6. UKRAINE At the final stage of War, 1944-1945 gg / (textbook)

§ 6                                                                                               UKRAINE At the final stage of War, 1944-1945 gg /

 

1. Liberation territory of Ukraine from Nazi occupation

At the end of 1943 in Ukraine troops were 1 st, 2 nd, 3 rd, 4 th Ukrainian Front, which numbered over 2.3 million people. 28 800 guns and mortars, 2 000 tanks and ACS, 2370 aircraft.

§         1 st Ukrainian front (Commander Army General M. Vatutin, on March 1, 1944 Marshal of the Soviet Union G. Zhukov) keeping large bridgehead on the right bank of the Dnieper west of Kyiv.

§         2 Ukrainian front (Commander Army General І.Konev) і 3-rd Ukrainian Front(Commander Army General R. Malinowski) occupied a large bridgehead on the right bank of the Dnieper from Cherkassy in Kiev.

§         4-Ukrainian front (Commander Army General F. Tolbukhina) blocked Nikopol springboard hostile army, forces the front part of consolidated the Left along the lower reaches of the Dnieper.

Soviet troops opposed Hitler's Army Group South (Commander General Field Marshal Е.Manshteyn, from March general V. Model) which consisted in its structure 1,8 million people, 16 800 guns and mortars, 2200 tanks and assault guns, 1 460 aircraft.

Plan Rates High Command were as follows: a powerful blow to a number of routes rozchlenyty and smash Nazi forces piecemeal.

 

Commander of 1 st Ukrainian front M. Vatutin takes account of one of the commanders (November 1943)

 

Strategic attack on Right Bank Ukraine started with a region of Berdychiv-operation, during which troops 1 st Ukrainian Front defeated Army Group South "and created possibility of hostile environment forces Korsun-Shevchenko on speech.

Korsun-Shevchenko's performance in the plans both sides was of special significance. The Soviet command to continue offensive in Ukraine, provide for the elimination of enemy forces in the area. In turn, guidance on the Wehrmacht planned springboard to attack Kiev grouping of Soviet troops.

Korsun-Shevchenko's statement defended large forces fascists: 9 infantry divisions, Panzer Division SS Viking and others. Therefore, the success of operations in this wing of the Soviet-German front was critical to the success of these operations on the Right Bank Ukraine.

24 January 1944 host 1 and 2 of the Ukrainian front moved in attack on the Korsun-Shevchenko speech. Beginning Korsun-Shevchenkivska operation was very difficult because the Germans held constant counterattacks. But despite the resistance of enemy troops on both fronts January 28 Ukrainian connected in the м. Zvenyhorodka. The "boiler" 10 Nazi divisions find themselves, many artillery, tank and Combat parts, generally about 80 thousand soldiers and officers.

February 8 German command was presented an ultimatum, but the enemy continued to resist. February 10 began the operation to eliminate Korsun-Shevchenko groups fascists.

To save the army, Hitler Command ordered surrounded fight to the last cartridge. However, tank part Manshteyna tried to break the ring environment. Hitler personally telegraphed the commander surrounded by parts to General Shtemmermanu, requiring him to fight action at any cost.

To avoid breaking the environment Soviet command put into fighting reserves. Opposition was fierce and bloody. Tank of the Wehrmacht, that rush to help troops surrounded, were from They are just 12 km. But then they failed to advance. 17-18 February 1944 fascist troops is a desperate attempt to escape from a "boiler", but leave managed environment with only a small fraction.

Devastation Korsun-Shevchenko groups of German troops was completed. The enemy lost 55 thousand killed soldiers and officers, over 18 thousand captured. On the battlefield was lost and general Shtemmerman. Soviet troops seized a large quantity of military equipment and weapons. In honor of the "new Stalingrad, "as they called Korsun-Shevchenko Operation, Moscow saluted Ukrainian Fronts 20 volleys of 224 guns. Battle of who distinguished themselves in battles, received the honorary title "Korsunsky" і "Zvenigorod".

Almost simultaneously with the Korsun-Shevchenko Operation host the 1 st Ukrainian Front began offensive at Rovno-Lutsk direction. The Soviet troops took place in difficult conditions and terrain wetlands. Great Soviet aid parts provided Guerrilla groups Saburova, Fedorova Begmy et al.

