5. UKRAINE in 1943 (textbook)

§ 5                                                                                                                UKRAINE In 1943

 

1. Victory Red Army at Stalingrad and the beginning of exile invaders from Ukraine

 

Autumn of 1942, on the banks of the Volga in area Stalingrad opened one of the biggest battles of World War. As a result, Soviet troops counterattack 19-23 November, surrounded by ended up 330,000th grouping Army General Field Marshall von Paulus.

            February 2 1943 surrounded Hitler part capitulated. Victory at Stalingrad was the beginning of a radical turning point in the Great Patriotic War and World Wars.

 

Soviet generals Krylov, В.Chuykov, K. Gurov. О.Rodymtsvev

Stalingrad (1942)

 

Since the end of December 1942 started Ukraine's liberation from Nazi invaders. December 16, 1942 Voronezh and Southwestern Fronts went on the offensive. The first to land Ukraine troops entered the 1 st Guards Army General В.Kuznetsova, that December 18, 1942dislodged the occupants of s.Pivnivky Milovs'kyi District in the Luhansk region.

The same day the enemy was released yet number of settlements of Ukraine. Severe battles unfolded in the first district Centre on the Ukrainian territory Minov. During the liberation of settlement courage and heroism showed captain Ф.Checherev. He headed the first column attacking guards, and in the moment of battle a bunch of grenades ran under enemy tank.

Heroic deeds committed in these battles and other fighters. Dearly to stop Nazi tanks counterattack Platoon soldiers, commanded by М.Lysakov: Of 14 Guard soldiers were alive only 4. In general, the liberation of Milov killed 120 thousand Soviet soldiers. In memory of them on the central square of the city built a grand memorial to the Ukraine liberators. " In all the battles of Luhansk region killed about 120 thousand Soviet soldiers and officers.

How Ukraine met their liberators? Here is how it remembers WWII veteran A. Dovbnya: "It is difficult describe that okrylenist you feel my fellow Ukrainian. Finally! Were all excited. In cities of Russia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan continuous flow were the letters: "... embraces, kisses that our warrior who was the first set foot on Ukrainian soil. Us actively helped the local population ... Joy no limits. We came to you, Ukraine! Outside Milov emptied out all remaining population. Our guards covered, treated, did the utmost. Soldier Liberator was the most expensive guest in each house, dug.

Fights near Kharkiv and Donbas. Plan rates defined priority task of liberation Donbass primary coal and metallurgical base of the country (Operation "Jump") and Kharkiv industrial area (Operation "Star"). A successful attack Soviet troops lasted until February 1943 and culminated in the liberation of Kharkov.

But February 19, 1943 Hostile Part launched a powerful counteroffensive. In late February between North and Donets Dnipro there were violent fights. Underestimating possible retaliation stake resulted in the loss of Northeastern Donetsk and Kharkov.

However, despite these failures, strategic initiative still remained on the side of the Red Army.

 

2. Battle of Kursk. Continuation offensive in the Eastern Ukraine

To take revenge for the defeat at Stalingrad and capture strategic initiative, Nazi command in July 1943 launched a strong attack in the area Kursk and Belgorod (Kursk arch).

Kursk battle (July 5 - August 23 1943) was one of the most important and decisive events of the World and the World wars. During the tactical defense and counterattack the Soviet troops were defeated Wehrmacht qualifying division.

The victory at Kursk opened a possibility for broad attack Red Army on around the south of the Soviet-German front.

At the Kharkov area were successfully troops Steppe front. They surrounded Kharkivon three sides and on the night of August 23 began storming the town. Troops up to 11 hours Steppe front completely liberated Kharkov. Most of the enemy group, which maintained the city was destroyed, the rest of the Nazis retreated.

