§ 9 Sovietization Western oblast UKRAINE. OUN-UPA in the second half of the 40's - Early 50's
During the 1939-1940 biennium on Western Ukraine in the Soviet regime has not yet managed strengthened. So after War Party and state leaders of the USSR attempted to establish in Western Ukraine following procedure, which operated in other areas of the Union. This process was named "Sovietization". Sovietization included collectivization, industrialization, cultural revolution and mass repression against discontented new government.
The authorities attempted to Sovietization promptly, despite the resistance of local people. Living in Western Ukraine is well to remember the first experience of intercourse Soviet authorities. They feared collectivization and the persecution of religious soil, and their fears were vain. The introduction of Soviet lifestyle in Western Ukraine were sent a powerful political and military force.
1. Restoration Soviet rule in Western Ukraine
After the success of Lvov-Sandomierz Offensive Liberation of Transcarpathia and established the conditions for restoration of Soviet power in Galiciaand install it in Transcarpathia.
Immediately after the entry of Soviet troops in Western Ukraine to work in local government, economic, political, and other areas of the eastern provinces were sent to employees of different specialties. By mid- 1946 arrived here 86 thousand specialists.
Local activists did not trust their transferred to secondary positions. In late 1946 from 15 120 nomenclature of positions in the regional committee of the party in western Ukraine local workers origin occupied only 1 832 (12,1%).
The first event was the new government formation of first temporary, then permanent local authorities in the form of the Soviets.
Carried nationalization industry rekvizovuvalysvault, uderzhavlyuvavsya housing, trade, institutions culture, sometimes, other educational institutions, announced the state property Railway transport and all its service area, forests, mineral resources etc..
Large estates were confiscated and their lands passed landless peasants and malozemelnym, owners of large industrial enterprises, owners of farms, the population of that area (a total of 900 thousand people) were evicted and deported to remote regions of the USSR.
For instructions from Moscow and Kyiv Find places to introduce the same order that prevailed in other parts USSR. There were administration, brutality, violation of law and human rights observed bias towards local staff, the artificial separation in Ukrainian "Easterners" and «zapadentsiv».
2. The fate of Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church
One of the first strikes new government caused the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, which had a huge impact on Western population and performed inspired National Liberation struggle.
Prior to the Western Soviet lands Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church (Church) comprised of parishes in 3040 and 4440 Churches Theological Academy, 5 seminaries, 2 schools, 127 monasteries. Church headed by Metropolitan, which were subject to 10 bishops and 2950 priests. Besides, 520 was celibate priest, nuns, 1090, 540 students. Total Church united over 5 mly. believers.
Death November 1, 1944 Metropolitan A. Sheptytsky was signal to the campaign against the Church. Greek Catholics began to blame aiding and abetting the Nazis.
Succeeded by A. Sheptytsky Joseph Blind, trying find common ground with the new regime, sent a delegation to Moscow, which was adopted by the President of the Council on religious cults in the USSR Sovnarcom І.Polyansky. During the meeting, Church representatives briefed him and the life of the church and request Slipy "By clergy and faithful " which included appeals to Bandera "Return from an incorrect path). The delegation members gave 100 thousand rubles. the fund Red Cross for the defense of the country.
Joseph Blind born on February 17 1892, in Galicia. After school studying theology in Lviv, and with Fall 1912 - In Innsbruck, Where he received in 1918 doctorate in theology. Ordained Metropolitan Andrei Sheptytsky young the priest continued his studies. Since 1922 Joseph Blind - Professor dogmatism, spiritual seminars in Lviv, and later its rector. Under his leadership seminary was built up in the Greek Catholic Theological Academy. Second World War was the turning point in my life and. Blind. The entry of Western Ukraine into the USSR put the Church in difficult conditions. Summer and ill Metropolitan A. Sheptytsky looking for a replacement. November 25, 1939 HE was blind appointed successor to the metropolitan throne. During the German occupation Joseph revived the theological seminary, and academic activities of Theology Society. After returning Soviet Blind Joseph was arrested and sentenced to 8 years of forced labor. Later he was convicted three times, spent in prisons and camps in 1963 At the insistence of the Pope and world community, he was released and arrived in Rome. Here he began active: in exile the former resumed the Lviv Theological Academy (Ukrainian Catholic University), Monastery Studite, Ukrainian Theological Society activities and publication of journalTheology. January 25, 1965 He was elected Cardinal and Bishop (Patriarch) Church. For ninety third year ended Slipy life. According to his will, he in 1992 was reburied in.
