Occupation regime in UKRAINE
Ukraine. Plan Ost
Preparing for attack
the USSR, leaders of Nazi Germany have developed a number of plans in advance,
Instructions, guidelines for mass destruction of the occupied territories. In
November 1940 Department of German racial policies approved
document that clearly identifies the goals and methods of the occupying power to
occupied territories, including Ukraine. "In the east, – mentioned in this document – we must carry out policies aimed at allocation
certain ethnic groups, ie, along with the Poles and Jews allocate Ukrainian,
Belarusians Highlanders, Lemky and Kashuba. "I hope
author of this crime opus, – the notion
"Jew" will disappear forever from the memory of people. Later we will have the opportunity
wipe face Ukrainian lands, Highlandersand Lemko.
The intentions of Hitler's brightest
are reflected in the notorious man- plan "Ost" – plan to destroy the population and "development"
Hitler occupied "eastern" areas, including Ukraine.
It was developed under the direction of Гіtlera, Himmler, Rosenberg and other Nazi leaders. In this
plan, including anticipated:
onimechennya local population, settlement of lands occupied by Germans
deportation of the population, including Ukrainian, to Siberia
disruption of biological forces Slavic peoples
robbery in Ukraine; transform local people into slaves
cultural values, destruction of cultural memory yatkiv
Fascist seizure forces of Ukraine, its territory was
divided into four parts. Authorities in them belonged to Hitler
1) Earth Eastern Galicia in stock
L 'viv,, Stanislavsky, Ternopil regions were bound to
General Governorate (consisting of central and southern regions
Poland) under the name District Halychyna.
2) 3 most of
Ukrainian lands was created Reichscommissariat"Ukraine" stock in Rivne, Volyn-Podilski.
Zhytomyr regions, the northern districts of Ternopil, Vinnytsia, eastern
areas Mykolaiv, Kyiv, Poltava, Chernihiv, Sumy,
Dnepropetrovsk and Crimean regions as well as southern areas of Belarus
and the RSFSR. Reichskommissariat divided into six
General counties with centers in Rivne, Zhytomyr, Kyiv, Dnipropetrovsk,
Nikolayev and Melitopol.
3) Region Chernihiv
Sumy, Kharkiv and Donbas as pryfrontovi, subordinate
directly military command.
Izmail, Odessa, Vinnitsa and southern parts of the western districts
Mykolaiv regions were annexed to Romania under the name «Transnistria».
Transcarpathia since 1939 was
occupied by Hungarian troops.
At the head of newly created administrative
units became governor-general. It was Governor-General G. Frank is
cynical statement: "If we win the war, then, in my opinion, Poles and
Ukrainian, and all that. that revolves around the governor-general can
to release at least for stuffing.
Not behind his ox friend on
National Socialist Party and E. Koch, was called "brown king
Ukraine. Local people на conquered
Hitler territories he is considered as inferior beings "lower
race: "If I find Ukrainian decent sit down with me. – I
immediately brought him to shoot. "
From the observations and
proposals of the Eastern ministry "for the general plan" Ost "
... General of the plan "Ost"
provides that after the War okonchanyya number pereselentsev for nemedlennoy
kolonyzatsyy vostochnыh territories dolzhno sostavlyat ... 4550 thousand. people.
After all, upon ymet vvydu that these 4550 thousand. нemtsev dolzhnы raspredelenы Being in such territory, as ...
also partially region of Ukraine ...
... C) The issue at ukrayntsah.
In the main management plan ymperskoy
security, the territory of Siberia dolzhnы Being pereselenы also WESTERN
Ukrainians. In so doing, provides for pereselenye sixty five per cent
Inquiries to document
on paper, try to predict what the consequences for Ukraine had a plan
"Ambassadors" in the case of its implementation.
Occupation regime in Ukraine
2. Nazi "new order"
order "meant the physical and moral terror against so- called racially-inferior peoples: Jews, Roma, Ukrainian,
Russians and representatives of the Soviet government and Communist. The worst was
situation of Jews and Gypsies, who waited endemic destruction.