February 2, 1944 was freed from occupation Lutsk and Rivne. As a result of Soviet offensive Troops was released Proskuriv, Ternopil, Vinnytsia.

Nikopol, Krivoy Rog operation. 30-31 January 1944 host the 3 rd and 4 th Ukrainian Front deployed offensive on Nikopol-Krivorozhskom direction. Nazi command gave great importance to preservation under control Krivoy Rog and Nikopol areas rich in manganese and iron ores, which Nazi Germany used for military purposes.

Army generals R. Malinowski and F. Tolbukhina suddenly blows broke through the German defense and pursuit of the retreating Wehrmacht, liberated Nikopol (8 February) and Krivoy Rog (February 22).

This way, as a result of the Soviet troops in January and February 1944 was obtained critical victory over the enemy: in Zhytomyr and Berdicheva, Kirovograd Korsun-Shevchenko, Rivne and Lutsk, Krivoy Rog and Nikopol. Fascists were discarded from the Dnieper to the borders of 80-350 km. Soviet troops were preparing to last attack, which was completely clear of Right-Bank Ukraine occupiers.

In March-April 1944 The second round of a grand battle of Right Bank Ukraine.

Vijplishment 1 st Ukrainian Front on March 4 to April 17, 1944 had Chernivtsi Proskurovskaja-operation as a result of hostile factions were split into two parts. Soviet troops reached the foothills Carpathians.

5 March - 17 April 1944 2 troops of the Ukrainian front during Uman-Botoshanskoyioperations beat 8 th German army, out March 26, 1944 to the state border of the USSR and carried on fighting territory Romania satellite countries of Nazi Germany.

Host 3 rd Ukrainian Front at Support Force Black Sea Fleet successfully conducted Operation Odessa. 28 March, they delivered Nikolaev, and April 10 Odessa.

 

Part 3 rd Ukrainian Front liberated the streets of Odessa

 

Quite the challenge faced before soldiers of the 4 th Ukrainian Front, the army and sailors of coastal Black Sea Navy split the Crimean war and fascist groups free peninsula.

Crimea 17-defended Hitler army, which consisted of seven Romanian and 5 German divisions and numbered 195 thousand soldiers and officers, about 3600 guns and mortars, 215 tanks and assault guns, 148 planes. At the direction of the front Soviets had significant advantage in manpower and technology: 470 thousand soldiers and officers, 5982 guns and mortars, 559 tanks and ACS, and 250 aircraft.

 

Sailors paratroopers set a red flag over liberated Kerch

 

April 8, 1944 began fighting in the Crimea. April 11 was released Kerch April 13 Simferopol. May 5 Sevastopol fortifications began storming the enemy. Brutal fights opened Breather on the Mount. After 9-hour assault, she was already in the hands of Soviet troops. May 9, 1944 Sevastopol was released HIV invaders.

 

Sailors return native to Sevastopol

 

May 12, 1944 Crimea was completely freed from the occupants. 17 and the German army lost Over 100 thousand people killed and prisoners, almost all military equipment.

The victory was impressive in Crimea consequences in the 1941-1942 biennium "Invincible" army Hitler took 250 days to take possession of Sevastopol. And in 1944 Soviet troops for 35 days Crimean overcome the enemy defense and assault of Sevastopol was successfully completed by 5 days.

SoIn the course of offensive operations in Right-Bank Ukraine and Soviet troops in the Crimea caused irreparable losses Nazis. Many enemy divisions were completely destroyed.

State border USSR at a distance of 400 km. restored. Black Sea Fleet returned to its main base in Sevastopol was able to intensify operations against the ally of Hitler's Reich Romania.

Summer 1944 started final stage of Ukraine's liberation from Nazi invaders.

13-14 July factions began fighting against Hitler's armies "North Ukraine " on Rava-Ruska and Lviv directions. As a result of a powerful offensive forces were surrounded by large enemy under Brody (Lviv region) eight divisions of up to 60 thousand people. Bo was destroyed over 38 thousand Nazis, more than 17 thousand captured.