In the five months of occupation Nazis completely destroyed Kiev. They burned and blew up hundreds of houses, plundered the city, even taken the tram rails, furniture, equipment shops, firewood. Cruelty of the invaders were not borders. At the Clinical town, where the Soviet hospital, Nazis killed about 450 Wounded soldiers and commanders of the Red Army. In the city where he once lived more than 1 million people, left 190 thousand inhabitants. According to preliminary information the Nazis killed in concentration camps more than 60 thousand Kharkiv, more than 150 thousand were taken to Germany.

After the defeat of Soviet troops Orlowski and Belgorod-Kharkov groups enemy, the rate has developed an operational plan under which the task was destroy enemy units on Left, not letting them gain a foothold on the Desna River, Vorskla, Dairy, then, figuratively speaking, "on the shoulders of the retreating enemy force Dnieper. Thereafter supposed to unite the areas captured in the base for further offensive Kyiv, Dnipropetrovsk, Kharkiv to oust the invaders from the territory Right-bank Ukraine and Crimea.

 

Soviet tanks that crossed the Dnieper,

go to battle task

 

The battle for liberation from Nazis Left-bank Ukraine may be divided into two stages.

For first (August-September 1943) Soviets defeated the German army to Left-Bank Ukraine, Donbass out the Dnieper River in the area Dnepropetrovsk and created a springboard for several right bank.

On second stage (October-December 1943) Soviet troops destroyed a hostile bridgeheads near Zaporozhye and Melitopol and created their own strategic bridgeheads on the right bank near Kyiv and Kremenchug.

One of the biggest military operations for the liberation of Ukraine became Donbass operation August 13 - September 22, 1943

Back in March 1943 Hitler stressed the special importance of Donbass as important for the needs of the Wehrmacht Industrial and raw center. At the beginning of the Donbas operation Nazi groupsBe defended Donbass (Commander General Field Marshal Manshteyn), had a membership of about 540 thousand men, 5400 guns and mortars, 900 tanks and assault guns, about 1 100 aircraft.

Soviet troops Southwestern and Southern Fronts (commanders - Generals Malinovsky and Tolbukhina) had an advantage: 1 053 thousand, 21 thousand guns and mortars, 1257 tanks and SAU (self-propelled artillery pieces) about 1400 aircraft. Starting powerful attack, Soviet troops occupied the city in the country. September 7, 1943 Reichsfiihrer SS Himmler ordered the leadership of the SS and police use in Ukraine tactics "Scorched earth". It included the destruction of retreat before the Nazi Parts of industrial facilities and material values of Donbass.

The same day the commander of Army Group South Manshteyn reported to Hitler, who arrived at meeting to Berlin: "the enemy managed to breach on the northern flank 6th Army width of 45 km, fight where only the remains of our two divisions ... We would not want or we will forced to leave by Sky ... "

And so it happened. September 8, 1943 P Soviet troops liberated Stalino (Donetsk) Center of Donbass.

Hitler was forced to agree to further retreat of German forces from the Donbass. However, this measure is not able to bring defense Hitler on the Eastern Front with the crisis.

To save from a complete rout acting on the part of Ukraine, Nazi command had to withdraw his troops of the Dnieper.

 

Front of the Soviet troops operating in Ukraine in 1943-1944 biennium

Voronezh   front

Steppe   front

Southwestern   front

South   front

 

 

First   Ukrainian Front

(M. Vatutin)

Second   Ukrainian Front

(Ivan Konev)

Third   Ukrainian Front (R. Malinowski)

Fourth   Ukrainian Front (AF Tolbukhina)

 

3. The fall of the Eastern shaft. The liberation of Kyiv

Command of the Wehrmacht in their plans hoped that the Dnieper River as abounding with a high right bank, a reliable defense abroad. Here they hoped to delay offensive Red Army. This defensive line called the Nazis "East axis".

For building fortifications on the right bank Dnipro Nazis rounded up local people, transferred from Western Europe and northern areas of the Soviet-German front, and other special building military units, extending their fresh divisions from Northern Italy. Yet Hitler's attempts to reverse the course of the war command at the turn of the Eastern shaft "failed. Soviet troops came to the front of the Dnipro Kyiv to Zaporozhye. The fighting opened at 750-km front.

