8. UKRAINE DURING post-war reconstruction (textbook)

 

Theme II                                        Post-war Reconstruction and development of the country/ In 1945 - the middle 50's /

 

§ 8                                                               UKRAINE DURING Post-war reconstruction

 

World War II led to significant changes in the fate Ukraine.

Although Ukraine has undergone large losses (destroyed economic potential loss of many lives), has expanded its borders, increased political and economic weight in the USSR republics, it entered the international arena as a subject of international law fundamentally changed the composition of its population.

And, most importantly, the first time in many centuries almost all Ukrainian lands were united borders of one state

 

Ukraine in the period of reconstruction (1943-1953 biennium)

 

1. Administrative-territorial changes

Question of the western border of the USSR, and respectively, and Ukraine was acutely during the final operations of the Second World War II in Europe. It actively discussed during Tehran (1943), Yalta (1945) and Potsdam (1945) Conference of Heads of State anti-Hitler coalition.

Finally, the post-war borders of Ukraine formed during Ukraine-Poland, Ukraine, Czechoslovakia, Ukraine-Romania local approvals and legal confirmation in consisting of the Republic of Western Ukraine, which joined the USSR during the 1939-1945 biennium

Particularly difficult and time-consuming was settlement of territorial issues with Poland and Czechoslovakia. This process significantly influenced the international situation, particularly the desire to gain a foothold in the USSR Eastern Europe.

The first step Ukraine-Polish territorial arrangements was Lublin agreement between the Government of the USSR and the Polish Committee national liberation from September 9, 1944 According to this part of the Ukrainian lands (Part of Podlasie, Holm, Нadsyannya, Lemkivschyna) where lived almost 800 thousand Ukrainian, Poland passed. In this way, Stalinist leadership sought support prosovetskoyPolish government and resolve negative attitude to the Polish public Soviet authorities through the events of 1939

The territorial separation between the USSR and Poland has been fixed Treaty on Soviet-Polish border on August 16, 1945 This document set the border on the "line CurzonAnd deviations to the east (ie, for Poland) of 5-8 km, and in some areas 17 km (District Nemiroff Heifer) and even 30 km (by district Solokiya and M. Kryluva).

Process Ukraine-Polish territorial agreements concluded in 1951 a request Poland exchanged border areas, which resulted in the Lviv area of land left in the city Kristinopol (Later renamed Chervonograd on) and went to Poland in the territory around the city of Upper Ustrzyki Drohobych region.

With the approaching Soviet troops to Borders Czechoslovakia the question of the fate of the Transcarpathian Ukraine.

In the Soviet-Czechoslovak negotiations Government of immigrant Е.Benesha and in the treaty of friendship, mutual assistance and postwar cooperation between the USSR and CHSR (12 December 1943) issue of Transcarpathian Ukraine to resolve in favor of Czechoslovakia.

In May 1944 London was signed agreement between the USSR and CHSR the relations between the Czechoslovak government and Allied (Soviet) forces in the liberated territory. Agreement provided that the Chief of the Soviet troops will have power only in within the zones of combat action. In the rest of government carried Czechoslovak authorities.

But with the entry of Soviet troops in Transcarpathian Ukraine the situation has changed. The Soviet government was consider this region as an important strategic base for reinforcing their influence in Central and Southeastern Europe. To achieve its strategic goals of the Soviet leadership used the anti-fascist and national liberation movements of the country's population.

With release Transcarpathian Ukraine from Nazi occupation came from Underground People's Committees have to be a local government and the communists, that November 19, 1944 formed independent Communist Party of Transcarpathian Ukraine.

Restoration of the Czechoslovak Administration blocked. Most of the land was included in the zone, which spread the power of the Soviet military administration. In processes which occurred in the province, actively interfered authorities headed by NKVD Л.Beria, who immediately began making mass internment and deportation of local population, the military administration that committed the call to the Soviet Army; politorhany also in the 4 th Ukrainian Front, which led Leonid Brezhnev.

Under such conditions, November 26, 1944 in м. Mukachevo was convened Congress of People's Committees. At this congress approved Manifesto on reunification with the Soviet Transcarpathian Ukraine Ukraine, elected People's Council as the supreme legislative authority Transcarpathian Ukraine and formed a government. Pretty soon all have been created attributes of statehood Transcarpathian Ukraine court, prosecution, armed forces, local authorities and others.

