4. FLOW RESISTANCE IN UKRAINE (textbook)

§ 4                                                                                                     FLOW RESISTANCE IN UKRAINE

 

1. Deployment Resistance movement and its trends in Ukraine

Anti-fascist resistance movement was part of the overall fight against invaders. In Ukraine, it was represented by three political trends:

         manageable Soviet government and partisan underground movement;

        military units bulbivtsiv, Bandera and Melnykites. combined with time in UPA;

        two Polish armies: pro-Soviet Army Nation and subordinate to the London government in exile Army, that were against Hitler, including the Ukrainian territory.

            Military vstanovlyuvalosya doctrine of the Soviet Union that war, if it actually happens, has been kept exclusively in a foreign territory and "low blood." Preparation guerrilla warfare has been recognized inappropriate. In this regard, the early 30's was eliminated network guerrilla bases that were in the forests of the border districts. Experienced frames were the period of Stalinist repression in the "cleansing" the enemies of the people.

However, since the first days of war official documents (Directive of 29 June 1941) task was create network of guerrilla groups and underground organizations in occupied enemy territories under the Communists.

However, the underground organization in a hurry organized with dedicated, but malokompetentnyh people were quite vulnerable to German intelligence services and were eliminated in the first days occupation.

At the beginning of the war of CPSU (B) oriyentuvav Party organizations and organs of Soviet power in wide using the experience of civil war that in the new war tactics and strategies were ineffective. Yes, June 30 1941 was secretary of the Communist Party Central Committee Burmystenka, addressing party asset Kyiv, stressed soonest deployment of resistance movement behind enemy lines, by involving veterans Civil War, the advanced workers and youth.

Some party and Soviet officials not even imagined the complexity of tasks facing them. When Secretary Snezhnoye Stalin's party headquarters and field District Chief of the NKVD, the newly turned heads Partisan asking where hiding and what arm guerrillas, they heard a response that must be hiding in the bushes (not Germans also check every bush "), and arm axes have (ax also a weapon ").

Newly created units operating in pryfrontoviy band, full of German troops. Poorly armed and unprepared people opposed by well trained and armed infantry and motorized divisions Wehrmacht. Rebels selflessly fought and died with the enemy in battle, without causing fascists tangible losses. However, in deep behind the enemy lines of combat activity guerrilla action was not very effective. Manifestations of poor organization guerrilla movement in the first months of war.

In the first year of war in the occupied territory of Ukraine was left to 3500 and guerrilla groups sabotage groups, and in June 1942 Staff knew about the guerrilla movement the presence of only 22 operating units, the rest split up or died. Summer of 1942, only 30% of the guerrilla groups had contact with "great land".

Considerable damage partisan roll movement caused that part of the managers left to work in the underground, arbitrarily in the Soviet rear left, throwing people and entrusted their fate case. Individuals from among the ranks of the governing and were traitors and went to the side of the invaders, and helped the Gestapo spy underground, show appearances, secret apartment.

Passivity of resistance to invaders in the first months of the war and dissatisfaction explained another part of the population Stalin's regime, repression, famine, forced collectivization. Not surprisingly, it is rural areas that had become the centers of the guerrillas, least actively supported it.

Some of the villagers even collaborated with the invaders. As reported in an official told composite occupiers, in August 1941 "Russian troops abandoned not partisans have no impact on population. Wherever they appear ... their capture and transfer us,

Significant role was that of the same beginning of the war millions of people finding themselves in deep behind the enemy lines, were in isolation, under the pressure of persecution and terror.

Worked at full capacity Nazi propaganda and repression system. Special Directive "Continued military operations in the East, Hitler approved July 19, 1941, stressed: "To maintain order and Security won in eastern regions ... Troops will only enough then when applied not legal punishment, and generated occupying authorities fear in the population can express any desire to resist ... Instead of To use additional security parts commanders must take in their respective areas of draconian measures ... ».

In other decrees and directives of the occupation government stated: "With the availability of weapons, ammunition and explosives in the buildings, barns, gardens etc. responsibility falls on the person who uses this land plot " (23 August 1941); "Who knowingly or unknowingly slay damage to the work of communication .., destroy or damage the wires or other transmission line devices ... to be shot " (10 October 1941); "Partisans not destroyed in battle, should condemned to death " (4 November 1941).

Only the first year of war in June 1941 in July 1942 Retaliation of troops and SS for supporting the guerrillas destroyed 90 000 civilians Ukraine, Nazi occupation authorities had imposed Institute hostages. By Instruction among those arrested and sentenced to death had to be "50 percent Jews, the remaining 50 percent Russians, Poles and Ukrainian in equal proportions.