Among the defeated forces of the Wehrmacht and was Division SS Galicia. She lost more than half of its members. On the environment burst only 3 thousand people, the rest (3 700) were taken prisoner, died or moved to the UPA.

During the successful implementation Lvov-Sandomierz Offensive (13 July - 29 August 1944) was destroyed Army Group "Northern Ukraine.

Army 2 nd and 3 rd Ukrainian fronts in the Iasi-Kishinev result of the operation (20-29 August 1944) defeated Army Group "Southern Ukraine.

In October 1944 During the Carpathian-Uzhgorod operation culminated in the liberation of all Ukraine. October 27 was released from the occupants Uzhgorod and the next day remaining settlements Transcarpathian Ukraine.

In close coordination with regular Guerillas troops operating in Ukraine. They actively participated in major operations for liberation of Ukraine, completing a series of raids in the deep enemy rear.

In early 1944 partisan Peel connection command M. Naumova raided in western regions Ukraine, and the connection under the command П.Vershygory Lvov-Warsaw raid and together with Polish partisans did huge damage hostile forces.

After the expulsion of Nazi troops in Ukraine guerrillas have moved further into the enemy lines territory Poland Czechoslovakia. Romania and Hungary. Ukrainian Partisan Movement Headquarters repaired units and groups in those countries. In special schools and centers trained hundreds of Poles, Czechs, Slovaks.

A large contribution to their struggle with common enemy made our countrymen: AP Velichko, Y.Volyanskiy, V.Klokov, L.Berenshtein and others. During combat activities in Nazi partisan brigade rear E. Volyn destroyed about 3200 Nazi soldiers and officers, 23 enemy tanks, 50 enemy vehicles, 3 railway echelons, 27 bridges. Team dismissed dozens of Slovak towns and villages. E. Volyn was awarded Honorary citizen of the five Slovak cities, was awarded four Orders of Czechoslovak Republic.

There Eastern Slovakia also guerrilla group operating them. Pozharsky partisan brigade named. Str. Slovak patriots in held with Ukrainian partisans liberated region of Eastern Slovakia the end of November 1944 In Poland 7 were partisan connections and 26 individual units, as well as many diversionary-intelligence groups.

 

Ukraine in World War II (November 1942-1945 City)

 

2. Return of Soviet power

In the liberated territories ox occupiers started to restore the activity of Soviet power. Of course, Ukrainian population that suffered under the yoke of Nazi "new order" of joy greeted the Red Army, which is justly considered Army-vyzvolytelkoyu.

People hoped for the serious socio-political and economic changes in life, especially in reforming the collective farm system and democratization of society.

However, many return to the Soviet authorities perceived with some apprehension. This confirms in his diaries and Dovzhenko: "Is it'll look on deserts, in the cemetery, or cry on the ruins and take the million loss? And then die Did you grief, not to see how zaselyatymut you have my Ukraine, strangers, as remnants punished by your hard labor in Germany, because they have not died of hunger and dizhdalysya our ward.

As it turned out later, such concerns were grounded. However, large-scale terror against Ukrainian population in the occupied territories were not held, but on representatives of national minorities living in Ukraine, "Cooperation with the invaders " was applied mass deportation.

May 11, 1944 State Defence approved a resolution for possession Crimean Tatars of Crimean Republic в Uzbek SSR. 18 May 1944 from the Crimea were relocated 150 thousand people. May 21, 1944 it was decided to further migration, another 30 thousand Crimean Tatars territory BVM ASSR and several areas RSFSR.

2 June, the new decree for possession 12,4 thousands Crimean Bulgarians. 14.7 thousand Greeks and 8.5 thousand Armenians. Total deported in May June 1944 from the Crimea was 225 thousand people.

According to historians, 50% settlers were killed in the first years of life in new settlements. June 22, 1944 Kremlin leadership has decided to Deportation of the Ukrainian populationThat "worked for the Germans" and was familiar "with life during the German occupation." But this unexplained reasons order was not enforced.

Since the liberation of the republic was acutely problem of building the economy. After major damage suffered in the war it was Ukraine.

Creating pas east of the Soviet Union metallurgy and engineering base, mainly by Gary Ukraine enterprises, the Kremlin was in no hurry to carry out resettlement industrial potential of the republic, and eventually found her inappropriate.