Come in the culminating moment of the battle for Ukraine. В night of September 21 1943began forcing the Dnipro epic of mass heroism of Soviet soldiers.

At the end of September, was won first Battle of the Dnieper stage. Soviet troops captured more than 20 beachhead. It should be noted that such a powerful water barrier as Sky, advanced parts of Soviet troops forsuvaly of course, in shifts, without waiting for the approach of the main forces and arrival of pontoons.

 

Soviet troops forces the Sky

 

10-14 October 1943 in the battle Sky by Soviet troops eliminated Zaporizhia springboard Nazis and 14 October liberated city of Zaporozhye.

During October 1943 Soviet troops fought fierce battles for the maintenance and expansion of bridgehead on the right bank Dnieper. Attempt 1 st Ukrainian Front, commanded by М.Vatutin, develop offensive on Kyiv with Bukrynskoho springboard had no success. Sharp rugged terrain, Layered defense is deeply enemy maneuver skovuvaly Soviet forces, especially tank. In addition, when the Soviet troops were acute shortage of perepravnyh of weak and aviation security.

 

Bridge Construction by Sky (1943)

 

All this led to huge losses. Member forcing of the Dnieper, the famous Russian writer V. Astaf 'ev recorded in his diary: "twenty-five thousand is submerged, and thus on the bank of three thousand, a maximum of five. After five or six days it all passed. Can you imagine? "

In view of the situation. Bid High Command in late October gave the order to major redeployment of forces 1 st Ukrainian front with a base Bukrynskoho on Lyutizkyy. north of Kyiv.

To hide from the Nazis retreat body of troops Lyutizkyy bridgehead was produced and placed on all front line many layouts. It was done so skillfully that no enemy aircraft or exploration of redeployment of Soviet troops and training them to attack not guessed.

Since November, Soviet troops crossed the on the offensive end with the Kiev Lyutizkohobridgehead. Such a powerful blow Nazis never expected. Artillery safely advanced enemy positions. During the attack was used and the psychological factor. That wow threshold tanks lit lights, sirens and included with the infantry went for a night attack.

November 5th Guards-tanker blocked the highway Kyiv - Zhitomir, and 38 units of Army went pas suburb Kyiv Svyatoshyn. On the night on 6 November Soviet troops launched the offensive on the northern outskirts of Kyiv. After heavy fighting November 6, 1943 Capital of Ukraine was completely freed from the invaders.

To celebrate the heroism Soviet soldiers, shown in the battles for the capital of Ukraine, 60 small, armor, artillery and other units was given the honorary title Kiev. 2438 soldiers were awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union.

In the battle for Kyiv side by side with soldiers of 1 st Ukrainian Front participated 1st Separate Brigade, commanded Czechoslovak L. Svoboda. In period of fighting in the Kiev substantial assistance towards the Soviet troops provided partisans, underground fighters, the local population.

 

Machine-beat Nazis from building (1943)

 

Nikita Khrushchev in liberated Kiev

 

Nazi command sought for any price to reflect Kyiv. To do this in the Kiev area focused large tanks and infantry enemy factions. Command of the Wehrmacht high hopes pinned on Tank Division "Adolf Hitler", "Reich et al.

November 13 began German counteroffensive. Severe fighting continued until November 25. To break into the city, Nazis were injected into 300-400 tanks in the battle daily and at a huge loss once again managed to capture Zhytomyr and Korosten.

However, in the Nazi offensive Fastova was stopped. December 24, 1943 command of 1 st Ukrainian Front introduced into the fray strategic reserves, and Soviet troops took the offensive again. By January 1, 1944 before the Nazis invaded the area was completely reconquered.