 

Deployment of the Resistance movement in Ukraine

 

2. Soviet underground and partisan movement in Ukraine

Despite the bloody Nazi terror, and to the underground guerrilla struggle became the most courageous people mainly Communists, Komsomol and Red Army soldiers who are in environment. In difficult conditions underground, the daily exposing himself to deadly risks They gathered in the fields of recent fighting to stop weapons trained network yavok, searched and debug connection to the "mainland" (the so-called Soviet territory by front lines), and disseminated rozmnozhuvaly anti-fascist leaflets.

After the defeat of Nazi troops during Situation in Moscow guerrilla movement began to change. The war was becoming protracted. Soviet leaders, given the situation on the fronts, revised its military doctrine. It was necessary to create massive guerrilla movement. which would be dragged to a significant force enemy, it created difficulties and obstacles in the rear.

For this purpose, May 30, 1942 The stake of the Supreme Command was established Headquarters of the partisan movement (TSSHPR) headed by the first Secretary of the CC КП(B) Belarus P. Ponomarenko. After this became the established republican and regional headquarters of the guerilla movement.

In May 1942 occurs Ukrainian guerrilla headquarters movement (USHPR) led Т.Strokacha.

 

Figure

Strokach Timothy Amvrosievych (1903-1963) one of the organizers of the partisan movement in Ukraine. Lieutenant General (1944). Member of the Civil War. In 1924 - the Border Guard Troops. Since March 1941 - Deputy People's Commissar of Internal Affairs of the USSR. From June 1941 led the design destructive battalions and guerrilla groups in Ukraine. Member of Defence Kyiv and Moscow. In 1942-1945 he headed the Ukrainian guerrilla headquarters movement. In 1945 - Civil work. Member of the Communist Party Central Committee (1938-1959). Deputy Supreme Soviet (1937-1958). Since 1957 - Retired. Awarded three Orders of Lenin, three Orders of Red Banner, Order of Suvorov first degree, Order of Patriotic War, First Degree, two orders Red Star.

 

USHPR launch a job actions aimed at ensuring the guerrilla groups, to redirect aircraft partisan edge weapons, ammunition, communications, advocacy books, printing equipment and maintenance specialists "Forest wars".

Guerrilla leadership failed make coordination of hostilities between the separate partisan divisions as and coordinate their actions with the regular army. Under the leadership of Ukrainian Staff of the guerrilla movement activities of People's Liberation Vigilante intensified.

By Ukrainian Staff guerrilla movement in the mid-1943 Ukraine had only 46 large partisan connections, about 2 000 troops and diversionary-intelligence groups. In the fighting took part in 100 thousand people.

Ukrainian Partisan Movement Headquarters assisted the partisans in Czechoslovakia. Poland and Romania. In its special schools and centers have been trained Hundreds of Poles, Czechs and clovakiv. Terror occupants aroused resistance of the population, helped create guerrilla groups. There de 1941 yet met some Germans as liberators in 1942 already laying mines.

Nay role in mass deployment of the Resistance movement in Ukraine in the first stage of the war Stalin played leadership.

For a while, Stalin treated with mistrust the leaders of guerrilla groups of Ukraine, carefully conceived and biased all information that came from the republic. Leading positions in the occupied USHPR Representatives of Moscow. "Staff of the Ukrainian Headquarters was completed, usually without CC КП(B), resulting in some even command positions replaced random people who did not know Ukraine and its social and national peculiarities, noted in one of the party documents.

The thought of Stalin changed in favor Ukrainian partisans after his private meeting in Moscow with the famous organizers of the anti-fascist resistance movement in Ukraine.

After that improved logistical support of guerrilla groups and formations, fighters distinguished themselves in battle, were awarded orders and medals.

Guerrilla movement in Ukraine reached epidemic proportions.

In August 1942 partisan uhru-povannyam Kovpaka Fedorova Saburova the problem was to switch from Bryansk Forest on Right-Bank Ukraine for the deployment of a national partisan movement.

During the guerrilla raids were destroyed dozens of enemy garrisons, defeated formation policemen raised communication and logistics Wehrmacht.