Developments in Transcarpathia worried government CHSR. Foreign Minister CHSR Я.Masaryk frankly stated that Transcarpathia not be left to the Soviet Union, because "Russia can not be cut Europe ".

And developments made the leaders Czechoslovakia into account new circumstances. The population of Transcarpathia wished Ukraine to join. Soviet violation of previous agreements, sought early decide the fate of Transcarpathia in their favor. All attempts by the CHSR bring the matter to discuss post-war international conference exposed to resistance Stalin's leadership.

Eventually the government had CHSR yield. In June 1945, agreement between the USSR and CHSR legally assigned decision of the Congress in Mukachevo. January 22, 1946 issued a decree of the Presidium Supreme Soviet of the USSR formation within the Transcarpathian region. This act simultaneously liquidated Transcarpathian Ukraine as a state formation.

Speaking June 30, 1945 on VII session of the Supreme Soviet. Nikita Khrushchev said that the Ukrainian people vozz'yednavsya first time in a single Ukrainian state.

The final point in determining the post-war Ukraine's borders were delivered February 10, 1947 when signing Soviet-Romanian agreement for which away to the USSR Northern Bukovina, Hotynschyna, Izmayilschyna, that were tied legally boundaries established in June 1940

The settlement of territorial issues had Ukraine for the following consequences:

         were finally established and legally fixed boundaries Republic;

         increased area of SSR;

         demographic changes occurred in the population;

         major part of Ukrainian lands were united in borders of one state.

Association of Ukrainian lands, access Ukraine into the international arena led to a change of state symbols of the republic. Presidium of the Supreme Soviet adopted a decree National Emblem of the USSR, National Flag and National Anthem of the USSR. A red flag with the inscription "USSR" was replaced with two-colored: the upper part, which was two thirds the width blade was red, the bottom small light blue (Cerulean) color. In the upper left corner of the flag contained images and sickle hammer above it pentagonal star. Some changes undergone and the emblem of USSR.

 

2. Foreign Policy SSR activities

End World War Ukraine re-emerging on the international scene. However, as part of Soviet Union, it had opportunity to conduct an independent foreign policy.

January 27, 1944 at the plenum of the Central Committee CPSU (b) it was decided expansion union rights republics in international relations, X session Supreme Soviet (January 28 - February 1, 1944) adopted law to transform the People's Commissariat Foreign Affairs із -Union to a union-republican. A in March 1944 Supreme Council of USSR adopted law on the formation People's Commissariat of Foreign Affairs of the Republic. Headed People commissariat Д.Manuilsky.

Having decided this step, Stalinist leadership pursued far-reaching strategic objectives: firstly, to introduce Western accession regions of Ukraine and Belarus as an act reunion territories inhabited by representatives of one ethnic group, and secondly, increase their representatives in the United Nations talks creation which actively vedys end War.

In August 1944 at a conference in Dumbarton Oksi (USA) during discussion project future Organizations United Nations Soviet Predstavnyk А.Gromyko introduced proposal consider 15 Soviet republics founding members of. While this proposal was rejected, Stalin leadership not left to the idea. At the Crimean Conference in February 1945 U.S. and UK pledged to support the proposal of the Soviet government adoption SSR and BSSR in United States

May 6, 1945 Ukrainian delegation arrived San Francisco the constituent United Nations conference and actively been activated in work. Д.Manuilsky led Committee training text preamble (introduction) and the first section of the UN Charter "Objectives and Principles" of Organization. Other members of the Ukrainian delegation: І.Senin, O. Palladin, V. Bondarchuk, M.Petrovsky, П.Pogrebnyak too and took active participate in the committees.

At the first session of the General Assembly UN 1946 Ukraine was elected member Economic and Social Councils and in 1948-1949 he Drain Council member Security UN. Representatives of Ukraine invited the work of many structures, including to International court.

Ukraine supported the application is to UN Ceylon and Laos, her representative has played a crucial role in making the decision to split Palestine on Jewish and Arabic parts and creation State Israel.