Only Donbass Kryvbasin the 1943-1944 biennium received a number of materials, equipment and Food, as the war continued, and the country needed steel and coal. Despite the fact that damages the German occupation of Ukraine, constituted over 40% of total losses of the USSR, the republic the means to cover these damages only 6,2%.

The situation was difficult and ruined occupiers agriculture. Part of his building was evacuated, but the back was received, for example, cattle only 0,01% of the exported quantity.

The situation in the devastated economy Ukraine complicated by the fact that not enough manpower, especially qualified professionals. The main labor force were women and adolescents. Due to overwork them by mid-1944 in Ukraine regained their work of 2376 businesses were rebuilt part of the mines and the end of year produced over 17 million tons of coal.

The vast majority of the population of Ukraine the return of Soviet power perceived positively. Pa territory of Ukraine promptly Hard restored public order, likvidovuvalosya unemployment created the minimum conditions for survival of the local population.

With the return of Soviet power resumed its activities and punitive and repressive authorities. Seer was Dovzhenko, when 1942 wrote in his diaries: "Prosecutors in large enough at all, not enough teachers for die in the army, not enough technicians, tractor drivers, agronomists. They also fall in the war, and prosecutors and investigators enough. All goals and healthy, like bears, experienced in its cold professional. Did the Germans practiced better yet thirty seventh year.

 

Document

Order № 0078 / 42 by the NKVD and the People's Commissariat of Defense (June 22, 1944)

            "Recently in Ukraine, especially in Kyiv, Poltava, Vinnytsia, Rivne and other areas observed openly hostile attitudes of the Ukrainian population against the Red Army and local Soviet authorities. In some districts and regions Ukrainian population opposes perform hostile actions by party and government Restoration collective and delivery of food for the needs of the Red Army, bread zakopuyetsya in the den. In many parts of Ukrainian hostile elements, mostly from people who avoids mobilization of the Red Army, organized in forest green band, which not only blows the military echelons, and to attack a small military parts and kill the local authorities. Private soldiers and commanders, falling under the influence napivfashystskohoUkrainian population is mobilized and freed from the Ukrainian regions of Ukraine were rozlahatys and move to the side of the enemy. From the above described shows that the Ukrainian population was on the path of open sabotage Red Army and Soviet power and seeks to return the German occupation. Therefore, the eradication and control of mobilized soldiers and commanders liberated regions of Ukraine

ORDER:

1.      Send to distant edges of the USSR, all Ukrainian who lived under German occupation authorities.

2.      Eviction exercise:

a) first Ukrainian who worked and served the Germans;

b) second turn send the rest Ukrainian, who are familiar with life under the German occupation;

c) begin eviction after harvest and will put the state needs to Red Army;

d) eviction exercise only at night and suddenly, to prevent possible escape one and not let them know the members of his family who are in the Red Army.

3.      Over soldiers and commanders in the occupied areas following set control?

 

3. The situation in Western Ukraine. UPA at the final stage of the war

In 1944, with the approach Soviet troops Eastern Galicia UPA practically ceased military action against the Germans. Between them, began negotiations that led to a compromise. In exchange for the Abwehr intelligence UPA committed to supply arms, ammunition, UPA as preparing for a long struggle for liberation of Ukraine from Soviet power.

In Western Ukraine with the entry of Soviet troops in 1944 immediately, decisively and uncompromisingly, on Unlike of very cautious policy that the Bolsheviks carried out in 1939, began plug ofcoming out new government.

Have been mobilized and sent pas front men aged 18 to 50 years. Begun repression against the Greek Catholic church. Under house arrest planted Metropolitan А.Шeptytskoho, through months he died. His successor Й.Blind was sentenced to Siberia.

It was found to mobilize young people to mine Donbass, which caused resentment of the local population. UPA has organized a series of actions to prevent mobilization. They first turn purported against employees of the NKVD, the Communist Party members and those who collaborated with Soviet authorities.

