§ 3 Nazi Occupation regime in UKRAINE
1. Dismemberment Ukraine. Plan Ost
Preparing for attack the USSR, leaders of Nazi Germany have developed a number of plans in advance, Instructions, guidelines for mass destruction of the occupied territories. In November 1940 Department of German racial policies approved document that clearly identifies the goals and methods of the occupying power to occupied territories, including Ukraine. "In the east, – mentioned in this document – we must carry out policies aimed at allocation certain ethnic groups, ie, along with the Poles and Jews allocate Ukrainian, Belarusians Highlanders, Lemky and Kashuba. "I hope – wrote author of this crime opus, – the notion "Jew" will disappear forever from the memory of people. Later we will have the opportunity wipe face Ukrainian lands, Highlandersand Lemko.
The intentions of Hitler's brightest are reflected in the notorious man- plan "Ost" – plan to destroy the population and "development" Hitler occupied "eastern" areas, including Ukraine. It was developed under the direction of Гіtlera, Himmler, Rosenberg and other Nazi leaders. In this plan, including anticipated:
partial onimechennya local population, settlement of lands occupied by Germans
mass deportation of the population, including Ukrainian, to Siberia
disruption of biological forces Slavic peoples
economic robbery in Ukraine; transform local people into slaves
robbery cultural values, destruction of cultural memory yatkiv
After Fascist seizure forces of Ukraine, its territory was divided into four parts. Authorities in them belonged to Hitler administration.
1) Earth Eastern Galicia in stock L 'viv,, Stanislavsky, Ternopil regions were bound to General Governorate (consisting of central and southern regions Poland) under the name District Halychyna.
2) 3 most of Ukrainian lands was created Reichscommissariat"Ukraine" stock in Rivne, Volyn-Podilski. Zhytomyr regions, the northern districts of Ternopil, Vinnytsia, eastern areas Mykolaiv, Kyiv, Poltava, Chernihiv, Sumy, Dnepropetrovsk and Crimean regions as well as southern areas of Belarus and the RSFSR. Reichskommissariat divided into six General counties with centers in Rivne, Zhytomyr, Kyiv, Dnipropetrovsk, Nikolayev and Melitopol.
3) Region Chernihiv Sumy, Kharkiv and Donbas as pryfrontovi, subordinate directly military command.
4) Chernivtsi, Izmail, Odessa, Vinnitsa and southern parts of the western districts Mykolaiv regions were annexed to Romania under the name «Transnistria».
Transcarpathia since 1939 was occupied by Hungarian troops.
At the head of newly created administrative units became governor-general. It was Governor-General G. Frank is cynical statement: "If we win the war, then, in my opinion, Poles and Ukrainian, and all that. that revolves around the governor-general can to release at least for stuffing.
Not behind his ox friend on National Socialist Party and E. Koch, was called "brown king Ukraine. Local people на conquered Hitler territories he is considered as inferior beings "lower race: "If I find Ukrainian decent sit down with me. – I immediately brought him to shoot. "
From the observations and proposals of the Eastern ministry "for the general plan" Ost "
Berlin, D. 27/04/1942
... General of the plan "Ost" provides that after the War okonchanyya number pereselentsev for nemedlennoy kolonyzatsyy vostochnыh territories dolzhno sostavlyat ... 4550 thousand. people. After all, upon ymet vvydu that these 4550 thousand. нemtsev dolzhnы raspredelenы Being in such territory, as ... also partially region of Ukraine ...
... C) The issue at ukrayntsah.
In the main management plan ymperskoy security, the territory of Siberia dolzhnы Being pereselenы also WESTERN Ukrainians. In so doing, provides for pereselenye sixty five per cent population ...
Inquiries to document
Based on paper, try to predict what the consequences for Ukraine had a plan "Ambassadors" in the case of its implementation.