From the first years of operation Ukrainian diplomacy has been quite active. Led by Commissar D.Manuil's'kogo Representatives of Ukraine participated in the Paris Peace Conference (29 July - 15 October 1946), in February 1947 signed peace treaties with Italy Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria and Finland.

Ukrainian delegation also fans active participation in the Danube Conference 1948, which decide the issue of trade regime of navigation on the Danube.

Already during the Cold War, the USSR became in World Council of Peace proposed a series of peace initiatives.

Despite the rough foreign policy, Ukraine not out of theа limits policy dictated by the Soviet leadership. Thus, agreements Poland and Czechoslovakia the settlement of border issues been signed representatives of the Federal People's Commissariat of Foreign Affairs. A UK Offers (1947) and Sudan (1956) on establishment of direct diplomatic relations with the USSR and remained without response.

Thus, the output of the USSR foreign policy arena was conditioned strategic interests of the USSR.

 

3. The transition to peace construction. Political and economic situation in the USSR

After the liberation of the republic from Nazi Invaders arose on reconstruction Economy Ukraine.

According to historians, no country in Europe has not been such destruction cities, industry, agricultural lands, loss of as many people as Ukraine. During the war the enemy was destroyed 714 cities and towns, and more than 28 thousand villages (250 with were completely burned together з their inhabitants), destroyed 16 158 industrial enterprises (intact remaining 19% of pre-war number of industrial enterprises), 1,9 thousand railway stations, 28 thousand farms, 900 state farms. MTS 1,3 thousand, 18 thousand hospitals, 33 thousand teaching and scientific institutions, 19 thousand libraries.

The ruins of the Dnipro. 1944

 

Only direct losses caused national economy, equaled 285 billion rubles. That exceeded the loss of the RSFSR. General damages that war brought people and economy of Ukraine, were 1.2 trillion. rubles.

Was extremely difficult situation in agriculture economy, as in 1945 gave only a third of the prewar annual harvest.

Significant population losses were. According to experts, they were 9 million people or 22% total population. According sharply reduced workforce.

But even these figures do not give full understanding of the tragic consequences of a terrible war. After it ended, continued die from wounds members fighting and dying civilians from mines, shells and other lethal items that remain in the Ukrainian territory.

Katastroficheski worse everyday terms of population: about 10 million husband left without accommodation.

In such conditions, once zvilnyalas territory of the republic from invaders rozpochynalasya reconstruction economy. By the end of 1945 restored 44% of prewar capacity manufacturing and 30% of light industry, enacted 123 major and 506 small mines of Donbass.

Work was carried out and to Reproduce housing, was recovered a large part of schools, universities, medical institutions.

One of the distinguishing features of political life of Ukraine was the strengthening influence of the Communist Party. On January 1, 1946 КП(B) consisted of 320 thousand members, and its strength steadily increased. The party apparatus is constantly striving for total control over all areas of society.

Restored the activity of Soviet power. In February, 1947 held elections to the Verkhovna Council in December 1947 to local councils.

However, authorities canceled management that operated during the war.

Reorhanizovuvalas management system industry and agriculture. In 1946 Council of People's Commissars was renamed the Council of Ministers of the USSR.

Enterprises and institutions were transferred to normal operation: restored 8-hour day, vacations, skasovuvalas Overtime unpaid work. Reduced allocations for defense. The country switched to peaceful work.

 

4. Reconstruction and peculiarities in Ukraine

In March 1946 Parliament USSR adopted a five-year plan of reconstruction and economic development in 1946-1950 biennium

Disregarding the physical abilities of people plan provided less than 5 years to rebuild the destroyed parts of the country, restore pre-war level of industrial and agricultural development and even exceed it, increase productivity by 36%.

At the same time, experts believed that Soviet Union for several decades to rebuild.

The volume of investment for five years made 65 million rubles. that exceed the level investment in three pre-five years.

Thus, warworn population had to work on the limits of physical possibilities.

One can call such features Reconstruction in Ukraine:

1. The extent of rebuilding works were greater than in any other country in Europe.

2. Republic had to rely only on their own strength and resources of the Soviet Union rather than on external help. The Cold War made possible the use of Western, primarily U.S., financial and technical assistance.

3. When rebuilding stake on the so heavy Industry and Energy (80% of investment) due to light industry, social services and agriculture (the last assigned only 7% of capital).

