§ 15 The birth of the dissident movement in UKRAINE
1. Beginnings sectarianism
After the death of Stalin in Khrushchev's "thaw" in Ukraine again turned opposition movement. The main reasons for its exaltation in Ukraine were: almost stateless status Republic; monopoly power of the Party and Soviet bureaucratic elite; constant harassment and restrictions of national cultural development, motivated Russification of the Ukrainian population.
In the late 50's – on early 60's all available positive opportunities Khrushchev's "thaw" was virtually exhausted. The strategic line of reform come into contradiction with the existing political system, which is no longer permitted major changes.
In these circumstances, "the Sixties" gradually formed opposition power structures. But the opposition, which operated mainly in within the existing system, according to the rules of the game that initsiyuvalysya "from above".
However, in parallel at this time begins deploy another kind of opposition movement, which subsequently was called "Dissident".
Unlike legal cultural sixties, using weakening of totalitarianism and liberalization that took place in the country, new fighters for national rights Ukrainian began as much as possible organically combine the underground activity with some legal methods of struggle.
Terms and Notions
Nonconformity (From Lat. dissidens- Contrary) - Members of the opposition movement in the USSR from the late 50's - to mid 80's; advocated the democratization of society, human rights and freedoms, non-Russian republics - for national rights, their own state.
Ukrainian dissidence inherentconcerned about two major problems. First touch Human nationsAnd the second – Human Rights. A characteristic feature views of dissenters was that they do not divide the nation's rights and human rights, no one opposed them other and considered as a unit.
In the socio-political aspect is new generation of national-patriotic forces continued to maintain and develop democratic and legal traditions. So not accidental that the time actually taken as synonymous terms dissidence inherent, pravozahysnytstvo and dissent.
Feeling that the opposition movement serious danger the regime, party and state structures Ukraine have sought to uncompromising and decisive battle with opposition KGB. Specifically, in December 1959 Central Committee Communist Party of Ukraine by its decree ordered the Ukrainian KGB "Reinforce the work on prevention, detection and cessation of hostilities and other nationalist anti-Soviet elements in territory of the republic. "
In the new environment law enforcement were forced to abandon direct repression, and more widely used flexible methods of prevention, that is "educational" work with those who "accidentally landed on the hostile way. "
It should be noted that despite the process liberalization of Soviet punitive organs worked, still pretty actively. Only in the 1954-1959 biennium Ukraine has been exposed and eliminated 183 "Anti-Soviet and nationalist groups, nearly 2000 persons anti-Soviet activity were brought to trial, 1 300 – felt the "preventive" work spetsorhaniv.
To strengthen the effectiveness of the fight of dissidents in 1961 were enacted new penal code and the USSR Soviet republics. Article 61 ("wrecking") and 62 (anti-Soviet agitation and propaganda ") SSR Criminal Code could be interpreted punitive organs of course, on their own.
Opposition Movement 1950-1980-ies
2. Ukrainian revolutionary Center (URTS). Registration ideology sectarianism
Soon after the death of Stalin Party and state leadership of Ukraine found out about the existence of Ukrainian Revolutionary Center (URTS).
In correspondence received from City, seized 52 anti-Soviet censorship documents. They were printed on typed and sent to rural councils. collective and eight schools regions of Western Ukraine. In common documents reported create a revolutionary center able to lead in Ukraine national liberation movement subjected to harsh criticism of Stalin dictatorial regime. Stalin and his entourage accusedto usurp power, forcibly resettling people in the death of millions Ukrainian, who died at the front or died of starvation.
In the Ukrainian Revolutionary Manifesto Center identified thirty-three "principles of freedom."
The document put forward demands introduction democratic system, establishment of Ukraine's sovereignty, the definition of public boundaries of the nation within its ethnographic land, freedom organizations of different political parties and more.
It was noted that the most important issues politics, legislation, budgeting should be settled by by popular vote.
Substantiated the right of free criticism government and elected authorities, proposed to nominate candidates for office positions.
Ukrainian revolutionary center said the core principle of its program is, above all, the people's will. "Every Nation – State ", proclaimed Manifesto in URTS. Only mentioned in it, when each nation will have to form an independent state, only then will be installed on land justice and opportunity arise fraternal union of free nations. A This can, according to the authors of the document only by destruction of all and all the empires under whatever guise they exist.
Ideological diversity of American-Ukrainian sectarianism was formed in 1955, when Ukrainian political prisoners and concentration camp wrote Mordovian "Open letter" to the UN. It was the first document in which the main requirements uzahalnyuvalys Ukrainian sectarianism for its initial formation. It expressed strong protest against discrimination Soviet authorities of the Ukrainian, pryvertalasya attention of the world public disfranchised situation in Ukraine.
Ukrainian dissidents fought totalitarian system as open and underground.
At the official level dissidents 50's years demanded mainly rehabilitation of innocent prisoners and culture art. former political figures of Ukraine, the return of works representatives Executed Recovery ", protesting against oppression intellectuals.
