12. SOCIAL AND POLITICAL LIFE AND POLITICAL STRUGGLE IN UKRAINE (textbook)

 

Theme III                                                                      IN THE UKRAINE De-Stalinization/ 1956-1964 gg /

 

 

 

Social and political LIFE AND

§ 12                                                                           POLITICAL STRUGGLE IN UKRAINE

 

1. XX congress CPSU and Ukraine

After Stalin's death in March 1953 country was in a terrible legacy of remembrance of the bloody repression, millions lost and crippled souls and together with it - brutal totalitarian system.

It is clear that the death of the "leader of all time and peoples "did not mean death or Stalinism or totalitarianism, which in many years of its existence ukorenylysya deeply in people's minds.

But the first steps towards de-Stalinization Ukraine began to be felt quickly - immediately after the actual recognition March 1953 Khrushchev first Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee and his official election to that post in September 1953

Since his rise to power begins significant personnel changes and change of leadership in the field.

In Ukraine, the change in party leadership в this time also occurs in Lithuania and Latvia. It is possible that these human manipulation have been pre-planned Л.Beria, which has been prepared to seize state power is through the party leadership non-Russian national republics that incriminated him, and during arrest in June 1953

But Ukrainian leadership supported L.Beria. As subsequently found former Chief of Staff of the Ukrainian partisan General movement Т.Strokach risk to own life told Khrushchev to prepare anti-state conspiracy.

The coming to power of Nikita Khrushchev to some extent influenced the process Ukrainization management personnel as the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. and Soviet Union as a whole. After the victory over their political opponents Khrushchev in many ways it was obliged to Ukrainian party managers, which has maintained strong ties and during his tenure as first secretary of Central Committee КП(B) U.

As a result, already XVIII Congress of the Communist Party that in March 1954, further reinforced the trend Ukrainization party leadership Republic. In particular, the newly elected Central Committee Communist Party of Ukraine Ukrainian relative share increased from 62% to 72%, all eight members Politburo were Ukrainian, Ukrainian positions not only received the first and second (Kirichenko and M.Piedmont), but two more Secretary of the Central Committee.

These positive changes also affected the Republican state apparatus in which high government posts occupied playwright A. Korneichuk, Semen Stefanik, son of the famous Ukrainian writer Vasil Stefanik, and other Ukrainian public and political figures.

At the head of Trade Unions of Ukraine also instead of Russian А.Klebanov was to Ukrainian К.Moskalets. Significant staff rearrangements occurred in the republican Interior Ministry after the arrest associates and sympathizers L.Beria in Ukraine П.Meshyka.

Substantially increased representation Ukrainian All Union and management. In particular, the first secretary of the Communist Party Central Committee Kirichenko was elected to the Presidium of the CPSU Central Committee. Before the All-Union Government entered about ten of that used to work in Ukraine. Ukrainian greatly enlarged Steering the Armed Forces of the USSR.

During this period, emerging new trends in the formation of the Ukrainian political elite. It became dominant people started his career in agricultural production to be with him bound. Most of them came from central and northeastern regions of Ukraine.

This new wave of higher levels Ukrainization Party and state power was caused by two important circumstances. From one hand, it showed changes in Ukraine after the Second World War II, primarily - the Ukrainian nation; the other demonstrated a new attitude to the Republican Federal Center leadership. In particular, Nikita Khrushchev, in order to limit the power of their opponents, agreed on giving more powers to national leadership in Republican solving important problems. As a result, opportunities senior party and state bodies of the republic significantly increased by enhancing autonomist aspirations and personal ambitions of their leaders.

An extremely important step towards de-Stalinization and liberalization of Soviet society was the XX Congress of the CPSU, which held in February 1956

In reports of Khrushchev not contained no sensational claims. In it, in contrast, proved declared course of the party to defuse international tensions, considered important economic and social problems, proudly advantages of collective leadership ", launched in the country in recent years.

