§ 7 CULTURE OF UKRAINE IN THE WAR YEARS
1. Education. Science. Ukrainian press
The circumstances of wartime forced evacuate the school in the eastern parts of Ukraine USSR. Secondary schools with Ukrainian language opened in areas where considerable number of Ukrainian population.
About 5,5 thousand Ukrainian teachers worked in Saratov, Kuibyshev, Stalingrad, Novosibirsk, Perm, Sverdlovsk, Omsk regions and in Central Asia. Here operated 100 schools with instruction in Ukrainian.
Tens of thousands of children made orphans of war. For them, in the eastern districts were created and nursing homes that were on public support. It was moved from Ukraine 500 kindergartens and boarding schools, 257 orphanages, where there were 40 thousand children and 15 thousand educators.
Among the students was held constant education work, aimed at forming a sense of patriotism. Students constantly informed of developments on the fronts of World War II, in schools released military leaves. Active correspondence was conducted classes and schools veteran. Mass prevalent student amateur art groups, which gave concerts in hospitals for wounded soldiers and commanders.
The invaders did in Ukraine real vandalism in public education. Only in Kiev, dozens of schools have been converted at the stables, and teachers were forced to work cleaners, loaders, on various part-time jobs.
Education Policy Nazis in Ukraine was aimed at onimechennya Ukrainian population. "New Order" Nazis involved training local people only elementary counting (in within 500) and the introduction of general literacy in the amount of 4-classroom school. It was introduced compulsory language learning. For teaching Geography occupiers cynically declared: "Teaching Geography may be restricted one single sentence: "The capital of the Reich – Berlin.
Nazi invaders subjected educators unprecedented repression, viewing them as potential participants resistance movement. Only in the Kiev region invaders tortured and killed about two hundred teachers.
Bloody Nazi terror gripped and university research intelligentsia. At the beginning of the war aggressors committed in total carnage Lviv University rozstrilyavshy 42 professors, associate professors and lecturers. The victims Nazi genocide were 7 thousand intellectuals Kharkov.
When the war chief research centers of Ukraine was relocated to the East. In the USSR was evacuated nearly 400 academicians, corresponding members and other researchers. Presidium of the USSR and the core of scientific personnel were in Ufa (From June 1943 USSR and the leading research institutions of Ukraine was transferred from Ufa to Moscow).
At the Presidium of the USSR was formed Scientific and Technical Committee to promote the defense headed by President of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR Bogomolets. Before scientists from Ukraine were delivered important task that required urgent solution. "We realized – said Academician Palladin, – that put before us challenges which had to be resolved immediately, as speedily as possible, without stretching them to long time. "
Research conducted by branches of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (physical-chemical and mathematical biological, technical and social sciences).
On defense program worked eight laboratories of the Institute of Technical Physics USSR Academy of Sciences, they developed military devices for aircraft, radar and direction finding. Institute of Ferrous Metallurgy experienced combat as artillery systems. Institution building mechanics to perform the tasks of command Air Force.
Institute of Electrical USSR on led by renowned scientist Paton applied method Automatic arc weldingflux at the collection of cases of T-34. Thanks to this innovation improved quality and durability of military vehicles. Electric speed was introduced on 10 tank factories and 6 factories to manufacture bombs. In general, progressive method of automatic submerged arc welding passed 40% of the tank factories.
The war became a crucible for medical and biological sciences. Academician Bogomolets along with a team Institute of Clinical Physiology invented the serum for the treatment of wounds. By 1943 for the needs of military hospitals this serum was produced in quantity three million doses.
Institute of Biochemistry, USSR Academy of Sciences (Academician O. Palladin) created a drug for blood clotting. In Novosibirsk, successfully operated Hospital-Institute of diagnosis and treatment of penetrating chest injuries. Thanks to new treatments for wounded soldiers mortality among them decreased from 25-30% to 7%.
Academician М.Strazhesko managed in Ufa Ukrainian Institute of Clinical Medicine. Group research workers are under his leadership has made intensive study wound wound infection and sepsis. Later, in Moscow, at the central hospital Red Army, M.Strazhesko successfully continued research that saved the lives of hundreds of thousands of soldiers and officers.