 

Figure

Cap Sydir Artemovych (1887-1967) - Soviet State figure. One of the leaders of guerrilla movements. Twice Hero of the Soviet Union (1942, 1944). Major General (1943). Member of the Civil War. Since 1937 - Chairman of the Executive Committee Putivlskogo. During the War (1941-1945) commanded one of the most partisan connections. A member of the underground Communist Party Central Committee. Drove five raids on the German tylah. Total guerrilla connection Kovpaka passed over 10 thousand km, destroying enemy garrisons in 39 settlements. From 1946 - Minister of Defence of USSR. Since 1947 - Deputy Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Council Ukraine. In 1946-1967 he - Member of the Supreme Soviet. Awarded four Orders of Lenin, Order of the Red Banner, Suvorov first Class, Order of Bogdan Khmelnitsky first degree.

In October 1942, began raid partisan connections S. and A. Kovpaka Saburova from northern Sumy region in parts of Kyiv and Zhytomyr areas.

In February-March 1943 deep raid southern regions of Ukraine began a guerrilla in connection Command M. Naumova.

In March, a raid in Chernihiv Volyn Region has taken a partisan formations under the command A. Fedorov.

 

 

 

 

Figure

Alexei Fedorov F. (1901-1989) Soviet statesman, one of leaders of guerrilla movements. Twice Hero of the Soviet Union (1942, 1944). Major General (1943). Member of the Civil War. Since 1938 - First Chernihiv regional party committee secretary. Since 1941 - Member of Parliament USSR. Since March 1943 - Member of the underground Volyn regional party committee, guerrilla commander once the connection was active in Ukraine, Belarus and Bryansk woods. In 1944-1949 he head of Kherson, 1950 - Ismail, from 1952 - Zhytomyr Regional Committee of the Communist Party. In 1957-1979 he - USSR Minister of Social Security.

 

For the continuation of hostilities in the north Ukraine were left under the command of guerrilla connection П.Kumanka and М.Popudrenka.

Under the leadership of guerrilla Staff traffic in August 1943 was held one of the largest transactions that have strategic importance. Started "Rail war" on main railway lines, which moved under Kursk Hitler Division. Ukrainian partisans brought down thousands of kilometers railways, thereby pereshkodyvshy Nazis throw to the front line of human reserves, military equipment, ammunition.

In spring 1943, in the run-up forcing Soviet troops to the Dnieper River, Ukraine partisans along with the partisan detachments Russia, Belarus, Moldova participated Operation "Concert", at which have been destroyed railroad tracks, facilities communication for a time paralyzed the redeployment of troops Wehrmacht.

"Great Forest War (So-called fight against guerrilla groups) was part WWII. For German data, almost 10% of the Wehrmacht forces were busy fighting with the guerrillas.

In difficult conditions the enemy rear fought the Nazis and anti-fascist underground.

In the annals of heroic Affairs also made contribute underground guerrilla organization "People's Guard" them. John Frank, which operated in the western regions of Ukraine: L 'viv,, Stanislav (now Ivano-Frankivsk) and Ternopil.

The organization uniting more than 600 people. its fighters killed more than 30 military trains, 10 industrial enterprises, 6 military warehouses fascists. Members distributed leaflets antifascist content Ukrainian and Polish. The underground and the partisans on behalf of the people skaraly Nazi death executioners Ukraine: Assistant Koch FunkHis advisers Winter and Schneider, The Nazi vice-governor of Galicia Bauer et al.

Especially resistance to invaders whereby young people. Boys and girls are the most massive members of the Soviet resistance movement.

Intrepid members fought with the enemy underground organization "Partisan Iskra village Krymky the Mykolaiv region. led her teacher В.Morgunenko, high school students- Buckwheat P. and D. Dyachenko. Underground fighters attacked the policemen, did sabotage on the railways, the liberation of POW camps. In February 1943 organization was exposed enemy, and its members arrested.

The heroic struggle waged behind enemy lines Underground organization м.Stalino (Now Donetsk) led by history teacher С.Matokinym, in Nizhyn headed Я. Batyuk, Krasnodons'ka "Young Guard", Commander of which was І.Turkenycha. In the special dispatches police and SD was noted that in Ukraine "Most young people are fanatical Bolsheviks.

Inspired victories Soviet troops, inspired by the intensification of guerrilla and clandestine struggle, in the resistance movement in time vklyuchylosya occupied almost the entire population of Ukraine. Living sabotaged republic of economic activities, avoiding shipment to Germany to work, helping the partisans.

 

3. OUN in beginning War

НAPFA Nazi Germany on the USSR brought hope to the possibility of restoration of the Ukrainian state among members of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN).