 

Residents of the city read the appeal of Soviet authorities (1944)

 

Actions UPA in this period took place under slogan, which declared Novel Shukhevych (Movement led UPA from autumn 1943): "Procure that no one village does not recognized the Soviet power. OUN had to act so that all who recognize the Soviet regime were destroyed. And do not intimidate, and physically destroy. No need to fear that people curse us for cruelty. Let a 40 million Ukrainian population is left half okay it is not.

Only in Lviv in 1945 was killed about 5 thousand NKVD, Fighters fighter of the, party, Soviet and Communist Youth workers, and takozh heads of village councils, so it is teachers.

NKVD NKVD, also conducted on lands of Western Ukraine mass terror. By 1941-1945 the forces and Soviet punitive organs was carried out about 40 thousand operations during which 103 thousand were killed and detained 125 thousand rebels.

In turn, rebels made 6 thousand operations, sabotage and 14,5 thousand terrorist acts, of which killed at least 30 thousand people. April 24, 1944 near the village of Rivne Hurby there was a big battle in which the Soviet by took part 30 thousand people, and by the UPA to 5 thousand

During the battle was destroyed about 2 thousand insurgents, 1,5 thousand captured. To fight the rebels, except parts NKVD. troops were involved in Lviv Military District.

This way, after the liberation from Nazi Invaders Ukraine experienced another tragedy of civil war.

 

The fight against UPA

Period to date

Content

I.   December 1944 - June 1945

Three   scale antypovstanski Operations   involving a large number of regular troops, secret police, soldiers   guerrilla groups, punitive detachments (over 200 thousand with heavy weapons   and aviation). 40 thousand small operations.

II.   1946

"Great   blockade. For the operation was involved over 60 thousand soldiers of the regular   Army, the NKVD.

III.   1947-1950-s

Systematic   operations of destruction, displacement beyond the SSR UPA

 

4. Part Ukraine in the final operations of the World War

22 month long battle for liberation Ukraine. After driving the enemy from the Ukrainian soil fighting relocated in the territory Central and Southeastern Europe. Troops 1 st Ukrainian Front liberated from Nazi invaders Polish lands, and in April-May 1945 with Belarussian Front stormed Berlin Prague had the operation, during which a complete defeat of Nazi Germany.

2 nd, 3 rd, 4 th Ukrainian Front, in nalichuvalas stock which many Ukrainian soldiers, participated in liberation from the Nazi yoke nations Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Austria and Czechoslovakia.

When the war in Europe is over, host the 2 nd Ukrainian Front took part in the defeat of the Kwantung Army militaristic Japan parts of which have been stationed in the Far East.

Warriors-Ukrainian contributed in victory over Nazi Germany and its allies. Soviet military awards were 2,5 millionWarriors of Ukraine 069 of them Hero of the Soviet Union (total of 11 605 recipients).

Among the 113-double you Heroes of the Soviet Union 32 representatives of Ukraine, and three times among Heroes (There were four) our famous countryman John Kozhedub. Many representatives Ukrainian lands are full of Knight soldier of the Order of Glory. І.Drachenko from Cherkassy, П.Dubynda from Kherson. С.Polovynets Zhytomyr combined with a high title of "gold stars" Heroes.

 

Meeting Warriors victorious

 

The flag of victory over Reichstag (1945)

 

55 Ukrainian repeated the feat A. Matrosov, closing a hostile dzotu holes and І.Babyuk and І.Vdovenko, as the son of Belarus М.Gastello, skeruvaly its aircraft group Nazi troops. Ukraine warriors fought on all fronts and participated in major battles of World War II. 20 Ukrainian awarded the title Hero Soviet Union at the battle of Moscow, 68 by fighting near Leningrad, 15 Stalingrad, 30 of Kursk, 200 for the liberation of Belarus, 143 in fights Baltic. Of the 589 awarded title of Hero at the Berlin operation was 100 Ukrainian.

Many famous among Ukrainian commanders and military leaders: Marshall: S. Timoshenko, R. Malinowski, L.Eremenko, P. Rybalko. Rudenko, S.; Generals: В.Gerasimenko, P.Zhmachenko, K. Moskalenko, IV Kirichenko et al.

Ukrainian generals and Marshall origin led More than half of 15 FrontsThat operated during the anti-fascist invaders.