Even before the war with the Soviet Union
by order of Hitler and Himmler created
punitive, special units – aynzatshrupy
SS who relied on physical tasks of mass destruction peace
population. Of the four aynzatshrup, "A", "B", "C" and
«D», the last two were in Ukraine.
One з anti-human the Nazis
were massacres in Kiev. From the first day occupation of the capital of Ukraine
Hitler's troops began a total terror. Not without the help of traitors
Kiev invaders found underground, Soviet and Party leaders,
activists. September 20-22, they were shot in Babi Yar (So
were called huge gully length 3 000 m and 50 m depth over which lay at the edge
The next four were victims of terror
Gypsy camps, which brought the war to the city.
From September 29 to October 2, 1941 in
Babi Yar was shot about 100 thousand civilians in Kyiv, the majority
of them were Jews. Massacres of the Jewish population were also
Lviv Berdichev, Kharkov, Odessa and other cities of Ukraine.
The Jewish Community of Ukraine for years
Nazi occupation has lost about 1,8
million (Before the war it accounted for 2,5 million people). It was part
part of the tragedy Holocaust – destruction of six million Jews by the Nazis of Europe and their
henchman during the Second World War.
When the occupying powers decided that the policy
extermination of Jews – «Yuden-Fry"(Net of
Jews ") – basically achieved its goal,
they went to total terror against the Ukrainian people.
Concentration camp commandant in Babi Yar cat
with mockery called "Ukrainian Day" Tuesday and Friday, in which
ravines on the outskirts of the city by shooting and another was destroyed dushohubok
Tens of thousands of people.
The essence of the Nazi government policy on
Ukrainian Minister expressed his lands occupied eastern territories А.Rosenberg: "The Slavs are called to work for us. When we
need to stop this, they can die quietly ...
Reproduction of the Slavs is undesirable "
Hitler's executioners killed by violence in Ukraine, about 4.5 million people.
"Empire of death" began to call the system of Nazi concentration camps. In Ukraine
There were almost 300 places of mass executions of people, there were 180 camps
death, there was a ghetto in 1950.
Definitely horror of Nazism demonstrate methods
abuse of people who used "Aryans" in Yaniv concentration camp (Lions).
Camp commandant obershturmfyurerSS Vilhauz shot for fun
prisoners з machine directly from the balcony of his office then passed
Weapons wife, and she also shot. Sometimes, to entertain his daughter, Vilhauz ordered to throw up bi-, Four-children and gave all of them. Daughter
Commandant of applause and merrily cried:
"Daddy, more!" And he shot back.
Cat Yanivconcentration Veshke pas dispute with Gestapo
one ax blow rozrubav
10-year old boy. Shturmsharfyurer GroveLane
pliers in women tearing nails, then rozdyahav his victim hanging
her hair, rozhoyduvav and then fired on It how to target that moves.
Torture, executions and destruction in Yaniv Nazi camp committed to music. Camp Orchestra almost daily
served two years in succession "Tango of Death, written by one of the prisoners during these
sounds were annihilated by the Nazis 200 thousand man.
organized mass murder of war. Nazi leadership
stated that Hague and Geneva Conventions on international
war in the East repealed.
Captivity and used for heavy
dangerous work, which usually lasted for 12-18 hours a day. In the camps
rules of war, there were scarce food, no medical
assistance. Torture was commonplace people: burning or Dumps
alive in the ground bait etc..
The place was a real genocide camp
POW "Stalag-349 ", Known as" Uman
pit. After the Nazis seized Uman, they adjusted for concentration
brick clay quarry plant. Its area reached 10 hectares, the depth varied from
6 to 15 pm
The Nazis ohorodyly quarry two rows of barbed wire, built a protective II
towers. The deepest place career was also wire fences. So in the camp
have two tiers, the upper camp living, and lower – for
doomed на death. For
of used dog, ready to break anyone who tries
escape. Already by mid August 1941 in the "pit" was tortured to death over 50
thousands of prisoners of war.