Back in April-June 1941 insurgents Hitler handed memorandums, which outlined his views on the principles building relationships between the German administration and local residents. "Ukrainian nationalists first and foremost protect the interests of its people, stressed S.Bandera. Even if admissions to Ukraine by German troops will be seen as liberators, such attitude can quickly change if Germany go down without going restoration Ukrainian state and without appropriate slogans. Cause resistance to all violence ... "

 

Figure

Bandera Stephen (1909-1959)policies. 1929 - Member of the OUN. After 1933 - Chairman of the Executive Executive (Executive body), the OUN in the West lands. Organizer range attacks, including killings in 1934 Minister of Internal Affairs of Poland B. Pyeratskoho. In Of 1934-1939 was in custody. In 1939, led the opposition to A. Miller, which led to the OUN split. Since 1940 - Chairman of the Revolutionary OUN. Initiator of the Act of the Ukrainian state in June 1941 In 1941-1944 he Germans imprisoned in Sachsenhausen. After the war led Foreign parts UNO. In 1959 killed by a KGB agent in Munich.

 

Even before Hitler's invasion of the Soviet Union OUN (B) (Bandera) agreed with the military circles of Nazi Germany on the formation of OUN two battalions «Nachtigall» and "Roland". They emerged in 1941 under the auspices of the German General Staff with the support of German special services. According to the OUN leadership, these battalions were to become germ Ukrainian National Army. For its part, the Nazi leadership had to attract Ukrainian parts for punitive actions against the Jews and Poles.

In Nazi occupied territories Poland OUN derivatives formed three groups. Their problem was the fact that, moving the front after the German parts, in cities and promote villages of the idea of independence of Ukraine, and organizing civil administration local authorities and police.

Each group was defined a route.

          First of Sokal due to Zhitomir Kharkov

          for the second of Syana through to the winery Kyiv;

          for third of Syanki through in Dnepropetrovsk Odessa. Apart from OUN (B) have established similar groups Melnykites OUN (M).

Arriving in the city, a special group OUN (B), led by J. Stetsko June 30, 1941 in house Lviv "Enlightenment" held Ukrainian National Assembly, which adopted the Act the Ukrainian state. Ukrainian government was formed, headed J. Stetsko.

Figure

Stetsko Jaroslaw (1912-1986) - Worker OUN з 1932 Since 1940 - Member Revolutionary leaders of OUN (B). Organized by the Act of the Ukrainian state June 30, 1941 Head of the State Board in. Imprisoned by the Germans in a concentration camp for refusing to abolish the Act. Released in 1944 From 1946 - Head of Anti nations. Since 1968 - Chairman of the wire Foreign parts UNO.

This event today has caused ambiguous evaluation. Act of June 30, 1941 was a controversial matter. On the one hand:

  –          in 1941 was officially established Ukrainian state;

  –          The act was an attempt consolidation of the national radical forces in the struggle for Ukrainian statehood.

But at the same time:

  –          proclamation of the Act and the formation of the Ukrainian authorities carried out a small group of OUN (B) without taking into account the interests of other political forces, such as the OUN (M) Representatives of the UPR in exile;

  –          in the third paragraph Act sovereignty of Ukraine was turned into humiliating role of a satellite Nazi Germany;

  –          in decision Act, was present on Hitler's rhetoric (such as "Glory German Fuhrer"), Which pushed many patriots of Ukraine Support Act.

Response to restoring Berlin Ukrainian statehood was swift and harsh. The leaders of OUN (B) was stated: «Fuehrer One who controls the fight ... We are allies, we are conquerors Russian-Soviet territories.

Fascists arrested 300 representatives of the OUN (B), 15 of them subsequently shot and sent to other camps. Were arrested and the leaders of OUN (B) - Stepan Bandera and Yaroslav Stetsko. July 8, 1941 Bandera Nazis were taken to Berlin and then to Sachsenhausen concentration camp.

Some time leaders OUN (B) tried to find understanding with the German administration, but their efforts were in vain.

At the end of 1941. OUN (B) has chosen to fight against the Nazis. The leaders of OUN believed that after the victory of Germany over the Soviet Union will be first so bleeding, which Ukrainian forces alone can expel the Germans and to create an independent Ukrainian state.

 

4. OUNUnderground 1941-1942 biennium

After the repression of the local OUN structure of the OUN (B) received from the management task to collect weapons ground battles and create military units. Insurgents have intensified their activities Kiev. Kharkov. Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk, Poltava, Odessa. Simferopol and other cities what caused concern from the occupants.

Hitler security service in the order on November 25, 1941 emphasized that the movement Bandera prepares rebellion aims to creation of an independent Ukraine. Therefore, all activists of the Traffic had to be immediately arrested and "after thorough interrogation, secretly destroyed robbery nicks.