To mark the courage and heroism of the Ukrainian people, who defended their land from oppressors, the honorary title "Hero City" was given Kyiv. Odessa. Kerch, Sevastopol.

 

Victory Parade Moscow, June 24, 1945

 

120 thousand Ukrainian participated in the war on Nazis in stock Polish and Czechoslovakian formations, as well as in the armies U.S. Canada and France.

Some modern historians attempt Great view character Patriotic war, give it a new assessment, saying that it was only advocacy Stalin's empire.

With this you can not agree. People defending their land against the aggressor. Therefore, the war for him was truly Patriotic Liberation, Fair. Warriors-Ukrainian, for example, showed the best traits courage, heroism, sacrifice in the name of homeland.

The victory obtained in the Second World war, had considerable importance for the future of our country.

 

Document

With the Law of Ukraine On the perpetuation of Victory in Great Patriotic War 1941-1945

Article 1.

Perpetuation Victory exploit the people and winning

Victory Day (9 May) - a public holiday.

Victory Day is Day celebration immortal feat of winning people over fascism nationwide memory of their struggle for freedom and independence of the motherland.

Deference to the memory of victory and war veterans is a sacred responsibility of the state and citizens of Ukraine ...

Article 2.

Forms Victory perpetuate and exploit the people of the winning

The main forms of perpetuating Victory and exploit the people winning are:

the Day Victory day of liberation of Ukraine, Crimea, regions, cities and other settlements from the Nazi invaders;

installation honor guard at the Eternal Flame Tomb of the Unknown Soldier and the Unknown sailor, laying wreaths and flowers to the monuments and memorials;

deference to state awards and other honors during WWII;

non-admission falsification of the history of WWII in scientific research, educational literature, textbooks and media;

display heroic deeds of the Great Patriotic War in the works of literature and art, books and albums memory media;

introduction competitions and awards for research, the best works of literature, art, movies, programs TV and on radio coverage of the Great Patriotic War;

ordering, maintenance and construction of monuments, a museum, memorial complexes devoted to World War II;

providing for assistance of research work to determine the names of those killed and those who disappeared, the reburial of the remains of soldiers who fell during the Great World War II;

Insert to lists of military units (ships) the names of servicemen who have committed die;

entry Book of Honour of Ukraine's military forces (Ships), which is particularly distinguished in the defense and liberating cities and other settlements of Ukraine Nazi occupation;

preservation state awards, honorary titles and titles, signs of combat military forces (Ships) during WWII;

conservation and creation в educational institutions, enterprises, institutions, organizations, military units, museums, rooms (corner) and combat labor glory during the Great Patriotic War.

Article 4. State awards during the Great Patriotic War

State awards during WWII with the status of state awards of Ukraine ...

Article 8. International agreements on elimination of consequences of World War II and preservation of monuments associated with the events of World War II

Ukraine steadily ... with its international obligations to prevent manifestations of fascism in any form in its territory ...

 

Questions for document

What value In your opinion, has this law for education the younger generation?

 

Questions and Tasks

1. Name the major military operations Soviet  Army in Ukraine in 1944

2. Name commanders Ukrainian fronts end 1943 - early 1944

3. When the territory of Ukraine was finally discharged from Nazi?

4. What measures the Soviet government began in the liberated area?

5. Identify the main stages of the battle for the liberation From Ukraine Nazi occupation in 1944 and expand their content.

6. What is a "deportation"?

7. Tell us about the contribution Ukrainian soldiers in defeated on-tsystskoyu Germany.

8. Identify the chronological sequence of events:

- Iasi Kyshynivs'ka-operation;

- release Crimea;

- Discharge of Odessa;

- Korsun-Shevchenko operation.

9. What changes have occurred in the Ukrainian Soviet guerrilla movement in 1944?

10. Explain what were the changes to the OUN-UPA in 1944

11. In your opinion, why the Soviets organized deportation of representatives national Minorities in Crimea?

12. What do you think pushed the UPA leaders to seeking new agreements with the Nazis in 1944?

13. Do you think чи forces had UPA chances re gu-in Combat the Soviet government?

14. Why do you, look, the Soviet leadership refused to return to Ukraine more of the evacuated enterprises?