These issues were the focus delegates were on Congress. Only А.Mikoyan In his speech gently touched on the problem "Cult person Stalin, subjecting doubt some conclusions known Stalinist Briefly year history of the CPSU (b) " (Including review of developments in civil war Ukraine), and was publicly saying about that С.Kosior and В.Antonov-Ovsienko were not "enemies".

On the last day of the Congress, when approved Results of voting for the election of the governing bodies of the party, Khrushchev told delegates that they should meet in closed session. On the night of 24 to 25 February M.Khrushchev during four hours of credit in the congress delegates report "On the Personality Cult and its Consequences".

Since that report, Congress delegates learned "Political testament" Lenin, whose existence for many years zamovchuvalosya and disputed leadership party. The report told about Stalin distorted the principle of democratic centralism Related this "Stalinist purges and mass repression. In addition, Nikita Khrushchev almost uncovered myths about Stalin as a "descendant" and "brilliant continuation of" business Lenin, the prominent warlord, who actually was the main culprit horrible defeat the Red Army in 1941-1942 biennium

The Congress was first shows the true figure of Stalin figure cruel tyrant and dictator. Report Khrushchev literally shocked many Communists, for memories participants Congress, several delegates even lost consciousness, they quietly brought to the meeting room.

It should be noted that criticism of the cult person Stalin XX Party Congress was though blunt, but still shallow and not deep enough. It contained a serious analysis of system principles and the main causes of the regime personal power, the former leader of the Soviet state. Main sources Stalin cult vbachalysya primarily in acute nevschuhayuchiy class struggle, and most importantly - in negative terms, the very nature of Stalin.

Notwithstanding great information Saturation and emotionality, report M.Khrushchev concealed rather than a true portrayal picture of the crimes of Stalinism. In it, in particular, judgeerted only external parties totalitarianism (Cult person ") and the most impressive Events abuse state power (Mass repression). Politics is the party in general at all stages socialist construction was considered correct. Congress did not discussed the report Khrushchev and received on this issue only a brief resolution that contained a few lines.

However, this limited criticism and positive impact on health policy and moral-psychological atmosphere in society.

She helped break the ice human fear and long silence, finally revealing the truth about the methods socialist construction in the USSR.

Natural consequences of XX Congress of the CPSU a true revolution in public consciousness, enduring stereotypes Image thinking, critical assessment of past events. This crucial period in the life Soviet people, for the apt expression Erenburg II, was subsequently named "Khrushchev thaw"As a kind of among short-term warming of winter.

In fact, the essence existing political regime is not actually changed. But its leaders have did not want to use in the management of violent terrorist state methods.

 

2. De-Stalinizationin Ukraine

To direct criticism of Stalinism in more moderate mainstream, the CPSU Central Committee June 30, 1956 adopted Resolution "On overcoming the cult of personality and its consequences ", which was undoubtedly a step backwards in comparison with Khrushchev's speech at the congress XX

Stalin in this document characterized as "The man who fought for a cause socialism, and its crimes portrayed as limitations inner democracy, which were inevitable in a brutal struggle with "class enemies. "

The process of de-Stalinization advanced gradually vertically, which manifested itself in condemnation of the "personality cult" from top to bottom of all political organizations and ideological institutions.

In Ukraine, this process was somewhat slower than in the center. Particularly significant delay in the Republican press articles began to appear under slogan "In light of the decisions XX Congress. The general tone and content critical speeches were most fairly balanced and reasonable.

Political Signs "Thaw" more felt in the field of cultural life. Ukrainian culture began to return the names of forgotten or unreasonably illegally repressed figures. Enormous integrity and perseverance in this work revealed M. Rila. Due to his active work was posthumously rehabilitated poets O. Ole and М.Blackie.

In 1956, in republican media, the first news of the rehabilitation of Ukrainian Writers, repressed during the Stalinist terror: V.Ellana-blue, G. Solitaire, M.Irchan, V. Chumak, O. Dosvitnii, I. Mykytenka et al. A number of works of these writers was published in Anthology Ukrainian poetry " and collection "The revolutionary poets of the Western Ukraine.