Surgeon-ophthalmologist, academician V. Filatov led Ukrainian Institute in Tashkent, eye diseases and effectively did transplant cornea wounded carnage. Healed Soviet officer with thanks scientist wrote: "My dear Vladimir Petrovich! The letter you wrote Lieutenant Zhukov ... All my friends thought I would get to accompany them, but I came ... It has been a week already, I again at the front.
Great job in the army held Kiev Professors Medical Institute. From the first day of the war were on the front of doctors surgical clinic of the Kiev Institute for Advanced Physicians. Leader of the institution М.Kolomiychenko became the chief surgeon celebrated the 62 th Army.
Scientists, experts enhance society morale of the Army. Experts humanities were the teams speakers who spoke with lectures from military-historical themes of forefront in the garrison town, and so destructive battalions. Before students –Ukrainian soldiers fronts workers Academy of Sciences revealed history heroic struggle of the Ukrainian people against foreign oppressors.
This ranks scientific agencies assisted the armed forces. In field duty were over 300 employees of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, including 130 doctoral degrees.
No defunct Ukrainian press. In the rear of the Ukrainian Republican newspaper published in the first place party and Soviet authorities, "Communist" (since January 1943 –"Soviet Ukraine") and "Sovetskaya Ukrayna "(January 1944 – "The truth Ukraine") Twice a month came out newspaper "Literature and Art" – Body Unions of writers, artists and composers USSR.
In the socio-political journals "Ukrainian literature", "Ukraine" and others. leading Ukrainian writers printed works of patriotic themes.
2. Begin reconstruction of education in the years 1943-1944
From exile German invaders in Ukraine began restoring the ruined educational sphere.
The demonstration was, for example, the following fact: the next day after liberation Kharkov More than 700 teachers who were in occupation, went to work. Literally a week, 1 September 1943, in the school year started in three schools, September 5 – in 29, September 10 - in 8.
Rapidly growing number of existing schools. If at the end of the school year worked 1943/44-ho total 12 802 initial, seven-year, secondary schools with a contingent of students 1 million 770 thousand people then at the beginning 1944/45-ho school year in Ukraine there were almost 24 thousand schools where trained 4 million 132 thousand students and employed 145 thousand teachers.
Considerable attention was paid to selection of school and ensure their teaching staff in Western SSR. At the beginning of 1944/45 school year there had about 5.7 thousand schools in which there were 840 thousand students and 23.3 thousand teachers. Due to lack of teachers 10 thousand teachers came here from the eastern districts.
Extremely important thing was to establish normal educational process. Employees of schools renovated school facilities, educational equipment. Sharply felt the lack of laboratory equipment, textbooks, maps, class boards, writing materials for students and others.
3. Literature and Arts
In the fight against fascism Ukrainian writers and Arts workers were in the forefront of defenders. A few days after the war began at the Kiev military district headquarters voluntarily appeared Andrey Golovko. John Ле, Simeon Woodrow Wilson, James Kachur, Leonid Pervomaysk. Paul Usenko, Sava Golovanevsk et al. Simeon Woodrow Wilson in his writings recalled: "No they did not say that the writer must go to the front. Instead, they offered a "reservation" for creative work in the rear. But they asked to send them to the front for so ordered heart, conscience and unshakable faith in victory ... "
July 7, 1941 held in Kyiv meeting of the Union of Soviet Writers of Ukraine, which was organized by three Brigade 50 writers to work in military units, hospitals at defense enterprises.
During the defense capital of Ukraine poet П.Usenko created the "Song of Kiev militias, which lifted morale of defenders Kyiv. 109 із 200 members of the Writers were pas front. By War Ukrainian writers have written over 120 books, collections, brochures. In they worked mainly military correspondents, editors division stages publications in editions of about 50 newspapers fronts and armies. For example, in Kyiv, June 22 1941 already operated newspaper Southwestern Front "Red Army"Which worked Writers M. Bazhan, S.Golovanevsk, V. Kondratenko, I.ЛеA. Malyshko. L. Pervomaysk.
31 July 1941 the first issue of the newspaper "For Soviet Ukraine." intended for partisans. In the newspaper editorial board consisted M. Bazhan, V. Vasilevsky, A. Korniychuk.
Military Correspondent "Red Army, Then – «Izvestia"Was the writer and director Dovzhenko, who voluntarily came to the Southwest front. Dovzhenko for war was awarded the Order of Merit battle Red Banner.
