§ 13 STATE ECONOMY OF UKRAINE late 50's - in the early 60's years
1. Radnarhospy and their impact on economic development of Ukraine
Zalikuvavshy terrible wounds of war lifting of ruins people's economy. Soviet people have created the necessary conditions for further development economy on a scale that exceeded pre-war.
Significant place in this process has taken XX Congress of the CPSU, which was proclaimed program clay creation of the national economyThat he had to cover all links social production, distribution and exchange across the country.
Important factors of this economic program were considered, continuous technological progress, rapid productivity growth and continued development of all industries, increasing material and cultural living standards of people.
Expected that implementation of this program will provide the main economic problem solving USSR – in historically brief period to catch up and overtake the most economically developed countries.
50 years, especially its second half, were most successful in developing National Economy such as the Soviet Ukraine and the USSR as a whole.
Among economic Khrushchev reforms known and most controversial was a radical decentralization of industry. In accordance with her February 1957 was liquidated most ministries, and instead They established territorial council of national economy – radnarhospy. As a result, was reduced in 1910 union and 15 union-republican ministries.
Instead, it was established 103 radnarhospy, including 11 – in Ukraine. They were united by 2,8 thousand companies that produced most of the industrial production of the republic. The largest in Ukraine were Kyiv, Kharkiv and Lviv radnarhospy.
With the establishment of new bodies agricultural management of the local political elite for the first time received able to keep under its own control the development of economic potential Republic, which will surely greatly strengthened its political position. Economic innovations especially increased authority and influence of the secretaries of the regional committees in hands which were concentrated the main levers of government established radnarhospamy.
It is clear that party leaders areas where radnarhospiv was not trying to create them in their regions. As Consequently, in 1960 Republic was formed in an additional three new Council of National Economy – Crimean, Poltava and Cherkassy.
Implementing radical economic transformation, Nikita Khrushchev expected more for their political implications. Reform industry management, strengthening the position of local business executives, while weakened of the Moscow bureaucracy. These conservative forces immediately felt that lose control over the economy. No coincidence that a month after adoption of the decentralization of management was an attempt coup in the USSR.
Having full replacement industry territorial management industry, Nikita Khrushchev was able to do the following Reformation step – Move on economic calculation. This was necessary to introduce a new economic mechanism, which aimed to provide maximum independence of enterprises and accelerate material motivation of workers. But this important step towards reform Nikita Khrushchev did not dare.
But the economic consequences of reform for national economy as a whole were disappointing. Planned economy could not effectively act on directives from different centers. So naturally, that several years had to return to centralized management.
This was initially due a central radnarhospiv in the top three republics - Russia Ukraine and Kazakhstan, As a result of radnarhospiv in Ukraine decreased to 7 and then there was only one union and leading economic center – Council of the USSR. She has plans to monitor compliance Industry Development radnarhospiv all republics.
Such outright retreat from economic reforms resulted in the formation in 1963 High Council of National Economy USSR, which included duty in all leadership bodies of the People households.
2. Development Industry
Despite the endless organizational changes in management of the national economy, the economy of the republic during the Khrushchev generally well developed. The pace of industry development in Ukraine exceeded the average for the Soviet Union.
In Ukraine, was erected a number of large thermal and Hydropower (Simferopol, Slavic, Dneprodzerzhinsk, TL, Kremenchug and etc.).. In the republic had mastered new minefield (Lviv-Volyn and the Kiev), Gas deposits on Poltava and Kharkiv.
Developed at an accelerated pace Rig iron pool. In 1955 was put into operation the largest in Europe South GOK. Were built on the unique size blast furnaces and Martin.
Domain shop steelworks Kryvorizhstal
them. Lenin. Dnipropetrovsk, 1955
All this enabled the level of Ukraine production of steel products per capita ahead highly developed countries. However, we must admit that at the quality of the metal remained low.
A huge amount of work was done at the development of chemical industry. In 1959-1963 he in Ukraine was built 35 new plants and more than 250 large chemical plants. Rapidly evolved during this period Lisichanskiy and RUBEZHNOYEchemical plant, Gorlovka azotnotukovyyplant. Were built and given the production four giants "great chemistry" – Rosdolsky Mining and Chemical Plant. Cherkassy and Chernigov fabricated fibers, Dnepropetrovsk Tire plant. In the mid 60's they gave one fifth of the gross products industry.
Some achievements in the years Khrushchev reforms have occurred in mechanical engineering. During that time, was actually created domestic automotive and manufacturing of modern machinery for mining industry, allowing us to economically produce minerals open.