In newspapers and magazines have become increasingly articles appear rehabilitated writers. Those з illegally repressed that remained alive after rehabilitation gradually involved in the cultural life of the republic. In this period launched a campaign for the return of fair famous names of Ukrainian Culture - playwright Gein, film-maker О.Dovzhenko director Л.Kurbas та others.

Along with rehabilitation of famous artists started to unfold and rehabilitation processes separate party, government and military figures.

An important impetus for this was elimination of autumn 1953 such terrible instruments of Stalinist terror, whether military tribunals and so-called "Special meeting". Last had the right to administratively enforce such brutal punishment as exile, imprisonment and deportation to the camps outside the country.

Tangible step towards democratization of political life was also the abolition of emergency of order Affairs "About preparing and committing terrorist acts ".

In 1954 specifically designed Commission of the Presidium of the CPSU Central Committee to study the materials of mass repression during "Big cleansing 1936-1939 biennium As a result of her work have been rehabilitated known Ukraine people - В.Zatonsky, E.Kviring, S.Kosior, J. Kotsyubynsky, M. Skrypnyk Postyshev S., J. anchor.

In addition, in September 1955 were amnesty citizens who were accused of collaboration with German occupiers during WWII.

This decision was important for Ukraine, with many Ukrainian, especially residents of the western regions, which were in Nazi-occupied territories were arbitrarily accused of "Aiding and abetting the enemy" and sent to Siberia or other remote areas Soviet Union. As announced amnesty for 1957 with imprisonment returned more than 65 000 former members of the OUN and the Warriors UPA.

In general, at the end of 50 years by KGB and the Prosecutor of Ukraine has been viewed almost 5.5 million business people, but only 58% of them were rehabilitated. As before, remained outlawed most of the victims of political 20's repression early 30's, as well as persons who were accused in Ukrainian nationalism.

 

3. Increase resistance de-Stalinization

Principle collective leadership, proclaimed N. Khrushchev after the death of Stalin XX Congress and supported KRPS, soon began to lose its force.

As a result of deteriorating relations between supporters Reform and Conservative ruling elite of the time actually split into two hostile camps.

Antyhruschovsku opposition led chairman of the Federal Government Г.Malenkov, his deputy Molotov and head State Committee on Labour and wages Л.Kaganovich. Because of fierce struggle for power in January 1955 G.Malenkovwas removed as Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers, which instead embraced marshal М.Bulganin.

Most acute confrontation between reformers and conservatives have reached the summer of 1957, when the cohesive "Stalin's Guard" decided to give open battle Khrushchev. Taking advantage of its due to the lack of an official visit to Finland, the opposition June 18, 1957 asked about the resignation of First Secretary at meeting of the Presidium of the CPSU Central Committee.

But organizers of the state Revolution is not fortunate. In the confrontation, which lasted four days, the important role played heads of power structures - G. Zhukov (Army) and І.Serov (KGB). They provide operational Delivery of members of the party Central Committee in Moscow.

Plenum of the Central Committee, held in absolute secrecy 22-29 June, after lengthy discussions and critical in their condemned the decision of the leaders of opposition groups. Subsequently, they were quickly shifted from high government positions. In this open power struggle Ukraine's leadership was completely on the side of Khrushchev and consistently supported it.

Defeat antyhruschovskoyi gave the opposition a chance to preserve manufactured policies and prepare a solid foundation for the next round update and liberalization of Soviet society.

Once you resolve political opponents, Nikita Khrushchev to strengthen their position made several personnel changes. In November 1957, in the person feeling G. Zhukov, who led the army, a serious threat to the party dictatorship, Nikita Khrushchev relieved of his duties as defense minister and appointed to this post native Ukraine Marshal A. Malinowski.

In December 1957 First Secretary Central Committee Communist Party of Ukraine Kirichenko was elected secretary of the CPSU Central Committee and headed the Communist Party became М.Piedmont.

In early 1958 Nikita Khrushchev removed from the post of Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers М.Bulganin and he led the Federal Government. Consequently, the two highest positions in the country - the party and state were in hands of one person.

In 1960, to the presidency Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR instead of 79 years А.Voroshilov was nominated Leonid Brezhnev.