The liberation of Kyiv was of great international importance. London Radio many languages notified about the great victory of Red Army on the Dnieper: "Taking Kyiv Soviet troops. mentioned in one of the gears, a victory that not only is of great military but also moral values. When the Nazis capture Kyiv in 1941 they boastfully announced that it would entail a comprehensive defeat of the Soviet troops throughout the southeast. Now minylysya times. Germany hears funeral bells. On her impending avalanche.

Military strategic value Kiev offensive is that it's done radical break of war, the Soviet-German front and very strongly influenced the course of the entire Second World War.

As a result of successful military operations Soviet troops advanced on 150  miles and captured the strategically important bridgehead on the right bank of the Dnieper area of about 500  km.

Of Soviet terminated the strategic link between Hitler's Army Group Center and South and were able to successful combat operations on the entire Right Bank Ukraine.

 

Document

K. Moskalenko. The liberation of Kiev (Excerpt from memoirs)

   MOSCOW, LLC. Stalin.

Report to:

for direct Kyiv defense focused opponent six infantry divisions (68, 75, 82, 88, 223, and 323 rd AP.) amplification of a part - and 385-training battalion, 101 th and 109 th artpolky RGC, 1 regiment of heavy mortar training thrower, 618-y VET Division, 202 th Division assault guns, and 11 and 12 and separate assault company. At the beginning of our offensive in Kyiv region opponent pidtyahnuv 5 th and 7 th Tank Division (the total number of tanks to 150-170) and 20 th motorized Division of Reserve.

Against shock group 60 th enemy army had six infantry divisions (183, 208, 217, 291, 321 and 340-served) with part of strengthening - and 231-and 276-artpolk Division assault guns RGC and 04/11/1943, the pidtyahnuv 8 th Panzer Division (80 tanks).

To cover Kyiv enemy from the north built three fortified defense line with the developed system engineering fortifications. Each line of defense had trenches full profile of moves connections, anti-tank ditches, wiring, wood debris and layers field.

During battles in Kyiv host the 1 st Ukrainian front brake 68, 75, 82, 88, 323, 340, 183, 217 and 327-th AP., 20, and мд. and 7 and тд., who lost to 60-70% of personnel and a large number of material parts. Bo primer and burned up to 100 tanks, seized in 1300 prisoners. Enthusiasm of the great trophies - ammunition, weapons and equipment, which count continues.

Inquiries to document

Describe the strategic importance of Kyiv in defense plans Nazis. Bring your opinion, referring to a document or additional material.

 

4. Mobilization activities 1942-1943 biennium "Grey jackets "

Huge losses of Soviet troops demanded that the Bids Supreme Command of wide application mobilization activities on the territory, not occupied by the Nazis. 3,5 million man evacuated from the USSR to the eastern parts of the Soviet Union, this became large reserves.

The current army is constantly received replenishment-Ukrainian soldiers. For example, 310 Rifle Division, which was formed in Kazakhstan, 1 / 4 consisted of the Ukrainian people. Mobilization of the Soviet Ukrainian army citizens evacuated from the war to Siberia, the Urals and other regions of the USSR, lasted the entire war period. In the newly independent parts formed in Kazakhstan and were sent to replenish the troops Don Front, was 70 thousand Ukrainian.

            Ukrainian were one of the largest ethnic groups in the Soviet Army during the Second World War II. According to modern historians estimate, as part of the Red Army Military and Navy were more than 6 million.

With the liberation of Ukraine from Nazi Soviet occupation forces were replenished recruits from the liberated territories. First of all, it was young draft-age members of guerrilla struggle and underground, the former POWs and those with years of occupation have reached draft age.

October 21, 1943 entered into force Regulation CC КП(B) "On measures on realization of Verification of registration and reserve military duty call in the Red Army of citizens born in 1926. The prize subject to men 47 years of age. Suspension was given only to patients and staff defense industry, students and pupils.

