1. Soviet-German treaty in 1939 and West Ukrainian lands (textbook)


OV Hisem
History of Ukraine
Grade 11

Topic I                                                     UKRAINE DURING THE SECOND WORLD WAR/ 1939 - 1945 /

 

Soviet-German TREATIES 1939

§ 1                                                                                         And Western EARTH

 

1. Soviet-German pact non-aggression

            On the eve World War II Ukrainian lands were ruled by four countries: most of them Ukrainian SSR part of the USSR, Eastern Galicia and Volhynia under rule of Poland, Northern Bukovina HOTINSKAYA, Izmail and Akermanskym districts belonged to Romania, Transcarpathia was part of Czechoslovakia, and in March 1939 was occupied by Hungarian troops.

            Before the Second World War the USSR was in Center for International Relations. From his position depended on their further development. Commitment as the USSR sought to England with France and Germany. Before Soviet leadership was the problem of the final selection guide.

            According Stalin's alliance with Britain and France, at best, could bring tensions relations with Germany (the main trading partner of the USSR), and at worst - war with Hezbollah. Union left the same with Germany to the USSR for some time away world conflict and gave the opportunity to intervene in it at a convenient time. Also, you can count on cessation of hostilities with Japan, which were conducted MNR in the River Halhin-Chief, which could affect as ally only Germany and the territorial acquisitions at the expense of Poland, Baltic Finland and Romania. Germany agreed to this, only to withdraw from the USSR game and solve its hands for aggression against Poland and later against countries West. After Stalin bowed to union with Germany. After a brief negotiations, German Foreign Minister Ribbentrop and Commissar Foreign Affairs of the USSR Molotov August 23, 1939in Moscow, the Kremlin signed pact non-aggression pact between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany. This document that entered history as the "MolotovRibbentrop, consisted of seven articles and commitment of the two parties involved to refrain from aggression to each other or any other actions in conjunction with third States which would threaten the interests of one party that agreed.

 

Signing Pact non-aggression between Germany and the USSR

 

A separate part of the Soviet-German agreement was a secret protocol, which involved division of spheres of interest both countries in Europe. Several of its provisions directly concerned the Ukrainian lands: the border areas and interests of Nazi Germany and the USSR was held on line year НArvat, Wisla, Xiang. Thus, most of the territory Western Ukraine had to leave by Soviet Union. Lemkivschyna and Kholm came to the German area of influence.

 

Soviet and German delegation noted

conclusion of agreements

 

More May 23, 1939 Hitler said at a meeting with the generals: "There can be no talk to poschadyty Poland. There is only the attack on Poland at the first convenient moment.

Soviet-German contract rozv'yazuvav Hitler hands in his aggressive plans in Europe

 

Ukraine at the beginning World War II

(September 1, 1939 June 22, 1941)

 

2. Second Home World War II. Of Soviet troops on the territory of Western Ukraine

September 1 1939 Nazi Germany attacked Poland. This event marked Top World War II.

Polish people heroically fought for their freedom and independence. Population and garrison Warsaw Nazis foiled attempt to capture the capital move, which advocates reflect enemy attacks by 28 September. Garrison Moddlin kept defense until 29 September, and sailors Gdynia successfully resisted Nazi attack from the sea and land to October 2.

 

German soldiers destroying the border barrier on the border

with Poland. September 1, 1939

 

Stepping, Hitler's troops went much further to the east of the Vistula and the Sanline, which limited the area of interest for Germany Molotov agreementRibbentrop. In the hands of the Nazis found themselves Ukrainian cities Stry, lived in Przemysl and others. The population of these cities one of the first to feel the full horror of the Nazi "New order", in sure the misanthropic its real essence.

Simultaneously some part of the Western population, which remained under the influence of OUN, cherished the hope that Germany will escape from oppression, especially Polish authorities. Thus, when German troops came to the city of Sambor created by the Abwehr (German Intelligence) legion led Roman Sushko. But OUN failed in this region uprising. Only in several places there were armed clashes with Polish troops receding, rozzbroyuvalas police, local administration has been destroyed.

In response Polish authorities conducted mass arrests and repression. Thousands find themselves in Ukrainian barbed wire concentration camp Birch-Kartuzskaya.

Soviet User fairly closely followed the events that unfolded around western borders of the USSR. The Soviet Union not to look like the aggressor in the eyes global society, desist from any military action and waited till the fall Polish state.

This position irritated Nazi Germany, an attempt to engage Soviet Union in war conflict. 3 rd, 5 th and 8 th September the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Germany strongly demanded from the Soviet Union as soon as possible to wage a war against Poland. September 15, 1939 the government Hitler was sent by note, which was almost ultimatum character: "Unless the Russian intervention began, inevitably arise question of whether or not formed in the area which lies east of the German zone of influence, the political vacuum ... Without such intervention by the Soviet Union (in eastern Poland) can be provided for the formation of new states. It was about Western Ukraine and Western Belarus.