Since 1956 in Vorosilovgrad (Now – Luhansk) and Kharkiv started to produce locomotives, which enabled locomotives to stop production and switch to diesel locomotives Elektrovozna and traction.
In Kharkiv aviation was adjusted scale production the world's first high-speed turbojet Tu-104. In turn, Kyiv Aircraft began to produce turboprop airliner Ан-24. which is widely used in air vnutrishnosoyuznyh routes.
Had been noticed some positive and changes in the traditionally backward areas of the economy –food and light industry. It has introduced new foreign Appliances that come from the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance. This enabled slightly increase these important industries. Interestingly, in these years enterprises of heavy industry for the first time in Soviet times, specially created plants started production catalog Consumer GoodsThat largely contributed to the growth of national wealth.
3. Agricultural policy in late 50's - in the early 60's
The most noticeable for ordinary citizens there are always changes taking place in agriculture. Realizing that agricultural sectors is most critical condition, Nikita Khrushchev sought at any price just to get here fast positive results.
According to the then leaders, such progress in agriculture could be achieved thanks to the development virgin and fallow lands Kazakhstan, Siberia, Volga region. Ural and North Caucasus.
Pioneering was announced Komsomol honorable thing for a trip to Kazakhstan for a permanent job in 1954-1956 he Ukraine has been sent to nearly 80 thousand boys and girls.
Ukrainian migrants in developed Kazakh walls work 54 state farms.
The largest harvest in the virgin lands gave 1956, when they were collected half of the state harvest bread. But the extremely weak spot virgin policy was huge losses grain production, which eventually turned out 20% more expensive than average.
Another important means of raising Agriculture Nikita Khrushchev believed to increase cultivation of corn. By huge and even excessive persistence in fighting for the expansion of crops "Queen Field" Nikita Khrushchev was popularly nicknamed «Nikita-kukurudzyanyk».
Business as agricultural leader Nikita Khrushchev for his determined attitude to growing corn, increase its yield set in direct dependence on the level of political awareness manufacturers. "When some parts of the country's maize is introduced formally, collective and state farms receive low yields, then the blame for the climate, and leaders – said Nikita Khrushchev at the XXII Congress of the CPSU. – Where corn is born, is a "component" that is not contributes to its growth. This "component" should look in the manual ... Should be replaced those employees who themselves withered and dried culture such as corn, not give it an opportunity to deploy the power.
Attempts pryzvychayity Ukrainian Industry borrowed this culture in America is crowned only minor success. In 1961, were collected a good harvest of corn. But in 1963 due to drought was very barren a whole. To remove the sharp problem of shortage of bread were baked bread, which had a significant impurity corn flour. Because of its specific taste, he did not like the population, and eat it just because the other was not. That same year the Soviet Union first time began to purchase and import grain from abroad.
"Corn epic" showed that Khrushchev's agricultural policy often do not take into account the objective conditions and real possibilities Agricultural production of different regions.
If from 1950 to 1958 gross agricultural production of Ukraine increased by 65%, then в 1958-1964 biennium – only 3%. This, of course, adversely affected the social policies of Ukraine which Nikita Khrushchev, should pay tribute, paid much attention.
Consistently strengthening collective farms and state farms, while Nikita Khrushchev launched a decisive attack on the individual peasant economy.
In 1955 was taken order to reduce by half the size of household plots, and in 1959 – banning keep livestock in urban and suburban zone. This is further complicated an already difficult food situation, as small but very effective Farming has always been extremely important source of supply of agricultural products to the public.
Failure to reform agriculture economy has led to serious disorder in the relations between the Ukrainian leadership and N. Khrushchev.
Considering himself a great connoisseur Agriculture, Nikita Khrushchev constantly rebuked by the leaders of the republic lack of commercial interest to the village, inability to manage agriculture. Such criticism is sometimes led to sharp clashes between N. Khrushchev і М.Piedmont. And Still, wanting to avoid conflict, the Ukrainian party was able to quickly tip rebuild and skillfully reported on high yields, which often were not barn, but only on paper. As a rule, went to Moscow reports on the successful implementation and over-laid on a republic targets.
However, Ukrainian leaders felt that lost their concern and support from Khrushchev. In turn, the former dedication and commitment towards a з by Republican top stopped noticing and Nikita Khrushchev.
4. The level of living. State food and commodity support
Undoubtedly, the most important outcome economic reforms of Khrushchev was stirring social policy, which covered almost all aspects of life of the population. According to experts, this trend of Khrushchev near elimination of the infamous Gulag (General Directorate yspravytelno of labor-camp – Main Department labor camps) was truly historic in its meaning.