Great significance was attached publication of literature patriotic content. Only in 1943 was published 20 000 copies "Poet" Taras Shevchenko. Most books were sent to end partisan and occupied territory.
In the terrible war journalism was main weapon artists. Writer-publicist Dovzhenko published at this time deeply realistic works: "Before the fight," Mother "(1943). Full of dramatic work "Ukraine in the fire" (1943) et al.
Widely known at this time were poems "We go to battle "and"Surmount and live! Tyczyn P., "Word of the native mother" Rylskyi, "Vow" M. Bazhana patriotic collection V. Sosyuri.
An example was the Civil lyrics cycle of poems "My Ukraine" Malyshka. The historical theme is covered in Epic Creations "Daniel Galician" M. Bazhana where the idea of unity of the people Ukraine before the war danger is decisive.
Military journalists veteran writers have repeatedly been an example for the soldiers and commanders. Many times they showed an example of personal courage.
Thus, the corresponding 18th Army Southwestern FrontBanner Fatherland"Major Sergey Borzenkov commander landing party on the Kerch Peninsula in 1943 For courage in battle He was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union.
Writer Uncle Martic led attack fighters, replacing the deceased commander.
Death killed many brave members Writers' Union of Ukraine (SPU), the native land gave life a quarter veteran writer. Posthumously admitted to SPU young poets warriors В.Bulaenko, L. Levitsky, M.Shut and others.
Stalinist leadership carefully followed the activities of Ukrainian writers. Evidence of this was Incident report Rylskyi "Kyiv in Ukraine's history, delivered evacuated at a meeting of intellectuals and printed Ukrainian press.
As he wrote in a prepared to order CC КП(B) In a closed review the report Rylskyi a communist party ideologue, "with 33 pages of the report only on two sheets in Rila said the late general phrases of the Bolsheviks, on Lenin, Stalin. " CC КП(B) decided that M. Rila deserves urgent criticism in the press.
Great importance acquired reading fiction by radio held. In November 1941, started Ukrainian Radio them. Shevchenko in Saratov and "Soviet Ukraine in Moscow.
Radio station "Partyzanka" (1942) led special broadcasts for partisans. The radio named. Shevchenko became center of Ukrainian culture. November 26, 1941 in Saratov is broadcast first anti-fascist rally representatives Ukrainian people. Announcer Maria Pryhara mention of this event: "Maxim soon Tadeyovych read "Word of the native mother, Nikolai Bazhan –"Oath", which echoed the song in the air:
Never never not Our Ukraine
Nazi executioners work!
A few days it became known: rally hear! "Since 1943 in pryfrontoviy band was traveling to work radio station Dnipro. In the difficult period of the outbreak of war has been active front-line version Radio South-Western Front Brovarov around. Speech was conducted mainly with dugout. Announcer read the front sketches, correspondence with operational for fights. As mentioned radio announcer S. Marchenko, writers constantly played on the radio: "Each transfer was involved with someone writers, who just returned from firing positions. Before the microphone John spoke ЛеLeonid Pervomaysk, Uncle Martic, James Kachur, Alexander Dovzhenko, Andrew Malyshko, Alexander Korniychuk. Wanda Vasilevskaya, Anatoly Shiyan and others.
Front of the air "mobilized the population country in the just struggle against invaders. And its occupants feared influence on the masses. German commandant's office in Zhitomir predicted population: "By listening to radio them. Shevchenko – death through hanging. This "review" the enemy shows the effectiveness of broadcasting.
In Nazi-occupied territories shyrylas oral folk tradition that vidobrazhuvala hatred and contempt for the Ukrainian people to the invaders.
Among people shyrylysvarious proverb: "What a fascist, the wolf – a rumor "or" fascist kill – sin skimp.
4. Activity in the theater War
Since Ukraine was evacuatednearly 50 theaters. Developing new forms of artistic propaganda, they worked with special inspiration.
Theater Arts pereneslos to the front. Thus, graduates of the Theatre Institute in Kyiv directly from student ranks almost at full voluntarily went to the front.
Folk Artist USSR О.Kusenko wrote in his memoirs, "With faith in the victory:" My artistic generation, which before WWII was still derive theater education and dreamed about the stage, fell ordeal. They were and fiery front way, and guerrilla campaigns, and the underground struggle against the enemy the temporarily occupied homeland, and hard work in the Soviet rear.