Not wanting to engage in open Church conflict during the war, Stalinist leadership promised the Greek-Catholics to be free to service. However, in March 1945 was prepared detailed instruction to eliminate ChurchWhich was approved by Stalin. According to the instructions in April 1945 were arrested bishops led by Metropolitan Slipy. All of them were asked to "voluntarily" to reunite with the Russian Orthodox Church.
Then the authorities started arrest the leaders of Church and banish them to Siberia. For a short time Church was closed educational institutions destroyed metropolis and diocesan management, and arrested about 2 thousand priests, monks and nuns.
In 1946 took place in Kyiv private lawsuit against the Greek Catholic bishops led by Metropolitan Slipy. Then in Lviv was convened apocryphal(Ie one that is not legitimate to point view of church tradition) CathedralThat decided abolition of the Union of Brest in 1596, the gap with Rome and subordination Greek Catholics, Russian Orthodox church.
Church was forced to go underground. Initiator and organizer of the Council of Bishops Г.Kostelnik later was shot through на one the streets of Lviv.
For similar scenario unfolding events in Transcarpathia. 15 priests Mukachevo diocese were sent to Siberia, three killed and 36 escaped by border. In Mukachevo Bishop Г.Romzha was committed an attempt, albeit unsuccessful, but later bishop was poisoned in the hospital.
After all Greek-Catholic Church closed and 50 priests sentenced to various prison terms. The result of all these declaration of interests were in August 1949 Moscow Patriarch voluntary Mukachevo diocese reunification with the Russian Orthodox Church. "
Elimination Church was often part of the plan Sovietization of Western Ukraine. This new government has tried to measure undermine the spiritual support of the national liberation movement.
3. Collectivization, industrialization and cultural revolution
After the liberation of western lands under Nazi invaders on the agenda appeared issues of reconstruction and further development of the region. Development region was determined as Priority. In 1944 on its reconstruction has been allocated 10 billion rubles.
In order to coordinate a Sovietization western regions were created special post of Deputy Chairman of the Government of USSR, deputy Ministers. In the Central Committee of the Communist Party was established a special department for the western areas.
In the end of 1945 was rebuilt 1700 industrial enterprises and 500 industrial artels.
Process Reconstruction and further Development Industry western region was much harder than Eastern Ukraine. This was due to a number of reasons:
– simultaneity of rebuilding industrialization, collectivization and Cultural Revolution, and forced their pace;
– weakness economic potential region (only 4% of the population of the region were employed in industry);
– almost full absence Specialists Engineering Management management;
– ambiguous perception population social change, held power, passive and active resistance Sovietization,
Most painful for land was the process collectivization, which played the largest population resisted collectivization in the Western territories had several purposes:
– set totalnyy state control over the peasantry;
– unify Agricultural Development Western lands central and eastern regions of the USSR;
– break down private and proprietary psychology local population;
– deprive Support armed Soviet resistance movement power.
Collectivization was conducted inherent for the Soviet system by methods that were perfected during the collectivization 30 years: coercion, blackmail, intimidation, provocation, deportation to Siberia.
First blow was inflicted on rich farmers (they were 4,8% of the total number of farms owned and 13,7% of lands), they were increased 50% of mandatory standards supply agricultural shortened statutory deadlines, canceled any benefits. Those who resisted or did not perform the tasks, sent to Siberia.
As a result of the above measures the number of farms in the area increased from 145 in 1945 to 7200 in 1950, they included 93% farms. Based on large estates created state farms.
To expedite the collectivization implemented wide network machine-tractor stations (MTS). From to strengthen the party leadership in transforming the village created by MTS special political division.
Thus, end of the fourth p'Yatyrichky process collectivismgram was largely completed.
Were also significant transformation і in industry, that have drastically changed and upgraded the economic potential of the region. Industrialization of the land provided:
– inclusion of land to the West single -Union industrial complex;
– modernization of existing industries;
– development of local natural resources;
– changing social structure of population
During the period of industrialization in Western Ukraine was built 2,5 thousand large and medium industrial enterprises.