Non-confrontational nature of these requirements poyasnyuvavsya will facilitate the awakening of national consciousness of Ukrainians and simultaneously to avoid persecution by punitive organs of Soviet power, which did their utmost to isolate the people of Peel nationally conscious intelligentsia "for anti-Soviet statements.
In 1958 KGB Ukraine exposed in Stanislav (lyni Ivano-Frankivsk) United Party Liberation Ukraine, and in 1961 – Lviv Ukrainian National Committee тand in the village.Easter cake-Willin Lviv Youth national organization.
Common to these organizations was that that they first had in his stock, usually young, and, secondly, organizationally and ideologically guided by principles and experience of the OUN-UPA.
3. Ukrainian Workers and Peasants Union (URSS)
The most famous group, which in its policy documents raised the question of non-violent, constitutional way receipt of the Independence of Ukraine, Was the Ukrainian worker-peasant union. founded her two young lawyers - Leo Lukyanenko and John Kandyba, which in 1958 created in Lviv nucleus of a future organization.
Lukyanenko Leo G. (1928р.н.) - A politician and public figure. Graduated Moscow University (1958). In 1958-1961 - Attorney in Lviv. In 1958 Ukrainian founded the worker-peasant union. In 1961 he was arrested and the death penalty, which replaced 15 years imprisonment. After serving (1976) sentence settled in Chernigov. One of the founders of UHG. In December 1977 arrested in June 1978 and sentenced to 10 years in prison and five years exile. In January 1989 returned to Ukraine and led the UHU, headed by elected 1988. In 1990-1992 - deputy of Ukraine. Since 1990 Chairman, 1993 - Emeritus Chairman of the PSA. In 1992-1993 - Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Ukraine to Canada. From 1994 - Member of Parliament of Ukraine. Head of Ukrainian Association of Researchers Famine in Ukraine (1994). President of the Ukrainian section of the World League freedom and democracy. By the Act of Independence of Ukraine, books - "Confessions on death row," I believe about God and Ukraine "," I will not die Ukraine. Honorary President of Ukraine (1992). Medal of St. Vladimir "Fighters for freedom of Ukraine" (1991). Honorary Doctor of Law AlbertaUniversity (Canada).
In developed in 1959 Levko Lukyanenko and Stephen Virunom Projects Program URSS theoretically justified and osmyslyuvalys provisions of the new, bloodless stage Ukrainian national liberation movement.
This document stinging critique subjected Communist Party and Soviet Government during the famine of 1932-1933, zasudzhuvalasya practice Cruel Stalin's repressions 30's years, bureaucratic methods of management of the national economy, national policy of the ruling party, carried out in the country.
The draft program noted that the Indeed Ukraine declared void by the Constitution and the rights of sovereignty freely engage in political and economic relations and other states. Ukrainian language in the republic not only become state, and are almost driven out of official use.
Therefore, according to sponsors, Ukraine granted to use her constitutional right and leave the USSR. After all, the USSR Constitution (Article 14) and the USSR Constitution (Article 17) provided Federal Republic the right to become a fully independent state formation.
As the authors considered the document in newly independent Ukrainian state political structure will remain, as before, Soviet, and economic – socialist. Ukraine, stated in the draft program, as a sovereign and independent state would remain in the Commonwealth of Independent Socialist same States.
A characteristic feature was that URSS, that its founders to define and justify their ideological used, as they claimed, "true Marxism", which allegedly had nothing to do practice with the then Communist Party.
The decision followed not only tactically union activists, but also awareness of the historical tradition of political struggle in Ukraine in late XIX – early XX century. As pointed L. Lukyanenko, studying in Moscow, he read in detail program with the Revolutionary Ukrainian party (Run) and was simply impressed by her true "democratic and sotsialistychnistyu».
However, the Ukrainian worker-peasant union did not object and the experience of OUN-UPA. During discuss their program and tactics of union members have expressed thoughts on the possibility of war and postwar tradition Ukrainian rebel movement. But in the end most support were those believed that new conditions require new forms and new tactics political activities.
At its meeting held on 6 November 1960 members of the Ukrainian workers and peasants' unions considered project program and main task organization. But these charges were not union – in January 1961 its leaders were arrested.
Assessing the draft program of Ukrainian worker-peasant unions should emphasize that the purpose to which wanted this organization was to bring Ukraine from the USSR. It is for active promote the idea of a sovereign and Independent Ukraine created a political union. According to his founders, in the case of non-recognition of the majority of the Ukrainian nation that purpose, union had samorozpustytysya.
Law enforcement, vykryvshy URSS, accused its members serious crime - treason. And when the head of L. Lukyanenko tried to remind the investigator that the union set purpose consistent with constitutional norms, he said in aphoristic form: "Cohnlishing a Constitution exists only for overseas.