Although recruits for 1926 year birth was instructed not to send them unnecessarily to the existing Army neobstrilyana vidpravlyalas really young to the front, where without proper military training of young people thrown into battle.

By mobilizing processes connected not only employees of military registration, but the NKVD officers, police, military, party activists. According to incomplete data, only five liberated areas Ukraine (Stalin, Voroshilovgradsky, Zaporizhia, Kharkiv, Sumy) on end 1943 sent to the active Army recruits 250 thousand and 130 thousand former prisoners of war. This new supplement, sometimes not even pereodyahnuvshy in form and not allowing weapons thrown into the offensive. Experienced warriors called them "Gray or black jackets ".

Proved tragic fate of many Red Army prisoners, prisoners of Nazi concentration camps, which after Liberation again became the ranks of the Red Army.

 

I wonder

The Soviet officer О.Braytner, Who was dismissed from German exile, recalled one episode of his life: "The station brought us Ryazan with cars. Here were the NKVD troops. The soldiers were with dogs, armed automatic ... We came to the camp, which was equipped with a worse than German. Standing and machine gun towers and on both sides of the dog. We were there about five thousand people, ranging from second lieutenant - and to colonel. After appropriate checks were sent to assault battalion. Around a thousand officers pereodyahly soldier in shape. When arrived at the front, we general said: "Here Guard attacked here eight times and eight times they faced defeat. If you have completed this section, you will be returned immediately and an officer will presented awards to ... Every day they went on the offensive, broke through the German no defense to 10, and 12 km. Of the remaining five hundred people. ... Our commander contacted superiors and said that we were higher than required, and asked to withdraw people on vacation. A general was swift and categorical: "These traitors (since they were in captivity - author.) drive to the last man. They do not deserve another, and so you should not feel sorry for them. "

 

The vast majority of citizens of Ukraine felt that she did not fight for the interests of the Kremlin leadership, and protects its land from invaders.

 

5. Heroic Ukrainian labor in the rear

Powerful source victory over the Nazis was a heroic job in the Soviet home front workers and peasants.

In the extremely difficult conditions quickly Hitler's troops attack was evacuated almost all industrial of Ukraine to the East. The plan for the organization of the evacuees companies involved in the rear of three tasks:

         relocation of production forces in the Soviet rear;

         deployment of new industrial areas in soon as possible;

         establishing registration requirements for military production Front.

June 24, 1941 CPC Central Committee and USSR CPSU (b) adopted a resolution to establish Council on evacuation was headed by Secretary VTSRPS М.Shvernik. In Ukraine evacuation led a special commission headed by Deputy Chairman of the USSR RNA D. cord.

Evacuation enterprises carried out in very difficult circumstances, often under bombardment or German artillery fire. However, despite significant logistical loss, industrial machinery and equipment companies, kolkhoz property, state farms, cultural, and skilled labor were significantly taken part.

The implementation of tasks of the second and third stages of the mobilization plan accounts for the period from July 1941 to mid 1942

The bulk of the enterprises evacuated from the Ukrainian SSR, accepted industrial centers Urals and Siberia. Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan placed hundreds of factories and factories to relocate to Ukraine. Production teams of Ukraine, came to a new place together with the local population began to work immediately to establish businesses evacuated.

            Work had in extremely difficult circumstances. The scope of this work was impossible to predict advance. Not enough people, technology and materials. Due to the lack of freight Crane echelons rozvantazhuvalysya manually. Sometimes that businesses evacuated got in the way production tasks. Therefore, unloading, installation and commissioning equipment often occur simultaneously. There were the following picture: at a time when the last machine just out from the cars, the first is worked.

To place a company from Ukraine in places where they ustatkovuvalysya, using existing free space businesses, warehouses, hangars, shops. Accelerated rate were reduced new factory buildings. Due to the fact that vacant space is still not enough, the production often rozhortaly or in the forest. Wood turners, mechanics, miller, engineers were taken by Kyle and shovels. Everything was done to consolidate early in the new place and give the front desired products.