Most other policies in comparison with banderivskyi, conducted under the leadership of the OUN A. Miller OUN (M) strongly vidmezhuvalasya of Lviv shares Bandera June 30, 1941

 

Figure

Andrew Miller (1890-1964) - Politician. In 1914-1916 he - Captain of the Ukrainian Sich Riflemen. During the First World War II got in Russian captivity. In 1917-1920 he - organizer Sich Riflemen, Chief of Staff of SiegeCorps, and later - in the Army of the UPR. Since 1922 one of the leaders of UWO, the marginal commandant at Western. In 1924-1928 he incarcerated in Poland. From the 30's - Member of the OUN. Since 1938 - Head of the Organization. After OUN split faction headed Melnykites. In 1941 isolated Germans. In 1944, imprisoned in Sachsenhausen and. After the war headed the OUN (M) in exile.

 

For July 6 A. Miller sent a letter addressed to Hitler, which questions the independence of Ukraine is was asked, and underlined just wish OUN (M) "To participate in cross campaign against the Bolshevik barbarism ... go hand in hand with the German WehrmachtAnd be able to create and end Ukrainian armed groups. "

Members of the marching groups OUN, who came to Kyiv, led by Oleh Kandyba (Olzhych), managed to hold their people to the City Administration and police.

In October 1941 launched in Kiev Ukrainian National Council headed by Professor М.Velychkivskym. Group Kandyba managed to establish its influence over various organizations of the city. Yes, Ukrainian poet Elena Teliga created Union of Ukrainian Writers. She started out with newspaper "The Ukrainian word" magazine "Timpani". Ukrainian National Council established its branches of the Academy of Sciences and other institutions, actively tried to influence pa social life.

However, the occupation administration not arranged following the OUN (M). At the end of 1941 was banned activities of the Ukrainian National Council.

Sensing danger, from January 1942 OUN (M) moved to the illegal situation. In February, 1942 Gestapo in Kiev officials arrested a group of OUN (M), including І.Rogachev, A.Teliga, MTeliga, P. Oleinik and others. Then they shot at Babi Yar.

Among the organizations that have had to struggle with the German occupiers, it should be noted militias associated with the name T. Bulba-Borovets.

Back in August 1941 T. Bulba-BorovetsWho was a supporter of government of Ukrainian People's Republic in exile, organized a military formation of the Ukrainian police "Woodland SICH", Acting on territories of Polesie and Volhynia and fought with the Red Army atomistic. In the "Polesie Sich were about 10 thousand people. At the end of 1941 Germans put forward before bulbivtsyamy request liquidate and dissolve the militia troops. So bulbivtsiswitched to guerrilla warfare. "Pollyssian Sich was renamed Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA)That led military operations against the German occupiers and against Soviet partisans.

On the substitution of military groups OUN, UPA Bulba-Borovets won a loyal position concerning national minorities of Ukraine, and later established the neutrality and relations with the Soviet partisans, which contained more than six months.

August 19, 1942 Armed Forces Funnel made a successful attack on Shepetivka and caused significant losses Nazi garrison.

Autumn of 1942, User OUN (B) took a course on creating your own guerrilla army that fought to as the German invaders and the Soviet and Polish forces. Becoming OUN guerrilla movement began in mid-1942

One of his first led troops in Polesie С.Kaczynski. Detachment This was formed mainly with the Ukrainian police, whose members en masse moved to the OUN. Newly military force also was named UPA (Ukrainian Insurgent Army). The official date of its creation is 14 October 1942 Day of the Blessed Virgin. Over time, this guerrilla army secret order of joining armed groups Borovets and OUN (M).

 

Воyiny UPA

Thus, antifascist movement was not united.

Communist and nationalist guerrilla movements were in a confrontational relationship. This of course, weakened the strength antifascist resistance movement in Ukraine.

 

Document

Oath of a warrior of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army

I am a soldier Ukrainian Povstanchoyi Army taking in hand weapons, solemnly swear my honor and conscience to a great nation Ukrainian, before the Feast of Ukrainian land, to shed the blood of all Best sons of Ukraine and to the highest political leadership of the People Ukrainian:

Fight for full liberation of all Ukrainian lands and Ukrainian people against the invaders and acquire Ukrainian Independent State. In this fight is not no mercy blood, no life and will fight till the last breath and the final victory over all enemies of Ukraine.

I should be courageous, courageous and brave in battle and merciless to enemies of Ukrainian land.

I should be honest Discipline and revolyutsiynopylnym warrior.