At a closed trial in May 1961 six members of the Ukrainian Union of Workers and Peasants' sentenced to a long-term detention camp (10 to 15 years). L. Lukyanenko was sentenced to the highest degree of punishment - Shot which was subsequently replaced 15 years imprisonment.
4. Political and ideological reaction 60 years. Dziuba I. Labor Internationalism or Russification? "
"Thaw", the processes of democratization and liberalization of political life, the development of the dissident movement gradually formed a new political climate in Ukraine, which characterized emergence of political demands among the opposition.
Essential impetus for this was the wave arrests of dissidents, who swept in the mid 60's. The blow was aimed against the young generation of Ukrainian intelligentsia. Were arrested John Svitlychny brothers and Michael Bohdan Horyn, Michael CBS et al. they do not was presented the specific charges, but instead in the country began actively spread rumors about the exposure of anti-Soviet nationalist organization. The case was obviously fabricated and has a frank character reprisal.
In defense of those arrested were strongly known representatives of the then Ukrainian intellectual elite –Deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR М.Stelmach, Deputy of Supreme Soviet A. Malyshko, Sikorsky Oleg Antonov, film-maker S. Paradzanov composer G. Mayboroda et al.
Repression against the opposition, which took place in Ukraine in the early 60's are not turned away from the opposition political struggle. On the contrary, prosecution gave those who remained at large, greater strength, inspiration and courage.
Actually, it is under the influence of the mass arrests in 1965 young literary John Dziuba undertook the detailed investigation of the sources and the major reasons that led to strong protest action leading Ukrainian intellectuals.
In September-December 1965 their Dzyuba conclusions outlined in the work called Internationalism or Russification? " which sent party and the USSR and the Soviet leadership Ukrainian SSR. It was the first broad synthesis of ideas Ukrainian opposition movement, which included a detailed program of cultural and political requirements.
The main requirement seemed fairly balanced – return to the principles of party leadership of Lenin National Policy (Book I. Dziuba was literally littered with quotations from Lenin Marx and Engels).
But even this moderate program was already evidence of the legal objections of the official policy of the Soviet regime. In the final part of the book Dzyuba critical points to the political and moral responsibility of the Ukrainian government for the fate of the Ukrainian SSR.
Written with great talent and erudition, the book of I. Dziuba for many years was main political program Ukrainian national liberation movement and had a great impact on formation its ideological concepts.
Guide republic domohlosya Ivan Dziuba dismissal from work and did all that he has publicly disavowed written. He even cynically proposed to write an article on the flowering Soviet Ukraine in the "family of nations-brothers."
Finally, I. Dzyuba arrested and 18 was held for months in jail and later (December 1969) forced Writers write in Ukraine penitential letter.
A political opposition to end 50's - early 60's had great value.
It actually produced strong give ground next struggle for democratization of political life in the republic. Representatives of the opposition ruling regime forces have convinced the public the possibility of real existence resistance against the repressive state.
EXTRACT FROM DECISIONS CC КП CONCLUSION OF UKRAINE IN LETTER AND ADDED Dzyuba Of material sent to the CC КП UKRAINE (22 February 1972)
... 2. Prepared Dzyuba material "Internationalism or Russification?" Is explicit anti-Soviet, anti-communist nature, and its author is on bourgeois-nationalist positions. Political harm, socially hostile nature This "labor" is that it comes down to slander the Leninist national policy of the Communist Party has tried to bring suppressed state of Ukraine in stock Discredit the Soviet Union and Soviet Union as a new, higher form of association of sovereign Union republics to weaken friendship, mistrust and hostility Kindle between Ukrainian and Russian peoples, disorientation of our nation and world community about the true state cultural development of Soviet Ukraine.
To this end Dziuba resorting to distortion and misrepresentation provisions of Leninist national Policy and Content classics of Marxism-Leninism with the national question justifies its "theoretical" platform, which expresses the views of Ukrainian bourgeois nationalism, recalls trying to "defend" the basic assertion of bourgeois and nationalist propaganda.
Inquiries to document
Do you think that labor provisions I. Dziuba "Internationalism or Russification?" Outrage Party and Soviet leadership?
Questions and Tasks
1. What fought Ukrainian dissidents?
2. What are you famous Ukrainian dissidents.
3. What are you known dissident groups and organization.
4. What methods used for the Soviet regime against Ukrainian dissidents?
5. What are the main provisions contained in the Manifesto Ukrainian revolutionary center?
6. What was the main goal of Ukrainian worker-peasant union?
7. What was the main requirements of Ukrainian dissidents?
8. What controls are applied to public bodies suppression of the opposition movement?
9. Give a definition of "dissidents".
10. What different views and activities of dissidents and " Sixties "?
11. Describe the work of I. Dziuba Internationalism or Russification? "Highlight its main provisions.
12. What is the significance of the dissidents?
13. In your opinion, why the dissident movement in Ukraine appeared only in the 50's, and not before?
14. Why do you think the dissidents refused violent methods of struggle?
15. Are the activities of dissidents was, in your opinion, real threat of the Soviet regime?