Newcomers employee groups from Ukraine were in the harsh living conditions, suffered from lack of food. Often used for housing workers tents or huts. In such conditions worked continuously day and night. For machine tools, which were outdoors, applied electric current, made a covering over the equipment and issued the required products.

The slogan "All for the front! All for victory! "was the meaning of life and standard of workers behind. Labor feat Soviet workers had no rear historical analogues. For example, Kyiv Plant "Lenin's smithy" in evacuated Zelenodolsk, started production a few days after arrival, during the first three months of production production increased more than 3 times.

October 19, 1941 arrived at the Ural last group of workers and engineers Kharkov tank building plant and already December 8 of the shops Enterprise out the first 25 T-34 tanks.

Over 40 thousand miners of Donbass joined в mining groups на East of the USSR. Known throughout founders of the socialist country competition у vuhыlnodobuvniy industry led the difficulty groups. Tac, known innovator А.ІZotov led the TrustChelyabvuhillya". And Hero labor front Oleg Stakhanov mine number 31 trust "Karahandavuhillya. In various forms of socialist competitions which are shown in the rear, participate, women, youth, teens.

Hero of the Soviet Union's Wife П.Tu'ryana wrote with her husband Kuibyshev on front: "I am with you, dear! My Girls were awarded the rank of brigade front. We women, all the powers to give In order to produce more weapons to beat you rather the enemy and returned home.

A significant contribution to defense made an evacuated to the rear, particularly in the Volga region and Kazakhstan, the village workers. As in industry, examples of dedicated demonstrated exemplary first Five-Year Plans. 1942 Brigade P.Angelinoi within her sisters Hope, Mary and Catherine, working on three tractors, handled 4990 hectares of land in the collective farm West Kazakhstan region.

With extensive experience of growing technical crops, highly efficient livestock workers Agriculture in Ukraine provided substantial assistance to collective and state farms eastern regions. Over the 1942-1945 biennium sown area in the Soviet Union increased by 26 million hectares of Collective Ukraine in 1944 passed the state More than 33 million pounds of food. Thus, even in front of the occupation Hitler was the most important agricultural regions provided food.

Labor feat representatives of Ukraine was one of most important contribution towards a radical turning point in the WWII. Since the end of 1942 received in front the required number of planes, guns, tanks, small arms, food.

 

6. Fight the enemy in the rear. Soviet partisans and the UPA

The defeat of Nazi troops during Stalingrad Kursk, on the Dnieper Anglo-American landing forces in Sicily their offensive у North Africa and Italy intensified resistance movement in Nazi-occupied all countries.

Gained unprecedented scale Soviet guerrilla movement. Has changed tactics of guerrilla warfare: if the first condition guerrillas fighting the invaders were mostly active diversionary-intelligence activities, create and expand guerrilla zones land and, after a radical turn in the war that took place at the front, largest guerrilla raids in connection went deep into enemy rear.

З June to October 1943 Carpathian raid lasted connection С.Кovpaka. Five months guerrillas have fought their territory Polesie, Rivne, Lviv, Stanislav and Ternopil regions; forsuvaly River Happened, Gorin, Zbruch, Dniester, Prut; defeated the German garrisons in Skalat, Galicia, RosolyniSolotvino, Rafalivtsi.

 

Rebels during Carpathian raid

 

Fascists threw against kovpakivtsiv significant forces Armed Forces and Police. 11 times proryvaly guerrillas hostile environment. August 4, 1943 partisan connection routed the enemy garrison in мDelyatyn, brought down the oil-extracting complex, railway and bridges. However grueling battles against the fascist invaders and Ukrainian Self-Defense (Military national troops in Galicia) kovpakivtsiv forced to return to their bases.

Moved forward in raids also Guerrilla connection A. Fedorova M. Naumova A. Miller, P. Vershygory.