Compared with industrialization 30 years this process in Western Ukraine had its Features:
– significantly higher rates of industrial development: in 1940 Enterprise western regions accounted for 4.7% of the total number of enterprises republic, and in 1949 – already 12,6%;
– there were qualitative changes in traditional industries production wood and oil. their products was pereroblyuvatysya on place, and not exported beyond the edge as raw materials;
– created new areas for western branches of industry – metalworking, machinery, equipment, electric tube, instrumental, chemical, renovated and expanded woodworking, food processing, oil-mining;
– recognition of the priority development of the region caused direction brand new here Equipment і equipment that taken out of Germany for reparation;
– industrialization and inherited defects of the traditional Soviet of industry: disparity in the development of heavy and light industry favor of the dominance of quantitative indicators over qualitative, incomplete production cycle in a particular region.
At the end of 50 years of development industry of Western Ukraine has reached the level of the eastern regions of Ukraine.
An important event was Sovietization "Cultural revolution". Yes, created a new system of education that would include all citizens. Hereby achievement was elimination of illiteracypopulation. In the western region were sent to permanent job over 50 thousand teachers, delivered one thousand of textbooks and scientific textbooks. Created network of vocational education.
However, its effect was given and the excess ideological education, Called educate the population in the communist spirit and replace it in the national consciousness. In higher education lectures have been read mainly Russian.
The positive significance for development of land was the provision of free medical care. For this purpose, at Western was sent to hundreds of health workers and twisted secondary qualifications.
Process Sovietization Western Ukraine was mostly completed in late 50's.
4. OUN-UPA. R.Shukhevych (Taras Chuprynka)
Defending themselves from totalitarian attack regime, the Western population managed for annual methods of struggle – of sabotage to armed resistance.
Organized struggle was UFA in 1943 Combined with the OUN underground in a single structure - UPA. The political superstructure UPA was Ukrainian home Liberation Council (UHVR) – organization dedicated to manage national-liberation movement in Ukraine. By UHVR were Р.Shukhevych, V Cook, M.Lebed, Lypa et al. UHVR adopted a series legislation: "Appliance", "Platform". "Universal" but the main focusing attention on preparing combat action.
On final stage of World War II leadership led UPA actively preparing to fight the Soviet troops. In 1945-1946,, UPA, the number is constantly growing, took control of large territories Western Ukraine.
After fighting in Europe against the UPA were thrown troops MIA-MDB. Huge areas of territory Volhynia and the foothills of the Carpathians were blocked. Those who somehow was associated with OUN-UPA. destroyed or sent to Siberia.
Having suffered heavy losses, the UPA has made raids to break in West Germany of Austria. Those parts that do not could go abroad, divided into small groups, carrying out attacks on activists of the Soviet regime, destroying the collective farm property, MTS and other objects.
Propaganda, cruelty and cunning Soviet repression but also effective socio-economic changes and collectivization spread of resistance made it impossible to continue.
In March 1950 in the skirmish at Lions killed the commander of the UPA Novel Shukhevych (Alias – Taras Chuprynka).
Novel Shukhevych Born in 1907 After graduation in high school he entered the Lviv Polytechnic Institute, who successfully completed. From student days began participate actively in the national liberation struggle. In 1925-1929 he - member of the Ukrainian Military Organization (UMO). He became one of its leading figures. In 1929 among the first enrolled in UNO. Has worked on Fast combat reporter in the National Executive OUN. By its activities, was arrested by Polish authorities and thrown into prison. After some time, was released on amnesty. Peel was known alias "Captain pike".
At a time when Europe is about to have start World War II, UNO has intensified its activities aiming take this opportunity to revive the independent Ukrainian state. R.Shukhevych immediately responded to events in Carpathian Ukraine. He came to the edge, where he became one of the organizers and leaders "Carpathian Sich.
In 1939-1940 he worked in wires OUN assistant at the post due to the Ukrainian lands in the USSR. In 1940-1944 he was a member of the OUN. Participated in the Second Great Assembly Own (Spring 1941). After collecting a Provincial leaders of OUN in Ukrainian lands of the Polish general-governorship. There has always worked in the Head Military Headquarters UNO. Teacher training courses pas secret UNO.
Counting on support Germany in the liberation of Ukraine and the revival of state, R.Shukhevychwas the organizer and leader Ukrainian Legion (battalionNachtigall»), This Legion lack of active participation in combat operations in Germany against the USSR.
But after the German conquest Ukraine Command dissolved legion. Germany led the anti-Ukrainian policy R.Shushkevich move from cooperation to combat German occupiers.
Spring 1943 he became a military referent in the OUN. In mid-1943 The third very large Collection OUN chose R.Shushkevich the post Head Office OUN Leadership (Now he is known by the pseudonym "Tour").