To have the support of workers in against their political opponents, Nikita Khrushchev tried to "push" first of all, the most popular and quite necessary for ordinary people measures.
In particular, in the first years of his guidance was reduced working hours for teenagers and peredvyhidni and holiday days, extended leave for pregnant women abolished tuition fees and abolished the strict law that effectively secured workers for enterprises, not giving them opportunity to leave and go to the other. These decisions Nikita Khrushchev once won the sympathy and support of wide sections population.
Moreover, the time Khrushchev was made real "Pension Revolution, which simultaneously reduced the retirement age limit and increased pensions. Average salary for the 1953-1965 biennium in workers and employees increased by third, a minimum – from 27 to 45 rubles.
In 1957 were finally eliminated regular government loansThat existed in the form of distribution bonds. They actually took 10% salary workers and served medium indirect taxation of workers. But the payment of debt by the population acquired bonds delayed for 20 years.
Certain positive changes have been made and in the village. Among the most important events should be called harvesting increase prices for agricultural products that immediately gave an impetus to productivity growth in agriculture economy.
Spring 1953 of collective farms written off the entire arrears past years to supply animal products. Instead of traditional pay the so-called residual (at the end business year), gradually zaprovadzhuvalosya cash advance and a natural. In March 1956 was decided on a monthly advance rural workers and an additional charge work in collective farms.
Consequently, in 1958 Money advancing funds to have more than 80% of the agricultural and More than 500 farms have introduced a guaranteed payment of labor days. This year the count hospnyky Ukraine finally received Passports.
In line 3 of the Resolution of the CC CPSU and USSR Council of Ministers On development Housing construction in the USSR " (July 1957) belonged task of every Soviet family separate apartments.
To do this in every major city created high-performance plant. forces in their cities and villages Ukraine by 10 years has built more than 3 million apartments. Although these houses p'yatypoverhovi later became the name of the people humiliating "hruschoby, their construction significantly triggered from the solution acute housing-winning problem.
Summer 1953 in the USSR by Khrushchev initiated Bull Adopted special program of light and food industry who created the preconditions to display areas of crisis.
In Ukraine, the implementation of this plan was fast enough to give positive results: increased markedly in stores products, began purchasing some goods abroad. In many families there products, which could not even dream of Stalin's day: TVs tape recorders, refrigerators, washing machines.
The first success in rural development economy enabled people to increase the range of food. Earlier, the average Soviet family ration is usually consisted of the following basic products like bread and potatoes, then the times of Khrushchev, he has grown to more or less regular consumption of vegetables and meat in the stores were even such exotic delicacies for those times as citrus.
But after the reforms in agriculture economy exhausted, Ukraine all have extremely sharp food problem. Particularly, it increased after the drought in 1963, when there were serious shortages of bread and meat and dairy products, and sharply increased foam on basic food.
These negative phenomena caused candid Labor discontent leadership country resulting Nikita Khrushchev quickly lost credibility and still won the support people.
Evaluating the economic policies of Khrushchev, should be noted that beside the absolute positive shifts that have been achieved carried out its economic and social changes often marked by conspicuous haste, neprodumanistyu and inconsistency. His boldly belief that "We are two to three years will solve any problem, was winged phrase that has entered almost every report or its performance.
Hruschovska decade was a period constant propaganda promises, most of which, unfortunately, and remained on paper. As an example populist appeal "in coming years "to catch up and overtake the U.S. for the production of meat, butter and milk per capita or the program of construction for 20 years of logistics base of communism. All this eventually became the basis for serious allegations of Khrushchev in "Voluntarism and subjectivism.
Questions and Tasks
1. Name the largest radnarhospy that were formed on Ukraine.
2. What do you know about the achievements in chemical development industrial engineering in end 50's - early 60's?
3. In which regions of Ukrainian immigrants settled new ground?
4. What were the main achievements of social policy Khrushchev?
5. What tasks in the economy put XX Congress CPSU?
6. What kind of policy on individual farms government led by Nikita Khrushchev?
7. How Khrushchev leadership attempted to resolve housing problem?
8. What causes the growth of disorder between N. Khrushchev and Ukrainian government?
9. What was the essence of Khrushchev's reforms decentralization of industry?
10. Why did Nikita Khrushchev and his government again back to District Management industry?
11. What means Nikita Khrushchev tried increase agricultural productivity?
12. What impact have the reforms undertaken М.Khrushchev in agriculture?
13. How do you opinion, was the most important economic achievement for Ukraine reforms undertaken by N. Khrushchev?
14. What, in your. view, prevented Khrushchev deepen reforms in the economy?
15. As you think Is it fair to Khrushchev accused "Subjectivism and voluntarism?