During the guerrilla raids constantly attempts to establish contacts between the Soviet and the Polish underground. In the Soviet partisan formations created Polish units, which had to operate in Western Ukraine.

However, close contacts are not occurred. The Kremlin and the Polish government in exile in London had a different perspective belonging to the state of Western Ukraine: the first referred to the will of the Ukrainian people in 1939, second on European System of 30 years.

The new military-political situation, which developed in Ukraine, UPA pushed to the need of political evolution.

In August 1943 was III Extraordinary large collection of OUN (B). In decisions of collection was noted that Ukraine should be a democratic republic based on the principles of social justice, in which there is no place any system operation.

In the adopted documents foreseen transfer land to the peasants, the introduction of 8-hour workday, involving workers to enterprise management, declared freedom of speech, thought, belief in the equality of all citizens of their rights, including representatives national minorities. It was, inter alia, removed the slogan OUN "Ukraine for the Ukrainian" and put forward new: "The will of the people, the human will." Insurgents have called for fight on two fronts Against Stalin and Hitler.

By new ideological principles of the OUN, the Ukrainian national liberation movement had to go "To create united, sovereign country " in alliance with other enslaved nations. It provision made it possible to establish a series of national non-Ukrainian Insurgent Army formations: Azerbaijanis, Armenians, Georgians, Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Tatars, Lithuanians. In the OUN doctors were of Jewish origin.

Very telling is the change OUN attitude to Russians. If beginning of the war on the Russians OUN position was as follows: "Every Muscovite any he proletarian or bourgeois, or Communist, or no party affiliation a sworn enemy of Ukraine ", the decision of 1943 noted: "Strongly avoided the words"katsap" "Muscovite", "Bolshevik Moscow, pay attention to the fact that the Ukrainian, Russian and Belarusians have been together for the German disaster.

The new platform UPA practically revealed during the raid S. Kovpak. Rebels-kovpakivtsi were still active propaganda work among the UPA. For example, Commissioner partisan connection S. Rudnev always emphasized that "You can live separately, but the enemy must beat together. " And so, during a raid kovpakivtsiv, the insurgents have missed guerrillas across its territory.

There were some instances of transition UPA fighters on the side kovpakivtsiv. In turn led UPA propaganda work in the midst of Soviet partisans, encouraging them to move towards UPA together to fight for an independent Ukraine.

І Nevertheless, between parts of the UPA and Soviet partisans were not large-scale joint actions instead, they were mostly hostile sides.

The first clash UPA Red Army began in exile Germans from the right bank Ukraine. After of Soviet units in western Ukraine has increased the number of such clashes. That avoid large losses, the insurgents decided to ride out a Soviet attack in woods, and then to strike on tylah and NKVD units.

 

Questions and Tasks

1. When began the liberation of Ukraine from Nazi occupation?

2. Which  populated item Ukraine Soviet troops liberated the first?

3. As Nazis called protective line of his troops along the Dnieper River?

4. In which areas were evacuated mainly enterprises from Ukraine?

5. Name the major military operations in the period of liberation Left-bank Ukraine.

6. What is "guerrilla raid?

7. Spread the mobilization activities 1942-1943 biennium in Ukraine.

8. Identify the chronological sequence of events:

- Liberation of Kyiv;

- Smash Nazi troops on the Left Bank Ukraine;

- Early release Ukraine;

- Liberation Donbass.

9. Why the German command sponsorship of retention of the territory of Ukraine in their hands?

10. What was the impact of the Kiev offensive for further progress of the Great Patriotic War?

11. What changes in the ideological basis of the OUN (B) held on III extra-large congregation in 1943?

12. What factors do you think contributed to the success of Soviet offensive Troops in 1943 in Ukraine?

13. Why do you think the PA, the Soviet leadership conducted reprisals against those who were released from Nazi captivity?

14. What on What do you think prevented the establishment coordination of action against German forces between UPA and Soviet partisans?