyradyanschykiv"Under attack neoStalinism.
8. Describe changes in domestic policy that Leonid Brezhnev made after coming to power.
9. What was the difference in the activity of repressive of 60-70 years and in Stalin period?
10. What are the specific features of social and political life in the republic in 1965-1967 years?
11. Why do Your opinion, the Brezhnev leadership refused of reform?
12. For what purpose, to balance mind, the Soviet leadership initiated public discussion of the draft Constitution in 1977?
13. What is common, but other than that, on balance view, was political activities and V. Shelest Shcherbytskyi?