Terror and violence Nazis
tried to break the will of prisoners, intimidating them. Were among the captives, and the feebleminded,
and "corrupt" that vysluzhuvalys before the executioners, vytorhovuvaly their lives. But
Most prisoners stuck manfully.
According to recent data in Lviv, Slavutsky, Kamenetz-Podolsk, Zhytomyr,
Umansky, Vladimir-Volyn, Kirovohrad, and Syretskoy Darnyts'kyy
(In Kiev) and other POW camps were tortured about 1,5 million people.
Secret German instruction for Ukraine. November 1942
1. Our enemies: the communists, supporters of Bandera guerrillas. Potentially Bandera's most dangerous. By all means
2. Schools are only 4 classes. For the second year (1943) to close.
observuvaty. There are B (Banderas).
4. Select cultural and educational institutions, theaters, cinemas.
5. At least the type of research institutes and laboratories etc.
others. Only those that are necessary for war.
6. Church did not admit to an agreement.
7. Do not fight phthisis, typhoid. Close to Hospital
population. Containing further services of local doctors.
8. German courts only. Each German - Judge. For
population provided by the courts for 10 years.
9. Hooliganism punitive only when harms the Germans.
10. Spread immorality - not punish abortion.
11. All that has the spine to break ...
12. Nationalist partisans and prevent an agreement.
13. Control trains.
14. Secret informers in factories, shops, churches, businesses, institutions, and so on.
Watch the enemies of Germany. DEMAND - for services.
15. Not to speak with a population of Germans.
16. Do not talk about confusion in the party.
Inquiries to document
1. Why do you
view, Hitler's government for its most dangerous enemy in the occupied
Bandera areas considered?
2. Based on the document describe the political
regime that the Nazis tried to establish in the occupied territories.
3. Economic robbery
The Nazi occupation regime in Ukraine
set ourselves three main goals:
food, material and human resources needs of the Third Reich and
release of the Ukrainian population through physical
their destruction, deportation and removal of earth work in Germany and Ukraine
populate them German immigrants;
export to Germany to work as many able-bodied
March 5, 1943
held in Kyiv meeting of the members of National Socialist Party, which Reichscommissariat E. Koch outlined his vision of occupational
power in Ukraine. "I can squeeze out of this country every last drop, – he said. – Я came here not to
give blessings, and to help Fuhrer.
The population must work, work and more work ... But some are beginning
worry that people are not getting enough food. The population must not
demand. We must think about. as without it managed to treat our heroes
Stalingrad ... We came here to give manna, and to create
preconditions for victory. We are ruling the people, which means that from the point of racial
simplest of German workers biologically a thousand times more valuable
compared with a local population.
June 21, 1943 Reichscommissariat Koch took fourteen German
journalists who came to Ukraine, which reported that the task Reichscommissariat "Ukraine" is to collect
workers and so much food as possible. At the time, Commissariat
already submitted to the Reich million workers.
As for food, then to March 1943
were exported 5590 tons of wheat, 1372 tons of potatoes, 2 120 thousand
cattle, 148 thousand tons of dried vegetables, 49 tons of oil, 220 tons
sugar, 4 400 thousand heads of pigs, 406 sheep, thousands of heads. 420 million eggs and others.