After the six-month courses Nurses O.Kusenko served in one of military hospital train. Frontovyi House Red Army South-Western Front has sent the actress до Ensemble front Estrada, who worked at the front front lines in Stalingrad itself. Started restless artistic life. "Never forget the soldiers' eyes – actress recalled, – that burned with hatred for the enemy when they heard the story (O. Japan "Ukraine." After the concert in one of the units of the 4 th Ukrainian Front Lieutenant I.Propenkowrote A.Kusenko: "Your words of truth come to very depths of the soul and its light on the struggle, furious vengeance on the enemy, call go forward with the lives of millions, even go to die ... "
Artist Kharkiv Theatre them. Shevchenko Н.Tymoshenko years War became a nurse, participated in the battles for the liberation of Novorossiysk, saw a drama Adzhymushkayskoho Garrison, who the latter resisted the enemy, front actors Division in early 1944 team gathered and began to give concerts in front of fighters.
Artist Ternopil Theater. Shevchenko Koval was a nurse at Stalingrad front. In his essay "Memory Panorama" she wrote: "We actors, helping health workers your housing than they could. Made all the devil: care for patients vazhkoporanenyh sent soldiers in the rear ... Worked without feeling tired. No one is allowed a minute and rest. Everyone was obsessed with one idea: idea Defeating enemy. " S. Smith remembers that the greatest success among the audience enjoyed verse І.Frank "Earth, my vseplodyuschaya mother ". This poem is preserved in his repertoire of almost all war. Fervent word masons inspired fighters in fierce fighting enemy.
In concert before veteran were Performing artists Art from Ukraine І.Rock, /.Patorzhynsky, NBS et al.
In Vorosilovgrad during defensive battles (1941), was created by the frontline music and drama team, which gave 300 performances and concerts for military units and hospitals.
Brigade Kiev artist stands in front of tanker
3 th Ukrainian Front
Evacuated to the east Ukrainian theaters komplektuvaly pediment teams with the best actors. Kyiv Opera and Ballet. Shevchenko has created 22 teams who worked on four fronts and gave 920 concerts. The famous duo and Karas Odarka of opera beyond the Danube "a hundred times executed І.Patorzhynskym and M.Litvinenko-Volgemut at the front and в hospitals.
І.Patorzhynskymentioned the performances of the front: "Three months of our presence at the front gave us very much. We have seen examples of selfless service to the Motherland, heroism ... I came to the belief that the fighters do not need to campaign songs about heroics .. Humor and satire acutely perceived fighters. They were given rest after their extraordinary hard work. "
Especially liked fighters comic duo of young performers Tymoshenko and Y. Berezin (Tarapunka and plugs).
Combat soldiers weekdays skrashuvaly concert performances of the front groups of the Ukrainian song and dance. One of them, led LV Chernysheva, operated on seven fronts. He given 2 850 concerts for hundreds thousand soldiers. Artists band broke 80 thousand km of roads of war. In combat terms of ensemble performances were often associated with life-threatening. Speaking in 383-and Streletskaya Division of the Southern Front, the group has lost several artists. For selfless work and to promote patriotic Ukrainian songs in the active Army 68 artists were awarded orders and medals.
Great patriotic content acquired songs, especially partisan. The song, dedicated partisans of Ukraine poet-writer I. Stetsyuk wrote:
We zvemosya avengers people
Destroying the fascist birth
Battled for the home land
To the sun will not waned,
To our happiness bloomed,
To fight. brother Wake Up!
5. Documentary and Feature cinema
When the war special gained importance documentary. In early September 1941 Ukrainian studio Newsreel movie was released the first topical "Since World War fronts.
When the war at all headquarters fronts in units and formations of the Army created a special group cameramen. They preparing for battle kinozbirnyky, topical, kinonarysy about fighting events in front, the defense instructional films. Overall, Worked front 50 operators Ukrainian studios. Between War they capture 300 documentaries and kinosyuzhetiv.
Cameraman recorded on the front all major film events combat operations. Cameraman-kievlyanin В.Orlyankin passed with camera in hand path from the Volga to the Danube, was wounded. In Stalingrad, he recorded "The House Pavlov, Commander of 62 Army General V.Chuikov. В.Orlyankin left for Military History Portraits Czechoslovak battalion commander Col. L. Liberty, three times Hero A. Pokryshkina Soviet Union.