Return to Khrushchev the Stalinist practice of combining management of the party and the government put end collegiality in governance despite the fact that the XX Congress political advantages of collegiality were officially confirmed by reference to Leninist tradition.

However, Khrushchev, according to historians, not described as "Stalinist autocrat in order", rather he is survived by his should like "Candidate for Stalin."

The next step de-Stalinization of Soviet society was XXII Congress of the CPSU, Held in 1961

It about the criminal activities of Stalin talked openly, forgetting already on his faithful companions and improvised К.Voroshilov. L.Kaganovich and Molotov.

One of the most prominent role during the Stalin played Л.Kaganovich, whose activity was closely connected with Ukraine. It was at the XXII Congress first full voice sounded the truth about his infamous secretary of КП(B) in 1947 This later period was rightly called "black days "for Ukraine. In particular, М.Piedmont with rostrum XXII Congress of the CPSU stated that L.Kaganovich, being on a high party position in Ukraine, povodyv itself as a true sadist, openly scoffed at the republic leaders persecuted intelligentsia, cynically demeaned the dignity of people, constantly threatened arrests and prison.

XXII Congress of the CPSU was the apogee of de-Stalinization, in which Nikita Khrushchev finally compromised and removed from power of their rivals. After that he could afford to forget about criticism Stalin and even commend it to individual works, call it again "Marxist-Leninist outstanding, declare that party "should pay name Stalin's enemies of communism. " After further deepening de-Stalinization threatened to have the same foundation of the totalitarian system.

This is why de-Stalinization process in general performed consistently, inconsistently, often Subject to tactical maneuvers and political calculations Khrushchev. Looking back on this period later, Nikita Khrushchev quite frankly stated that then the user could not reject the past, as was associated with its activities under the leadership of Stalin.

 

Figure

Leonid Brezhnev (190 -1982) - Soviet Communist leader. During WWII - politroboti of the Red Army. Since 1946 - the first Secretary of Zaporizhia, Dnipropetrovsk regional committees КП(B) U. In 1950-1952 - first secretary of Central Committee КП(B) of Moldavia. From 1953 - Deputy Chief - and the political directorate of the Soviet Army Navy. In 1954-1956 - second, first secretary of Central Committee КПKazakhstan. From 1956 - Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee. Since 1957 - Member of the Presidium of the CC. From 1964 - first (from 1966 - General) Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee. 1960 - 1964 and 1977 - Chairman Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. In 1968, crushed the "Prague Spring". Marshal Soviet Union (1976). In 1979 - one of the initiators of troops to enter Afghanistan. Hero of Socialist Labor (1961). Hero of Soviet Union (1966, 1967, 1978, 1981).

 

October (1964) CPSU Central Committee plenum marked a new phase of Soviet history.

To power in the state and the party came representatives of the so-called "third generation" of Soviet leaders. Career these people was closely linked to Stalin's bloody "human resource" late 30's, formed when a new government apparatus, instead of the previous brutally killed in 1937

Leonid Brezhnev, like his predecessor, Nikita Khrushchev, came to power, having strong ties with Ukraine, especially with so-called Dnipropetrovsk clan. In May, 1937 he said. 30 years of metallurgical engineering Factory, became deputy chairman of Dneprodzerzhinsk municipality. Stalin bloody terror 1937-1938 biennium created many job vacancies. So soon the young specialist was elected secretary Dnipropetrovsk regional committee party.

By filling out official forms, Leonid Brezhnev in Currently always said that he was a Ukrainian by nationality. However, Ukrainian origin did not prevent him subsequently, holding high government and party posts in Moscow, make explicit policy of Russification of Ukraine. Further career development by Brezhnev took place at the most active support of Khrushchev, who was then secretary of the Central Committee of Communist Party of Ukraine, and later - Secretary of the CC CPSU (b).