One of the journalists left the detailed
the story of his journey. He wrote: "Koch said Ukraine normal
colony ... Koch said that it would be absurd to apply the principle to Ukraine
nationalities and take it to the European family of nations. Ukraine never
belonged to Europe, it was always the suburbs ... It. as well as all
Slavs, fits only the principle of winner and loser. For the German soldier
won the Ukraine not to make the Ukrainian people happy, but for
in order to bring German law in Ukraine, there is a possibility for
residence of German soldiers, and for generations to make a sales territory of Ukraine
Hitler administration, destroying
Soviet institutions, meanwhile fully preserved the collective farm system, which
Ukraine was under occupation for extracting the best food and food
In February, 1942 occupation authorities
proclaimed the new agrarian law, under which Ukraine would take place in
land privatization. Some historians believe that it was conducted in order to
private sector more effectively worked to Reich, but you can
believe that some degree of reform of occupation authorities impact on the situation
front – defeat near Moscow. The invaders tried to flirt with
peasants, moreover, that this plan was not implemented and carried only
One of the measures "new order" was
total appropriation of cultural property to the USSR. Hrabuvalysya museums, art
galleries, libraries, temples. In Germany were removed jewelry, masterpieces
art, historical treasures, books.
September 14, 1944 addressed А.Rosenberg was obtained shyfrohrama general
scope of "work" with the cultural heritage of Ukraine. The Minister of dovodylysya
lists stolen: the works of Dutch, Italian and Russian
art XVI-XIX centuries. who were in public repositories and the USSR
considered the world's masterpieces.
Nazi barbarians taken to Germany
together with other exhibits of the XII century frescoes. of Saint Sophia Cathedral bells
Assumption Cathedral and Lavra Belltower in Kiev, and July 3, 1942
blew up himself and the Assumption Cathedral.
Ukrainian pogroms suffered without exception
In Ukraine were liquidated institutions
higher education. The new government has allowed only secondary special education, which later
According to a special directive Reichscommissar Ukraine E. Koch and special
disposal of military administration of Army Group South was eliminated
Soviet system of public education. Instead, the network created
chotyryklasnyh Ukrainian schools. Training in reading them was restricted,
writing, counting, physical education, games and various manual labor, but without
any textbooks. The directive stressed that textbooks and
educational materials should be removed from schools and the population as a result of their
Communist propaganda and content.
The purpose of schools was chotyryklasnyh
training of workers, artisans, greatly narrowed the school system. Thus,
Kiev functioned only 40 "public schools" (as they were called the Nazis) that
visited 6470 pupils.
4. Removal of the population of Ukraine
at hard labor in Germany
The real tragedy for Ukraine is
removal of people, especially youth, to work in Germany. In September 1942
German administration in the occupied territories of the USSR received instructions
Berlin: «Fuehrer ordered the immediate shipment
to Germany 400 -500 thousand Ukrainian women ages 15 to 35 years for
their use in the household. This campaign, which should
be completed within three months Fuhrer instructed
General Commissioner of labor utilization.
authorities tried to recruit volunteers. Media
distributed promotional materials that all who go to work
to Germany, expects a paradisiacal life. In newspaper articles on poles in many
cities circulated by propaganda leaflets, spoke about the benefits of working in
Germany to "light factories with perfect machines. It was noted that there
made "brilliant living conditions, wages will be provided with Ukrainian
card and board on a par with German workers. While on
real conditions of life and labor in the Reich was unknown, some people
resigned yiha-you there. But after coming from Germany began
truthful information, people tried at all costs to avoid sending.
In letters received by the Ukraine, was covered
brutal truth about Hitler captivity. For example, the verbatim excerpts from
letter from the Ukrainian girl Nina Bila Tserkva:
"... Greetings from far Germany. I'm still alive ... I will write you as kormlyat us.
We pigs are eating at home better than we give ... A soup that taste to you
Know? From it rvesh like eat three spoons ... Shopyshsya her belly and muchayeshsya 2 or 3 days. You can not lie. Though weak, but
should go. Standing near the stall, head spinning ... At work we go with policemen
will not let on. Sit in Baratz behind bars ...
Mummy, dear, why am I so sad, sad life, why are our years
so young zrya disappear. Cry day and night: No
eat or drink or take a rest. Why are we living it? "
Very quickly deported to Germany
become coercive youth were taken from 14 years. Throughout the 1942-1944 biennium from Ukraine
were taken 2.5 million. It
it was a real disaster for the Ukrainian people.