Occupation regime in Ukraine
2. Nazi "new order"
Nazi "new order "meant the physical and moral terror against so- called racially-inferior peoples: Jews, Roma, Ukrainian, Russians and representatives of the Soviet government and Communist. The worst was situation of Jews and Gypsies, who waited endemic destruction.
Even before the war with the Soviet Union by order of Hitler and Himmler created punitive, special units – aynzatshrupy SS who relied on physical tasks of mass destruction peace population. Of the four aynzatshrup, "A", "B", "C" and «D», the last two were in Ukraine.
One з anti-human the Nazis were massacres in Kiev. From the first day occupation of the capital of Ukraine Hitler's troops began a total terror. Not without the help of traitors Kiev invaders found underground, Soviet and Party leaders, activists. September 20-22, they were shot in Babi Yar (So were called huge gully length 3 000 m and 50 m depth over which lay at the edge city).
The next four were victims of terror Gypsy camps, which brought the war to the city.
From September 29 to October 2, 1941 in Babi Yar was shot about 100 thousand civilians in Kyiv, the majority of them were Jews. Massacres of the Jewish population were also Lviv Berdichev, Kharkov, Odessa and other cities of Ukraine.
The Jewish Community of Ukraine for years Nazi occupation has lost about 1,8 million (Before the war it accounted for 2,5 million people). It was part part of the tragedy Holocaust – destruction of six million Jews by the Nazis of Europe and their henchman during the Second World War.
When the occupying powers decided that the policy extermination of Jews – «Yuden-Fry"(Net of Jews ") – basically achieved its goal, they went to total terror against the Ukrainian people.
Concentration camp commandant in Babi Yar cat П.Radomski with mockery called "Ukrainian Day" Tuesday and Friday, in which ravines on the outskirts of the city by shooting and another was destroyed dushohubok Tens of thousands of people.
The essence of the Nazi government policy on Ukrainian Minister expressed his lands occupied eastern territories А.Rosenberg: "The Slavs are called to work for us. When we need to stop this, they can die quietly ... Reproduction of the Slavs is undesirable "
Famine and Hitler's executioners killed by violence in Ukraine, about 4.5 million people. "Empire of death" began to call the system of Nazi concentration camps. In Ukraine There were almost 300 places of mass executions of people, there were 180 camps death, there was a ghetto in 1950.
Definitely horror of Nazism demonstrate methods abuse of people who used "Aryans" in Yaniv concentration camp (Lions).
Camp commandant obershturmfyurerSS Vilhauz shot for fun prisoners з machine directly from the balcony of his office then passed Weapons wife, and she also shot. Sometimes, to entertain his daughter, Vilhauz ordered to throw up bi-, Four-children and gave all of them. Daughter Commandant of applause and merrily cried: "Daddy, more!" And he shot back.
Cat Yanivconcentration Veshke pas dispute with Gestapo one ax blow rozrubav 10-year old boy. Shturmsharfyurer GroveLane pliers in women tearing nails, then rozdyahav his victim hanging her hair, rozhoyduvav and then fired on It how to target that moves.
Torture, executions and destruction in Yaniv Nazi camp committed to music. Camp Orchestra almost daily served two years in succession "Tango of Death, written by one of the prisoners during these sounds were annihilated by the Nazis 200 thousand man.
Bloody crime Nazi occupation
Fascists organized mass murder of war. Nazi leadership stated that Hague and Geneva Conventions on international war in the East repealed.
Captivity and used for heavy dangerous work, which usually lasted for 12-18 hours a day. In the camps rules of war, there were scarce food, no medical assistance. Torture was commonplace people: burning or Dumps alive in the ground bait etc..
The place was a real genocide camp POW "Stalag-349 ", Known as" Uman pit. After the Nazis seized Uman, they adjusted for concentration brick clay quarry plant. Its area reached 10 hectares, the depth varied from 6 to 15 pm The Nazis ohorodyly quarry two rows of barbed wire, built a protective II towers. The deepest place career was also wire fences. So in the camp have two tiers, the upper camp living, and lower – for doomed на death. For of used dog, ready to break anyone who tries escape. Already by mid August 1941 in the "pit" was tortured to death over 50 thousands of prisoners of war.