I do all orders of the captains.

Written military and state secrets.

It would be a worthy sister in battle and in war all his life comrades in arms.

When I or violates depart from this oath, let me punish severe Ukrainian law National Revolution and rest on my neglect of the Ukrainian people.

 

 

The text of the oath members of an underground organization "People's Guard ", which operated in the western regions of the Ukrainian SSR / until December 1942

I, the son (daughter) Ukrainian people will swear that courageously and the latter forces will fight for the will of the people and for the liberation of my Soviet Motherland, fraternal Slavic peoples from the Nazi yoke.

I swear that, Subject to the leadership of the partisan movement in Ukraine's western regions, I will unfailingly follow orders and trusted me fighting tasks without retreating before any danger.

I swear keep fighting organizational military secret and not to betray her even in the most terrible tortures, boldly expose traitors who disclose secret.

I swear that struggle for the liberation of the Soviet Homeland vidpochynu not until the final victory. Death to the German invaders!

 

Questions for Documents

Compare between sworn UPA and Soviet underground. What united, а separating these two parts antifascist Resistance?

 

Flow Opposition movement in Ukraine (1941-1944 biennium)

Flow

Soviet

Nationalist

Polish

Goal

Liberation from occupation

Restoration of Soviet power

Restoration   Ukrainian state

Restoration   Polish state, the return of Western Ukraine into Poland

Organizational design

1941-1942 biennium   Guerillas, connection, the Soviet underground (underground 3500   organizations and groups)

derivatives   Group (1941), "Woodland Sich (1941), URA (November 1942)   and other groups, the OUN underground

1941-1942 biennium   National Army, Army nation, peasant battalions

Number

40-200 thousand

50-200 thousand (derivatives group - 5 K)

10-20 thousand

Commanders

S. cap, O.Sabur,   A. Fedorov, M.Naumov. He headed the guerrilla headquarters   movement in Ukraine - T.Strokach.

Commander   Polis'ka Sich "- Taras Bulba-Borovets.

Commanders   UPA: D. Klyachkivskyy (Klim Savur)   Novel Shukhevych (Taras Chuprynka).

Commander   Army - Boer-Komorowski

The main areas of action

Ukrainian Polesie, Chernihiv, Sumy

Volyn, Galicia, Ukrainian Polesie

Volhynia, Polesie

Specificity of hostilities

Activity   Partisans usually subordinated to and consistent with the needs of the front: diversions   on the railways, military attacks on the objects, intelligence and assistance in crossing   through the rivers and so on. The largest coordinated guerrilla operations: "rail war" and   "Concerto" by military transport disruption cargo on   railways and major guerrilla raids of connections on tylah enemy.

Mainly   population acted as self-defense - embossing the occupation administration,   a Ukrainian, protected people from arbitrary authority, attempts to disrupt   export food to Germany, labor for defense battles with   punisher on the perimeter and inside the controlled area. Attacks on   military objects was carried out mainly in order to acquire weapons.

Mainly   Self acting as the Polish population .. Certified claims on Poland   western lands

Note: The Ukrainian also actively participated in anti-Nazi resistance movement in Europe: France, Italy, Yugoslavia and others.

 

5. Volyn tragedy

Volyn tragedy (1943)

Causes

1. Dramatic history of Polish and Ukrainian   people in the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries, filled brutal peasant   riots and Cossack rebellion that prydushuvalysya in their blood streams and left   in the minds of many generations of neglected mutual unforgotten wrongs, too   sense of social injustice;

2. Experience and conclusions from a lost war with Ukrainian   Poland in 1918-1919, who pointed to Poland as a major   obstacle in building an independent Ukraine;

3. Pending general political conditions after the First   World War, which deprived the Ukrainian have their own statehood;

4. II national policy of the Commonwealth's eastern   Territories based on the principles of nationalism and elimination of other   nationalities to participate in state and public life (the right   autonomy and self-government, the problem of land reform, educational policy,   violation of civil rights and liberties, repression against Ukrainian). It   eliminated long-standing social conflicts, but rather aggravated them;

5. Terrorist activity and sabotazhnu UWO, and OUN   in Poland in the interwar period;

6. Anti-Polish OUN during World   war, arising mostly from the accepted ideology of the integral   nationalism D.Dontsov and formed the consciousness   Ukrainian society in the spirit of hatred for the Poles, such as standing on   impede the independence of Ukraine;