Tens of thousands of people forcibly
sent to slave labor in Germany, died in exile from
exhaustion, illness and injury. Some of Ostarbeiters (so called
exported to Germany), fearing reprisals by the Soviet authorities, not
occupation government policy
Necessity of occupied
territories of Ukraine and demanded the presence of numerous branched Administrative
system, create that without the participation of local people was difficult.
And the Nazis were "assistants" – collaborators.
Terms and Notions
- Cooperation citizens of an occupied state with occupation
Most of them were victims of Stalin
repressive system, those who suffered dispossession and "cleansing", wished
revenge Soviets. These were to serve in the occupying authorities, police,
punitive forces. They made lists of communists, Soviet activists
Jews, on which immediately proclaimed a runaway. Those found, waiting
execution. It helped to arrest traitors and destroy underground in Kiev
Odessa and other cities.
But come, so that active yesterday
Komsomol members and even the Communists became mayor, elders, old age and
offended the Soviet authorities – Conversely, to swell the ranks of participants
The local police are to be involved
arrests, raids, shootings and other punitive actions against the civilian population
not only in Ukraine but also in Belarus, Poland and Slovakia. It was
an integral part of the apparatus of terror, which created a misanthropic
Policemen earned the anger and contempt
Ukrainian people. On such turncoats and apostates immediately visible riposte
saying: "picked up a nimchura all those little princes: the p'yanyuha, he bandyuha – on
all of a yardstick. It Scirus-ing such pryhvostnyamable to act in Ukraine Abwehr, SS, MD and other Nazi punitive and
Resident of White Church O. Timofeeva
wrote about the Nazi acolyte: "And get out of eyes – so
give honor to just to satisfy nimchuri. These people are our brothers once were
and now – Dog skin ... "
Quite aptly characterizes the composition of one
Ukrainian police units of the OUN document: "The Ukrainian police
BN is always set. Opovistky the recruitment only in Moscow
language. The police service is a negative element, preferably zbrid: rabble, people
with a dark past, former NKVD, Thieves zhuliky and others. "
According to historian O. Subtelny.
almost 220 thousand Ukrainian went on cooperation with the invaders, served in the
Troops and police. At the same time, 6 million Ukrainian heroically fought
Nazis in the Red Army.
The Nazis attempted
use for their purposes and patriotic feelings of the population of western regions
Ukraine, bringing him to life in the German army.
The demonstration was a "Ukrainian"
Division SS"Galicia" which was formed from local volunteers. Among
Division soldiers was widely believed that with the Nazis will be possible to
struggle for sovereignty and independence of Ukraine. However, the Division Nazi
Command has banned the use of words "Ukraine," Ukrainian ". German
command tried to convert a military formation of "cannon fodder"
for the Wehrmacht.
order "that Nazis established in the occupied territories, caused extensive
resistance movement, which included hundreds of thousands of patriots of Ukraine.
Questions and Tasks
1. As people called the plan of destruction and "development"
Hitler occupied "eastern" areas, including Ukraine?
2. Who was the victim Nazi
3. Tell us about you know the crimes of the Nazis
occupied territory of Ukraine.
4. Between the States was divided into occupied territory
5. Tell us як held
"Racial politics" of the Third Reich in the occupied Ukrainian lands.
6. What are Ostarbaiter?
7. Let the definition of "collaboration".
8. What is the plan consisted of "East"? As he was carried in
9. What administrative and territorial units was
occupiers divided territory of Ukraine?
10. What areas of Ukraine joined Reichscommissariat "Ukraine", the "Transnistria»?
11. Describe the Nazi "new order" in Ukraine.
12. Why Ukraine occupied an important place in aggressive
Hitler's plans for command?
13. What characteristics of the collective farm system, in your opinion, contributed to
preservation of its colonial rule?
14. In your opinion, what is the controversy
problem of collaboration during the Second World War in Ukraine?