Terror and violence Nazis tried to break the will of prisoners, intimidating them. Were among the captives, and the feebleminded, and "corrupt" that vysluzhuvalys before the executioners, vytorhovuvaly their lives. But Most prisoners stuck manfully.
According to recent data in Lviv, Slavutsky, Kamenetz-Podolsk, Zhytomyr, Umansky, Vladimir-Volyn, Kirovohrad, and Syretskoy Darnyts'kyy (In Kiev) and other POW camps were tortured about 1,5 million people.
Secret German instruction for Ukraine. November 1942
1. Our enemies: the communists, supporters of Bandera guerrillas. Potentially Bandera's most dangerous. By all means destroy.
2. Schools are only 4 classes. For the second year (1943) to close.
3. "Enlightenment" observuvaty. There are B (Banderas).
4. Select cultural and educational institutions, theaters, cinemas.
5. At least the type of research institutes and laboratories etc. others. Only those that are necessary for war.
6. Church did not admit to an agreement.
7. Do not fight phthisis, typhoid. Close to Hospital population. Containing further services of local doctors.
8. German courts only. Each German - Judge. For population provided by the courts for 10 years.
9. Hooliganism punitive only when harms the Germans.
10. Spread immorality - not punish abortion.
11. All that has the spine to break ...
12. Nationalist partisans and prevent an agreement.
13. Control trains.
14. Secret informers in factories, shops, churches, businesses, institutions, and so on. Watch the enemies of Germany. DEMAND - for services.
15. Not to speak with a population of Germans.
16. Do not talk about confusion in the party.
Inquiries to document
1. Why do you view, Hitler's government for its most dangerous enemy in the occupied Bandera areas considered?
2. Based on the document describe the political regime that the Nazis tried to establish in the occupied territories.
3. Economic robbery Ukraine
The Nazi occupation regime in Ukraine set ourselves three main goals:
– provide food, material and human resources needs of the Third Reich and Army;
– release of the Ukrainian population through physical their destruction, deportation and removal of earth work in Germany and Ukraine populate them German immigrants;
– export to Germany to work as many able-bodied population.
March 5, 1943 held in Kyiv meeting of the members of National Socialist Party, which Reichscommissariat E. Koch outlined his vision of occupational power in Ukraine. "I can squeeze out of this country every last drop, – he said. – Я came here not to give blessings, and to help Fuhrer. The population must work, work and more work ... But some are beginning worry that people are not getting enough food. The population must not demand. We must think about. as without it managed to treat our heroes Stalingrad ... We came here to give manna, and to create preconditions for victory. We are ruling the people, which means that from the point of racial simplest of German workers biologically a thousand times more valuable compared with a local population.
June 21, 1943 Reichscommissariat Koch took fourteen German journalists who came to Ukraine, which reported that the task Reichscommissariat "Ukraine" is to collect workers and so much food as possible. At the time, Commissariat already submitted to the Reich million workers.
As for food, then to March 1943 were exported 5590 tons of wheat, 1372 tons of potatoes, 2 120 thousand cattle, 148 thousand tons of dried vegetables, 49 tons of oil, 220 tons sugar, 4 400 thousand heads of pigs, 406 sheep, thousands of heads. 420 million eggs and others.
One of the journalists left the detailed the story of his journey. He wrote: "Koch said Ukraine normal colony ... Koch said that it would be absurd to apply the principle to Ukraine nationalities and take it to the European family of nations. Ukraine never belonged to Europe, it was always the suburbs ... It. as well as all Slavs, fits only the principle of winner and loser. For the German soldier won the Ukraine not to make the Ukrainian people happy, but for in order to bring German law in Ukraine, there is a possibility for residence of German soldiers, and for generations to make a sales territory of Ukraine paramount importance.