4. Ukraine's economy and vidbudovuvalas been built, of course, not as an independent, self-enclosed and complex as well as part-Union economic system. In addition, the rise of new industrial centers in the USSR and the Urals in Kazakhstan Ukraine's fate in 1945 production in the Soviet Union has decreased compared the pre-war period from 18% to 7%.

5. Everywhere was introduced administrative team system. Exactly given its tough to mobilize and focus the considerable material and human resources to rebuild the economy.

6. Extremely great ideological role assigned to the foster work that found its expression in large-scale mobilization and propaganda activities socialist competition, movement makers and innovators.

8. Reconstruction was complicated by hunger Of 1946-1947

9. Sharply felt the lack of working force, especially skilled, modern equipment, and technology.

The results of reconstruction were ambiguous.

On the one hand, it was restored Industry of Ukraine. its volume in the 1946-1950 biennium increased in 4,4 times and exceeded the level in 1940 15% (however, output light Industry in 1950 decreased compared to pre-war and 20%).

On the other hand, the cost of reconstruction, because of its harsh methods was very high.

Derationing distribution products and monetary reform in 1947 laid a heavy burden on shoulders of workers.

Especially difficult was the situation of farmers. They receive meager earnings, they were exempted social guarantees they were denied the right to have a passport, and subsequently move freely, they had to pay heavy taxes on homestead land.

For intensification Stalinist leadership of labor in kolkhoz introduced coercive and repressive methods. Yes. February 21, 1948 Presidium Supreme Soviet Ordinance adopted On eviction з Ukrainian SSR persons who darkly evade employment in agriculture and lead antisocial parasitic lifestyle. Under this decree was repressed 12 thousand workers.

However, despite these measures and extraordinary efforts of farmers in agriculture at the end of five-year plan and failed to reach pre-war development indicators. Thus, in 1950 Gross harvest of grain was only 85% of the war.

 

5. Hunger 1946-1947 Its causes, extent and consequences

In the postwar period in agriculture Historically farming extremely disadvantage: the war decreased sown area, decreased stock cattle, lacked equipment and workers. To overcome these difficulties required have been fundamental changes in government policy towards agriculture economy.

But the Stalinist leadership and thoughts do not little to hold any changes in his village plans was one of the main sources for the rebuilding industry. Under pressure from the central leadership the former USSR and Central Committee КП(B) plan in 1946 in forced increase of the sown area, yield and grain storage.

Spring-summer 1946 16 regions Ukraine struck by drought. Winter and spring crops were lost. Grain yield was 2.3 centners per hectare (for comparison, in 1940 it was 14.6 kg / ha in 1944 10.8 kg / ha).

The drought has exacerbated the problem of feed cattle. Began murrain. It was allowed to take the cattle to slaughter more than plan rules. This led to what in some areas of the plan of putting meat was exceeded twice. As a result of breeding of the republic has undergone enormous losses kompensovuvaty who had a long time.

Leaders of some areas started strongly appeal to the Government to reduce the planned targets grain purchases, which in July 1946 increased from 340 to 360 million pounds.

The response to appeals for help become repressive measures. In rural areas left representatives of higher authorities region or court prosecution. To justice was brought only in the first quarter 1947 1,5 thousand heads of collective farms. At 6 thousands of Communists were subject to discipline for failure guidelines party.

Action was renewed law "the five ears"By which was convicted and imprisoned thousands of peasants. The villagers began to flee from hunger death in more advanced areas (such as Western Ukraine) in the city. To avoid obezlyudnennya village punitive organs started find and return the peasants ago.

But despite the extreme measures, grain could collect only 60% grain procurement plan, although it was even removed Seed Fund.

At a time when overseas Fl selling the contaminated bread (only in Eastern Europe and France were exported 1,7 million tons to support those governments that were established there), launched in Ukraine hunger, the victims of which were almost 1 million man.

Appearing before the disaster management Ukraine headed by N. Khrushchev sought to reduce its scale by expense of the western regions and trusted to help the central authorities, referring to Stalin.

In response, Stalin, Khrushchev said: "You m'yakotilyy! You cheat, they play on your sentimentality. They want us to spend our national resources.