In the fall he was barelyvnym commander UHIA і was already known as "general Taras Chuprynka.
In November 1943 R.Shukhevych was initiated and organized by a Volyn Conference of the oppressed peoples. This conference was evidence of significant changes in ideology OUN: Senior thesis was that liberate Ukraine of oppression can only be in alliance with other nations and that the slaves vastlyinterests of national minorities living in Ukraine.
Since 1944 alias "Vine" headed Government (Secretary General of Supreme Liberation Council). Secretariat military affairs, command UPA, was head of the Organization. These pin positions should remain until his death.
In 1945 Wires OUN issued Declaration which has committed itself to not leave the territory of Ukraine and will fight to the end. March 5, 1950 in the village.Belohorschiof lions R.Shukhevych killed during a battle with Soviet troops.
Succeeded R.Shushkevich В.Cook could not coordinate the actions of disparate units, which are mainly conducted struggle for survival. Small detachments of UPA were to mid 50's years.
Finally, resistance was completely suppressed. 170 thousand members of the OUN-UPA and sympathizers were convicted and sent to the camps.
From the prosecutor's memorandum Ukrainian Troops Colonel District Justice Kosharskohoto the Secretary of the CC КП(B) Khrushchev on facts gross violations of socialist legality in the activities of so-called special groups MGB».
...The Ministry of state security and its Ukrainian SSR in the Office Zapadnыh regions of Ukraine, to identify the tselyah vrazheskoho Ukrainien DEUTSCH nationalist podpolya widely prymenyayutsya etc. spetshruppы, deystvuyuschye under the kind of bandits "UPA".
CEI vesma ostrыy operative method work, if it online prymenyalsya smart, on-konspyratyvno and Present chekystsky podhotovlennыmy people nesomnenno, sposobstvoval would skoreyshemu uprooting ostatkov bandytskoho podpolya.
But as pokazыvayut facts, roughly provokatsyonnaya neumnaya and work rows spetshrupp dopuskaemыe and their actors Violence and arbitrariness over to local population not only not oblehchayut Fighting banditry, нO, on the contrary, uslozhnyayut eё, podrыvayut authority sovetskoi of law and, bessporno, nanosyat harm the cause of socialism construction in Zapadnыh regions of Ukraine ...
Actions ... so nazыvaemыh spetshrupp MGB are vivid vыrazhennыy bandytskyy, antysovetskyy character and, razumeetsya not beat poten opravdanы nykakymy operational soobrazhenyyamy.
Not raspolahaya dostatochnыmy MATERIALS the so-called, spetshruppы MGB vslepuyu corrupted, resulting wherefore their victims arbitrariness often yavlyayutsya Person, not to the Ukrainian-prychastnыe bandytskomu podpolyu nationalistic.
Speaking ... on rolls of Ukrainian natsyonalystov, uchastnyki spetsboevok ydut continue on Line yskusstvennoho, provokatsyonnoho creating antysovetskoho nationalist podpolya ...
Inquiries to document
Which means Soviet authorities tried to destroy the detachments of UPA?
5. Operation Vistula and its consequences
After the Second World War border between the Soviet Union and Poland under the agreement was basically by the so-called "Line Curzon». In Poland send several areas of Ukrainian-populated. At the same time part Polish population appeared on the Soviet territory.
By agreement between Poland and the USSR anticipated exchange of population on a voluntary basis. But in reality from the early exchange was accompanied by violence and numerous victims.
By the end of 1946 з Poland to the USSR were carried almost half a million people.
In 1947, possession of Ukrainian south-eastern Poland entered its final stage. At this stage it was especially cruel. Polish power by agreement with the Soviet leadership had a large-scale deportation operation Wis.
Its purpose was to resettlement part Ukrainian population Posyannya, Lemkivshchyna, Holm and in Podlasie west and north of Poland, so ooze "restore the earth." Operation Wis
Some 30 thousand Polish soldiers and Officers, backed by Soviet forces surrounded the remnants of Ukrainian armed forces and fierce Battles killed or captured many Ukrainian soldiers. Under threat Sentences in the short term were relocated 140 thousands of Ukrainian and mixed Polish-Ukrainian population. For those who tried to avoid relocation or returning home, a concentration camp was established at the former German concentration camp Auschwitz.
Because of deportationshares Ukrainian populated land in Poland were polonizovani. At the same time territory of Ukraine by violent means were relocated about 1 million Poles.