Hitler administration, destroying Soviet institutions, meanwhile fully preserved the collective farm system, which Ukraine was under occupation for extracting the best food and food local population.
In February, 1942 occupation authorities proclaimed the new agrarian law, under which Ukraine would take place in land privatization. Some historians believe that it was conducted in order to private sector more effectively worked to Reich, but you can believe that some degree of reform of occupation authorities impact on the situation front – defeat near Moscow. The invaders tried to flirt with peasants, moreover, that this plan was not implemented and carried only declarative.
One of the measures "new order" was total appropriation of cultural property to the USSR. Hrabuvalysya museums, art galleries, libraries, temples. In Germany were removed jewelry, masterpieces art, historical treasures, books.
September 14, 1944 addressed А.Rosenberg was obtained shyfrohrama general scope of "work" with the cultural heritage of Ukraine. The Minister of dovodylysya lists stolen: the works of Dutch, Italian and Russian art XVI-XIX centuries. who were in public repositories and the USSR considered the world's masterpieces.
Nazi barbarians taken to Germany together with other exhibits of the XII century frescoes. of Saint Sophia Cathedral bells Assumption Cathedral and Lavra Belltower in Kiev, and July 3, 1942 blew up himself and the Assumption Cathedral.
Ukrainian pogroms suffered without exception intelligentsia.
In Ukraine were liquidated institutions higher education. The new government has allowed only secondary special education, which later also banned.
According to a special directive Reichscommissar Ukraine E. Koch and special disposal of military administration of Army Group South was eliminated Soviet system of public education. Instead, the network created chotyryklasnyh Ukrainian schools. Training in reading them was restricted, writing, counting, physical education, games and various manual labor, but without any textbooks. The directive stressed that textbooks and educational materials should be removed from schools and the population as a result of their Communist propaganda and content.
The purpose of schools was chotyryklasnyh training of workers, artisans, greatly narrowed the school system. Thus, Kiev functioned only 40 "public schools" (as they were called the Nazis) that visited 6470 pupils.
4. Removal of the population of Ukraine at hard labor in Germany
The real tragedy for Ukraine is removal of people, especially youth, to work in Germany. In September 1942 German administration in the occupied territories of the USSR received instructions Berlin: «Fuehrer ordered the immediate shipment to Germany 400 -500 thousand Ukrainian women ages 15 to 35 years for their use in the household. This campaign, which should be completed within three months Fuhrer instructed General Commissioner of labor utilization.
First occupation authorities tried to recruit volunteers. Media distributed promotional materials that all who go to work to Germany, expects a paradisiacal life. In newspaper articles on poles in many cities circulated by propaganda leaflets, spoke about the benefits of working in Germany to "light factories with perfect machines. It was noted that there made "brilliant living conditions, wages will be provided with Ukrainian card and board on a par with German workers. While on real conditions of life and labor in the Reich was unknown, some people resigned yiha-you there. But after coming from Germany began truthful information, people tried at all costs to avoid sending.
In letters received by the Ukraine, was covered brutal truth about Hitler captivity. For example, the verbatim excerpts from letter from the Ukrainian girl Nina Bila Tserkva: "... Greetings from far Germany. I'm still alive ... I will write you as kormlyat us. We pigs are eating at home better than we give ... A soup that taste to you Know? From it rvesh like eat three spoons ... Shopyshsya her belly and muchayeshsya 2 or 3 days. You can not lie. Though weak, but should go. Standing near the stall, head spinning ... At work we go with policemen will not let on. Sit in Baratz behind bars ... Mummy, dear, why am I so sad, sad life, why are our years so young zrya disappear. Cry day and night: No eat or drink or take a rest. Why are we living it? "
Very quickly deported to Germany become coercive youth were taken from 14 years. Throughout the 1942-1944 biennium from Ukraine were taken 2.5 million. It it was a real disaster for the Ukrainian people.