In March 1947 "M'yakotiloho" Khrushchev was replaced by "solid" Л.Kaganovich. However, the sowing campaign still was given a loan of 35 million pounds of seed.

The main culprit third famine in Ukraine was the Stalinist leadership, which ignored the fate of million Ukrainian for imperial interests.

 

Document

Complaint kolkhoz s.Popelyuhy Pishchanskydistrict, Vinnytsia region President of the Council of Ministers of USSR M. S. Khrushchev in unbearable working conditions and starvation (5 June 1946)

            Nikita Sergeevich, father our Deputy, difficult to us, we oborvannыe all Goals and bosыe, and hryaznыe holodnыe on people have a mortgage, skotov zhyvem worse, we really Never it was difficult, as in Xth minute, Our people with starvation mrut, Children from nedoedanyya and diseases stanovyatsya burbot. Pytaemsya we lebedoy, bark, and in whom there is money, the city and in edut pokupayut bread in COMMERCIAL stores but и by bread ydty far - 140-160 км, and we have no one prodaet. Of kolhoza we do not polupyly nothing and no Hope - All shorelo and yarovыe weaker and as a very feasible plan, all croak...

Many kolhoznyky sobyrayutsya uezzhat pas Caucasus and in Srednyuyu Azyyu. Everything they say, that there life and bohataya Cheap, а Obnyschala Ukraine, and no one is pas nee obraschaet of attention. Live well now only hytretsы, spekulyantы, zhulyky, vorы and their lot, and not just people dobytsya Pravda, all yell at him and not veryat.

In our district official summary Samyya otstalыy in region, Hope nykakyh, we are all slain grief from us nuzhdы not vыyty.

If you do, Nikita Sergeevich, we do not Help, then we have not enough forces, and from no one area we did not slыshyt. C kazhdыm YEAR everything worse and worse - are still kolhozu. Like us are working, and guarantees of no, that poluchysh. In the village is very sadly, Now no one Ukraine already holidays, weddings us not spravlyaet, all nykoho poorer and it is not interested, and Young people in our walk tryapkah, and im not to veselya and komsomoltsы and partyytsы molchat. In the newspapers write that all the good and where it is good and bad in us all. In The area is bad, worse than it was 10 years ago. And no Bazar, and the church burned, and no bath is working. Our relatives from Peschanky They say that Peschanka became worse, than the village.

People are yzmenylys - hudыe, black, zlыe, they say, that is now no Pravda, но true dolzhna be, we ask that you support, Nikita Sergeevich, draw attention to our village Popeliukhy Peschanskohoarea. Help us even though this year.

C bow, Tkachuk and Belokon.

Inquiries to document

1.  What socio-political and economic processes taking place in Ukraine reflects this document?

2. What impressed you most when you are acquainted with this historical source?

 

 

6. Demographic situation. The standard of living and lifestyle of the population

On the demographic situation in Ukraine influenced by such factors:

         losses in the war;

         migration;

         to join in the USSR of Western Ukraine;

         famine of 1946-1947;

         rebuilding the economy.

During the war years Ukraine has lost nearly 3 million man at the front (most second called the army) and 5,5 million man in the zone of occupation.

Added to this are exported to forced labor of over 2,2 million people, of whom only returned back to 800 thousand (Including 200 thousand for various reasons did not want to come back).

Completion of fighting has triggered significant migration process. They came back to peaceful work demobilized from the Soviet Army 2,2 million persons. Returned and those that were removed during the evacuation to the East, and those that were forced labor or in captivity outside of Ukraine. Also Ukraine arrived workers, party leaders from other republics of the USSR of building the economy and Sovietization western regions.

Influence on migration and Deportation (Forcible eviction from their places residence of persons who were deemed socially dangerous).

Affected the demographic situation Ukraine repressionThat they conducted Stalinist leadership on national Minorities (Eviction Crimean Tatars, Germans, Poles, Hungarians et al.).

Large influence on demographic processes had reconstruction and further development of industries which accelerated the process Urbanization and led to a reduction number of rural residents because of demographic changes occurred in the 40's, the population republic in 1951 was 37,2 million peopleThat of 4,1 million less than in prewar 1940

Much has changed and ethnic composition of the USSR. Decreased the number of such national minorities as Jews, Poles, Germans and others., instead increased the share Russians.