7. Spurred by the role of both totalitarian regimes -   Soviet and German strengthened in the Polish-Ukrainian conflict;

8. Demoralizing effect of war, which caused great   moral devastation and deviation from the norms of social behavior, conditioned   bloody and criminal nature of the conflict;

9. Uncompromising position of the Polish government and   OUN leadership in the territorial issue.

 

 

Political-military   OUN and UPA strategy included implementation of the following main tasks:

1. Organization of the armies on the territory of the OUN   Volhynia and Polesie, and in Eastern Galicia;

2. Acquiring largest territories of Volhynia, elimination of   them German administration;

3. Laying the foundation of the Ukrainian administration   subordinated to the OUN and UPA;

4. The subordination of partisan divisions   leadership of the OUN-B (including divisions of T. Bul, UNO - Miller, not   stopping force);

5. Removal or destruction   Polish element in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia as an obstacle Ukrainian   aspirations for independence.

 

Chronology of events

June 30, 1941 In Lviv, the Act   the Ukrainian state and its government created (Ukrainian State   Board (UDP)), led by Y. Stetsko. Natsytskyyregime has not acknowledged this political decision

5.9 July 1941 Germans Arrest in Bandera   Krakow, J. Stetsko in Lviv

September 15, 1941 Announcement faction OUN (B)   outlawed. Mass arrests and killings of members. Go OUN (B) to   clandestine forms of struggle.

October 1941 The final formation   Nazi administrative system in Volhynia.

November 1941 In Galicia and Volyn Poles   began actively to create a resistance movement - Army (AK). To keep   This guerrilla army Poles often spent requisitioning products   local population. The management of AK, like government in exile,   considered as part of Volyn "Kresevo vshodnih, Ie the Polish eastern territories, and   repeatedly stated at the international level about the need for post-war period   play within the Polish state in 1939 Formation of regular troops   AK finished in February 1942

December 1941   February 1942 The first single attack on the Polish underground Ukrainian population   Poland. To attack the Ukrainian population was destroyed Holm   Ukrainian those who worked in the Nazi administration. Lost about   400 people, including priests and teachers.

Beginning in 1942 Polish anti-Ukrainian action   in Volodavskomu, Hrubeshivskomu, Omashivskomu and Kholmian county Kholm,   according to the statement of the "Kholm, during the war Polish military   formation of only one Hrubeshivskomu County   burned more than 50 Ukrainian villages.

March-April   1942The first attack on the Polish civilians. In Dubno,   Rivne, Lutsk, Zdolbunov,   Kremenets counties and Polesie was killed about 2 thousand Poles.

April 1942 On the II Conference of the OUN (B)   The need for improvement Ukrainian-Polishrelations based on independence of States. Basis.i recognition of the need   Ukrainian people in the western lands. Convicted chauvinistic   sentiment among Poles and their attempts to capture administrative   apparatus of Western Ukraine. However, the decision to strengthen   revolutionary activities and preparations for the formation of the rebel army. Together with   operating on the territory of Volhynia Polesie departments Host Maxim Borovets(Taras Bulba), organized by departments, which were subject to the OUN (B).

July 1942 The first Ukrainian   repressive actions against the Poles in the village administration and the forest that   were created by the Nazis.

October 14, 1942 Formation of Ukrainian   Insurgent Army (UPA), headed by Dmitry Klyachkivskyy(Klim Savur).

November 13   1942The first casualties of Polish civilians (s.ObirkyLutsk district)

24-25 December   1942The attack on the Polish squad s.Peresopovychi

January 1943 The Polish population of Volhynia   forming units Peasant Defense

February 17-23   1943III Conference of the OUN (B) approved a decision to transition to open form   struggle with the Nazi regime and Soviet authorities. Accepted final   decision of the UPA. The decision to ethnic cleansing, this conference   not formally taken, but the statement was made that the OUN and UPA will   to fight against all armed enemies of the Ukrainian state, including   Soviet and German troops and Polish military units.   Subsequently, the district of OUN (B) have the freedom to do about Polish   population as see fit.

15 March-10   April 1943 By IAN joined about 5 thousand Ukrainian who served in secondary   police. The transition was captured a significant number of German weapons.   Ukrainian Instead, the auxiliary police fascists gain Poles   distinguished themselves in combat Ukrainian.

March-April   1943Loss of the Polish population in Lutsk, Rivne, Dubna and Zdolbunovcounties main justification for their actions zdiysnyuvachi operations called   retaliation.

April-May   1943Mass casualties among the Polish population Sarnenskiand Kostopil counties

April-May   1943 The first "retribution campaign" against the Ukrainian population of Poles   The first single retribution action groups held the Polish police, Polish   base self-defense, then they spent more and more participation by all   regular military formations.