Moscow, USSR NKVD, LLC. Bury LP Dokladыvayu at beschynstvah Polish police, provodymыh in relations to the Ukrainian public, nahodyaschemusya by pohranlynyey after peredyslokatsyy voennыh komendantov Krasnaya Army further on West. Aktyvyzyrovalas activities of the Polish police by ystreblenyyu of Ukrainian population, looting and unychtozhenyyu Property, and for Recently, the activities of the Polish police terrorystycheskaya Acquisition been mass character. Of postupayuschyh svedenyy dostovernыh such sources, terrorystycheskaya activities of Polish police harakteryzuetsya The next facts:
February 22, SH in seclusion Buchyn 8 km zapadnee district center Krakovets the Lviv region. hruppoy polskoy police chyslennostyu 30 people. Services of 10 robberies of Ukrainian and rasstrelyano eight people. residents JEthat village. February 23, in the village Truchytsa Peremыshlskoho uezda polskaya police do this, the village rasstrelyala 10 people. Ukrainians at home kotorыh sozhzhenы. In the same day severnee district center Krakovets hruppoy Polish police podozhzhen home residents do this, the village Selchaka Ivan, zapysavshehosya of departure in USSR. At attempts social side Selchaka eliminate conflagration, polskaya police opened a in-house Gunsmith pulemetnыy fire ...
By Polish authorities activities of police in robberies and ystreblenyyu Ukrainians, Ukraine least not at some presekaetsya, Actions beznakazanno police pass.
Inquiries to document
On that tragic events in history Ukraine referred to in this document?
Operation "Wisla (1947)
Terminate transformation in Poland mononatsionalnu States
Overwhelm Ukrainian national liberation movement in Kholm, Podlasie, Nadsyannya, Lemkovshchyna (UPA ').
Plot defeat UPA
Terminate process of population exchange between Poland and the USSR. Part of the Ukrainian population unwilling to leave their homeland
Deukrainiazation Holm, Podlasie Nadsyannya, Lemkivshchyna (UPA '). Ultimately, these lands polonizuvaty
Help colonization "returned Lands " (Those that have departed from Germany to Poland by the Potsdam Conference)
Debug UPA public support
Plot defeat the main forces of UPA
Occasion: death in a skirmish with soldiers UPA March 28, 1947 Deputy Minister National Defence of Poland Karol Sverchevskoho
Period of implementation: April 28 1947 - July 1947 (Actually completed in October 1947).
Polish troops and police total of 30 thousand people., supported by Soviet and Czechoslovak troops who have set the screen at the border, have carried out the forced deportation Ukrainian population. For particularly recalcitrant concentration camp was established in Auschwitz on the side of the former German. Because of camp May 1947 to January 1949 was 3870 persons. of which 160 died.
Results and implications
Against UPA was held 357 shares of combat, rebels destroyed 1509, 1178 bunkers and krayivok. 2800 Members Arrested OUN and UPA. Cessation of hostilities UPA Zakerzonni
Evicted in western and northern regions of Poland 140 thousand Ukrainian.
Where Ukrainization "UPA '
Questions and Tasks
1. What measures are included in themselves sovietization? For what purpose it was conducted in the western regions of Ukraine?
2. How has fate after Church occurrence West lands to the USSR?
3. What new industries have in Western Ukraine and afterndustrializatsiyi?
4. Population of the territories captured Operation Wisla?
5. What are the main goals of industrialization and collectivization in the Western Ukraine.
6. In What were the contradictions of "cultural Revolution in Western Ukraine?
7. Identify the chronological sequence of events:
- Operation Vistula;
- Roman death Shushkevich;
- Liquidation of the Church in Eastern Galicia;
- Of UPA and OUN underground в single structure OUN-UPA.
8. What was different in common and collectivization, held in Western In Ukraine postwar period, and collectivetyvizatsiyi, carried out in 30 years in Dnieper Ukraine?
9. Which positive and negative effects have Sovietization for Western Ukraine?
10. Fold political portraits R.Shushkevich and. Blind.
11. Why do you think the Soviet leadership domahayusya Ukrainian subordination hreCatholic co- Church Russian Orthodox Church?
12. How do you think you can compare the methods by which conducted Operation "Vistula", with Stalin deportationoperations conducted in postwar Ukraine?
13. What impact do you, the view had events occurred in the postwar period in Western Ukraine, for further development of interethnic and interfaith relations in Ukraine?