Tens of thousands of people forcibly sent to slave labor in Germany, died in exile from exhaustion, illness and injury. Some of Ostarbeiters (so called exported to Germany), fearing reprisals by the Soviet authorities, not returned home.
5. Criminal occupation government policy
Necessity of occupied territories of Ukraine and demanded the presence of numerous branched Administrative system, create that without the participation of local people was difficult.
And the Nazis were "assistants" – collaborators.
Terms and Notions
Collaboration - Cooperation citizens of an occupied state with occupation administration.
Most of them were victims of Stalin repressive system, those who suffered dispossession and "cleansing", wished revenge Soviets. These were to serve in the occupying authorities, police, punitive forces. They made lists of communists, Soviet activists Jews, on which immediately proclaimed a runaway. Those found, waiting execution. It helped to arrest traitors and destroy underground in Kiev Odessa and other cities.
But come, so that active yesterday Komsomol members and even the Communists became mayor, elders, old age and offended the Soviet authorities – Conversely, to swell the ranks of participants Anti-Fascist Resistance.
The local police are to be involved arrests, raids, shootings and other punitive actions against the civilian population not only in Ukraine but also in Belarus, Poland and Slovakia. It was an integral part of the apparatus of terror, which created a misanthropic Nazi regime.
Policemen earned the anger and contempt Ukrainian people. On such turncoats and apostates immediately visible riposte saying: "picked up a nimchura all those little princes: the p'yanyuha, he bandyuha – on all of a yardstick. It Scirus-ing such pryhvostnyamable to act in Ukraine Abwehr, SS, MD and other Nazi punitive and intelligence service.
Resident of White Church O. Timofeeva wrote about the Nazi acolyte: "And get out of eyes – so give honor to just to satisfy nimchuri. These people are our brothers once were and now – Dog skin ... "
Quite aptly characterizes the composition of one Ukrainian police units of the OUN document: "The Ukrainian police BN is always set. Opovistky the recruitment only in Moscow language. The police service is a negative element, preferably zbrid: rabble, people with a dark past, former NKVD, Thieves zhuliky and others. "
According to historian O. Subtelny. almost 220 thousand Ukrainian went on cooperation with the invaders, served in the Troops and police. At the same time, 6 million Ukrainian heroically fought Nazis in the Red Army.
The Nazis attempted use for their purposes and patriotic feelings of the population of western regions Ukraine, bringing him to life in the German army.
The demonstration was a "Ukrainian" Division SS"Galicia" which was formed from local volunteers. Among Division soldiers was widely believed that with the Nazis will be possible to struggle for sovereignty and independence of Ukraine. However, the Division Nazi Command has banned the use of words "Ukraine," Ukrainian ". German command tried to convert a military formation of "cannon fodder" for the Wehrmacht.
Criminal "new order "that Nazis established in the occupied territories, caused extensive resistance movement, which included hundreds of thousands of patriots of Ukraine.
Questions and Tasks
1. As people called the plan of destruction and "development" Hitler occupied "eastern" areas, including Ukraine?
2. Who was the victim Nazi "New order"?
3. Tell us about you know the crimes of the Nazis occupied territory of Ukraine.
4. Between the States was divided into occupied territory Ukraine?
5. Tell us як held "Racial politics" of the Third Reich in the occupied Ukrainian lands.
6. What are Ostarbaiter?
7. Let the definition of "collaboration".
8. What is the plan consisted of "East"? As he was carried in Ukraine?
9. What administrative and territorial units was occupiers divided territory of Ukraine?
10. What areas of Ukraine joined Reichscommissariat "Ukraine", the "Transnistria»?
11. Describe the Nazi "new order" in Ukraine.
12. Why Ukraine occupied an important place in aggressive Hitler's plans for command?
13. What characteristics of the collective farm system, in your opinion, contributed to preservation of its colonial rule?
14. In your opinion, what is the controversy problem of collaboration during the Second World War in Ukraine?