June 1943 Massive attacks Ukrainian   units of the Polish population Dubna and   Lutsk district

June 5, 1943 Polish Government Delegate   issue orders regarding coordination of the Polish population of Volhynia to   Self

July 7, 1943 Attempt of understanding   Ukrainian representatives delegate of the Polish government

July 11, 1943 Action DEPOLONIZATSIYI Volhynia,   ORGANIZED MANAGEMENT OUN (B). In Vladimir's Ukrainian troops County   attacked at least 99 Polish villages (according to Polish sources: 167 towns   points) and extensively destroyed the Polish population. As a result of actions against   civilians at the hands of Volyn policemen and   Ukrainian nationalists killed 40 thousand Poles (documented   loss of 36,750 people, known the names of 19,401 persons) (see E., W. Siemaszko, “Ludobojstwo dokonane przez nacjonalistow ukrainskich na ludnosci polskiej Wolynia 1939-1945”, t. 2, Warszawa,   2000. - S. 1038), the loss of the Ukrainian side to determine several Volhynia   thousand. Maxim Borovets (Taras Bulba) refused   submit to the leadership of the OUN (B). Head of the OUN (B) at the time - Nicholas Swan   - Opposed, but the mountain has Volyn regional leadership position at the head   bob Klyachkivskym (Climate Savur).

August 1943 Complication   Polish-Ukrainian relations in Galicia

21-25 August   1943Third Extraordinary Congress of the Greater OUN (B). Confirmed the policy struggle   Independent and unified Ukraine. Head of the Organization (B) was appointed Roman Shushkevich (T. Chuprynka) (circulated actual leader   UPA was Dmitry Klyachkivskyy (Klim Savur)).

October 1943 Communiqu

October 27, 1943 "Order number 1 / 43" OUN   which banned anti-Polish action

Mid-December   1943on the eve of the Catholic feast of the Nativity in Volhynia rolled a new   wave of anti-Polish actions.

January 1944 Arriving at Volyn Colonel   K.Bombinskoho. Starting a new process   Polish division, which was named in 1927 Volyn Infantry Division Army   Executive. According to plans the Polish underground, the main attack on   Ukrainian armed forces was to take place with the approaching Red Army.

End of January   194427th Infantry Division Volyn AK, which included partisan   groups, members of self-defense and underground, operating in cities,   about 7 thousand people attacked the UPA, the seizing of territory from Kovel   to Turia and the Bug. These areas were driven   Ukrainian civilians.

Beginning in 1944 relocation center   anti-Polish actions of Volyn in Galicia.

September 1, 1944 Official denial of OUN (B) of   anti-Polish actions. OUN (B) sought agreement with AA to the joint   fight against Soviet invaders. Chief of the UPA in Eastern Galicia   Basil Sidor (Rustle) issued a decree which restrained   Massive anti-Polish action "except for the Polish element that   cooperate with the NKVD.

 

Conclusion: Ukrainian people had the full   aspire to independence, but the methods and means that   OUN and UPA were used against the Polish population can not be   justified. Unjustifiable action against the Polish and Ukrainian   population.

 

Questions and Tasks

1. As the Soviet partisans fought against the German occupiers?

2. What are you famous Soviet leaders partisan and underground movement in Ukraine.

3. What are you famous leaders OUNunderground.

4. Name the mainstream anti-fascist resistance movement in Ukraine.

5. What anti-fascist underground organization that operated on territory Ukraine, Did you know?

6. Who headed Ukrainian government, which was established after the declaration Act 30 June 1941?

7. For what purpose were made by OUN derived column?

8. Identify the chronological sequence of events:

- "Rail war";

- Proclamation of the Act restoration of independence of the Ukrainian state;

- Start raid partisan connections Kovpaka S. and A. Saburova;

- creation of the OUN (B) of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army.

9. What are the causes of failures of the Soviet partisan Traffic in 1941?

10. What are the main activities OUN underground in 1941-1942

11. Compare methods of dealing representatives different currents antifascist movement in Ukraine bulbivtsiv, Bandera, Melnykites, Soviet partisans. What they had in common and what is different?

12. What, in your opinion, was the result of attempts Ukrainian national organizations to collaborate with the Nazis?

13. Why are the representatives of the OUN (M) did not support an attempt to OUN (B) to restore the independent Ukrainian state?

14. In your opinion, why the Act of the Ukrainian state on June 30, 1941 ambiguously perceived by different political of today's Ukraine?