 

Documents

Decree of the Presidium Supreme Soviet "On his release from administrative supervision of the Crimean Tatars Balkars, Turks - citizens of the USSR, the Kurds, hemshylivand their families, evicted during the Great Patriotic War (28 April 1956)

Given that the suschestvuyuschye restrictions on the legal provisions on nahodyaschyhsya spetsposelenyyCrimean Tatars balkartsev, Turk - citizens of the USSR, kurdov, hemshylovand their families, vыselennыh in 1943-1944 biennium. Severn from the Caucasus, from Georgian SSR and the Crimea, in the future not vыzыvayutsya neobhodymostyu, Presidium USSR Supreme Council decides;

1. Remove from the accounting spetsposelenyyand because of osvobodyt admynystratyvnoho under supervision organs of the Ministry of Interior Affairs of the USSR Crimean Tatars balkartsev, Turk - citizens of the USSR, kurdov, hemshylov and their families, to vыselennыh spetsposelenye period in the Great Patriotic War.

2. Set restrictions on that decommissioning spetsposelenyyu Village officials, the first article in perechyslennыh THIS decree does not constitute a return of at vlechet im Property, konfyskovannoho at vыselenyy, and not what they are eligible vozvraschatsya in revenge, "From were vыselenы.

Inquiries to document

What was the inconsistency of the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR?

 

Nikita Khrushchev. Rough poprannya Leninist principles of national policy (From the report on the cult persons and its implications "in closed session XX Congress of the CPSU) / February 25, 1956 /

Comrades! Obratymsya rolled to some second fact. Soviet Union is rightly considered a sample mnohonatsyonalnoho state, in our ybo actually obespechenы ravnopravye and friendship of all peoples, naselyayuschyh our Families a largeу.

Topics vopyyuschymy more than yavlyayutsya Actions, ynytsyatorom kotorыh Was Stalin and present a kotorыeconstitute a DecemberBoe popranye of basic principles of National Policy Leninsky Soviet state. We are talking about vыselenyy of mass social svoyh rodnыh seats tselыh peoples, Including the volume up all the Communists would not than what it was us then exceptions. At this Rod vыselenye nykak dyktovalos voennыmy not a consideration ... Ukrainians yzbezhaly эtoy participation later, that their slyshkom lot and it was nekuda vыselyat.

В consciousness not only Marxist-lenyntsa, but also every man is zdravomыslyascheho ukladыvaetsya such a situation of the, as you can vozlahat responsibility for the hostile Actions otdelnыh lyts or groups of tselыe narodы, including women, children, Starikov, Communists and komsomoltsev, and podverhat their massive repressyyam, deprivations and stradanyyam ...

Inquiries to document

Do you agree with the conclusions given in the document?

 

Questions and Tasks

1. He became party leader after the death of Stalin?

2. Where and when first heard word about the crimes of Stalin?

3. In which cities in Ukraine beginning 60's years there have workers perform?

4. Which of the Ukrainian cultural figures who were rehabilitated during the "thaw", you can call?

5. In What was the feature processes de-Stalinization in Ukraine?

6. How has leadership in the army and the KGB overcoming the coup attempt in 1957?

7. Under what circumstances has been eliminated Khrushchev from power in October 1964?

8. Identify the chronological sequence of events:

- XX Congress of the CPSU;

- Election Shelest First Secretary of Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine;

- Top Ukrainian rehabilitation Writers, repressed during the Stalinist terror;

- Massive performance workers in the Donetsk and Zdan.

9. Describe staffing changes top management in the Soviet Union and the USSR after the arrival М.Khrushchev to power. What were they caused?

10. What is the significance of Khrushchev report on Personality Cult and its Consequences ", proclaimed by the XX Party Congress?

11. Why work with Nikita Khrushchev began to lose time support of the Ukrainian party-state elite?

12. М. Khrushchev sometimes called "candidate for Stalin." Do you agree with this feature?  Justify their thoughts.

13. Do you think what the party and state leadership USSR decided to avoid a further deepening of processes of de-Stalinization?

14. On changes in the socio-political life of the USSR and Ukraine testified that Khrushchev was ousted completely legal, legal ways?

15. How do you think could Л.Brezhnev, who emphasized his Ukrainian origin, not to hold  Russification policies in Ukraine? His According to justify.