War and postwar devastation caused catastrophic fall in living standards, not enough food and most necessary things. Acutely housing problem, the problem of homeless children, crime and others. But their decision to plan the Fourth Five allocated scarce resources.

In December 1947 adopted Resolution Council of Ministers of the USSR and the CPSU (B) of Unlike cards for food and industrial products and the transition to selling these products in opening trade on uniform state retail prices. Along with derationing held Monetary ReformThat was aimed at regulating the whole financial system.

Past reforms have had mixed consequences.

On the one hand, lifting the card system was a positive phenomenon, it is evidence of a national stabilization economy.

But on the other hand, after 1947 wage most of the population only increased by half in Compared with pre-war level, significantly lagged behind the new government prices, which almost three times higher than pre-war level. There was this situation: retail shops lomylysya of delicacies (eggs, fish, meat, etc.) and no queues, no special demand for these products were not.

Failed to significantly improve life population level and monetary reform.

On the one hand, she led the volume money supply that was in circulation, in line with the needs of the economy.

On the other it led to extracting money from those who saved certain amount. On deposits in savings in box office up to 3 thousand rubles. exchange of bank notes was carried out at a ratio of 1:1, on deposits from 3 to 10 thousand rubles. reduction was carried out on savings third, and over 10 thousand rubles. two thirds.

Especially painful reform hit peasantry, which was again deceived by the state. Under conditions of total absence, the bank in the country, exchange cash that kept the peasants vlomy was performed on ratio of 1:10.

Thus, reconstruction of the economy has not led to growth in living standards population and social problems deferred for the next decade.

 

Document

Data on Ukraine's population (a collection of declassified statistical CSB USSR) (1945)

Region

On 07/01/1941, the

Total (thousand)

On 05/01/1944, the

(In thousands)

After liberation   remaining population

(In% of   in 1941)

Kyiv City

899,4

318,0

35,4

Kiev

2319,4

1845,7

65,5

Chernihiv

1788,6

1227,0

68,6

Sumy

1720,0

1184,0

68,8

Poltava

2227,6

1546,1

69,4

Kharkiv

2643,1

1668,3

59,1

Voroshilovgradsky

2041,3

1094,3

53,6

Stalin

3388,5

1803,9

53,2

Dnepropetrovsk

2344,6

1417,1

60,4

Zaporozhye

1450,0

926,6

63,9

Zhytomyr

1736,2

1105,1

68,7

Kamjanetsky

1786,0

1282,1

69,0

Vinnitsa

2406,0

1666,5

69,3

Turkey

1193,3

811,4

68,0

Odessa

1852,5

1102,5

58,6

Nicholas

766,2

519,8

67,8

Kherson

780,8

502,8

64,4

Volyn (6   districts)

240,5

147,9

61,5

Rivne (in   27 districts)

1103,2

759,6

68,9

Chernivtsi

879,7

555,0

63,1

Stanislavsky

691,9

465,0

67,2

Ternopil   (To 29 districts and 2 cities)

1327,1

818,0

61,6

 

Question to document

Follow that region of Ukraine were the largest losses during the war, and try to explain why.

 

Questions and Tasks

1. Which territories became part of USSR in 1945-1947 he was?

2. What are the consequences of World War II was for the economy Ukraine?

3. The work of international organizations which participated Ukraine in the second half of the 40 st century?

4. What reforms in finance and distribution were conducted in 40-ies?

5.  What role played Ukraine in the creation of the UN?

6. What  Priority  task  put  plan for rebuilding the economy of USSR?

7. What are the specific features of building the economy in Ukraine?

8. What factors influenced the demographic situation in Ukraine 40-ies?

9. What are the consequences of territorial changes in the USSR postwar time.

10. Why did the Soviet leadership to provide navazhylosya Formal independence of Ukraine in the implementation of foreign policy?

11. What had caused the famine of 1946-1947? What events, in your opinion, could have prevented it?

12. Do you think the factors by which the Soviet Union decided to benefit all its post-war territorial issues?

13. What was in common and different causes, consequences famine of 1946-1947 and famine in 1933?

14. Should have been pas you think the results Reconstruction of the methods by which they achieved?