Of particular value were documented Movies Dovzhenko "Battle by our Soviet Ukraine "(1943) and "Victory on the Right Bank Ukraine (1945).
Thousands of kilometers of partisan connections Ukraine was the frontline cameraman Я.Даvydzon. Heroes of his films were glorified Guerrilla leaders, ordinary fighters, guerrillas, child heroes.
Ukrainian studios were evacuated to Central Asia: Kiev – to Ashgabat, Odessa – to Tashkent. They issued feature films were full of deep patriotism.
In 1943, director Mark Donskoy movie set "Rainbow" за Title Novel Wanda Wasilewska. This film was the best of Ukrainian art of cinematography war time. The picture received "Oscar" – Academy Award Film USA, and in 1946 was awarded the State Prize USSR.
From the speech of Stalin at a meeting Politburo (b) On antyleninski and nationalist distortions kinopovisti Dovzhenko "Ukraine in the fire" (31 January 1944)
Tob. Dovzhenko wrote kinopovist called "Ukraine in the fire".
... First of all, very surprising that in kinopovisti Jetca ... which should show the complete triumph Leninism under which the Red Army flag ycpishnonow delivers Ukraine from German invaders, not one word about our teacher - the great Lenin.
... Dovzhenko speaking here against class struggle, he trying to tarnish all practical policy i the party by eliminating the kulaks as a class.
... Nationalist povoloka so clouded Dovzhenko consciousness that he stopped to see the enormous educational work that held our party in the nation.
Kinopovist is the anti-Soviet, vivid display of the Nationnalizmu, narrow national limitations.
One would have publish Dovzhenko film story so that it remains on just wet place ...
Questions for document
What, in your opinion Dovzhenko film story sparked outrage Stalin?
6. Development Ukrainian Art in war
When the war theme Homeland security is the main в creativity Ukrainian artists. United on the creative team, They carried out active propaganda art: created posters, leaflets,ahitvikna. drawn cartoons for military press. In the genre of political satire poster and worked mainly most artists of Ukraine. Soulful poster was Oleg Alexandrov "Crush the fascist serpent (1941)
Series В.Kasiyana"Anger Shevchenko - weapon of victory" (1942-1943 pp.) includes eight posters for texts TG Shevchenko. She showed the image of the Greatth bard who calls Ukrainian people to fight the enemy. Placat "to the battle Slavs! "V. Kasiyana symbolized the growing nationnyy wrath against the Nazi occupationpatients.
Poster "In no fascistWill "(1942). -this story Women suffering Ukraine from Fshystskoho domination. General underperformance of popular struggle in Behind Enemy Lines poster play of the Ukraine fights, "poster" Knownfu! "included calls for vengeance oncysts.
The enemy is approaching. Artist T. Yablonsky
March 1943 in posters Ukrainian leading artists theme was the Soviet troops, the release Ukraine from the Nazis. Post liberation had then of particular importance. The best poster on this subject is the work "Ukraine Free! V. Litvinenko (1944). Dynamism the Soviet troops, image of the soldier-liberator, reproduced in the poster had a great emotional impact.
1. Which of the Ukrainian actors who appeared in before the front part, you can name?
2 What's evident patriotism Ukrainian writers during the war?
3. What You know Ukrainian padiocmantsiyiActing in war?
4. Name the famous Ukrainian filmmakers nepiody War.
5. Objectives of the policy pursued by the Nazis in educatedyou are in Ukraine?
6. Spread the word contribution of Ukrainian scientists to the cause strengthening power of the Soviet army.
7. What is journalism?
8. In what was the value of that frontbeautiful scenic i concert brigades?
9. Why in the genres of poster and worked most of the political satire Artists Ukraine during the war?
10. What are the specific features of Ukrainian HuArtistic art years War?
11. What are the achievements of Ukrainian science during WWII i have been relevant in subsequent years?
12. Have changed the form of ideological control of the artistwe by Stalin's leadership during the Great World War II?
13. What, in your opinion, is the contribution of culture in victory over the enemy?
14. How important do you think is the moral factor pipreparation is combat?
15. Do you think Why artistic creativity pepiody War enjoyed i great popularity in later years?