USSR vidreahuvav to the German request in accordance with previous agreements. At night September 17 the Soviet troops entered the territory of Eastern Galicia Western Belarus.

Personally Stalin edited text of the note about moving the border by the Red Army was submitted to the Polish embassy in Moscow and sent to other diplomatic mission. The note stated: "Soviet Government can not ... indifferent attitude to that consanguineous brothers Ukrainian and Belarus, living in Poland, abandoned, left vulnerable. Due to these circumstances, the Soviet government ordered the Chief Command to order the Red Army to cross the border and take under his protection lives and property of the population of Western Ukraine and Western Belorussia.

To file of the Soviet army as "liberation campaign", the armed forces USSR passed Zbruch, was called Ukrainian Front Commanders which was appointed S. Timoshenko. The Soviet command created as and Byelorussian Front led by the commander Kovalev. In stock both fronts there were 600 thousand soldiers and officers, about 4 000 tanks, more than 5 500 guns and 2000 aircraft.

 

Red Army talks with Polish

POWs

 

Before September 17 command Red Army troops received instructions from the senior political Soviet Union "Prevent the direct action front. act by bypass the air, environment and decomposition of the Polish Army. " In his Order of People's Commissar of Defence K. Voroshilov required not to use weapons against the Polish troops will not have resistance. Forbidden the use of artillery and bombing towns points.

 

Partition of Poland between USSR and Germany

 

Offensive Soviet troops to the Polish leadership was so unexpected, that Polish army chief Rydz Smihla-ordered: "? of Soviets not to keep fighting, only in cases on their part to disarm our part. Objectives Modlina to Warsaw and to be protected from the Germans, without changes. Parts to location which came Soviets should negotiate with them to Released garrisons to Romania or Hungary. "

And avoid clashes failed. Losses of Ukrainian Front were several hundred soldiers killed, 10 tanks, 33 vehicles, 5 guns and 2 aircraft. Total loss CHA during the liberation campaign "were 795 killed, 59 missing, 2019 wounded.

            Captured by CHA horrible 452 500 Polish soldiers and officers. Most of them were released, and 125.4 thousand found themselves in camps (mainly officers). Share them tragically occurred. In April May 1940 in the Katyn forest near Smolensk, and even earlier - in Kharkov in other cities over 15 thousand people. were shot. It was the flower of the Polish nation for the war with military representatives of the Polish form of downward and creative technical intelligentsia, received the rank of officer.

Offensive Tea was very rapid, the main goal of Ukrainian Front was soon mastering Lions. The same goal and kept German troops, on September 18 surrounded on three sides by the city. September 19, 1939 between German and Soviet part because of the misunderstanding occurred battle in which both sides were loss. Finally, after negotiations the German troops were taken from the city, and September 22, 1939 Lviv was occupied by Soviet troops. Polish garrison did not resist Soviet forces. On the same day in Brest Grodno, Pinsk, Przemysl held joint parade of Soviet and German troops after the victory over Poland.

 

German and Soviet army in Brest-Litovsk. September 1938

 

Soviet and German officers during a joint parade

after victory over Poland

 

September 28, 1939 between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany signed "Treaty of Friendship and the State Border" and a secret protocol to the it, in which Stalin and Hitler were finally divided spheres of influence and interests defined the new boundaries. The Soviet Union agreed to German occupation Holm and Posyannya, where the majority of the population were Ukrainian, provided that Nazis recognized sphere of influence of the USSR territory Lithuanian state. So was realized strategy, which the Nazis called "the expansion of living space chosen by God for the Aryan race and the Soviet Union "Strengthening the borders of the brotherly peoples of the USSR. Contract 1928 September 1939 actually put on one stage the policy of Stalin's leadership and figures Third Reich and why the document was hidden for years from general public.

Convergence between Stalin and Hitler were noted the joint parade of Soviet and German troops in Brest, Grodno, Pinsk, Przemysl and in other cities. It is significant that it happened before capitulation of Warsaw.

As a result of the Soviet Army to Western Ukraine and West Belarus in 1939 these territories (an area about 200 thousand Apt. km and a population of 13 million.) entered the USSR.

Kholm, Nadsyannya left bank, Lemkivschyna and Podlasie (known as UPA) together with the occupied Polish territory became part of Reich.

 

3. Installation Soviet rule in Western Ukraine

Much of the West Ukraine had high hopes that the arrival of Red Army comes new better the lives freely. So Red greeted with bread and salt and flowers. Among Local popu-ing actively rumors that "the Ukrainian army crossed Zbruch to bring Ukraine good.

There were cases of solemn meetings Soviet troops, the Polish population, which is hoping for their support. In Rivne and Zbarazh representatives of the Polish administration personally traveled to meet columns Ukrainian Front troops and welcomed the Red Army.

Establishment of Soviet power inspiration met local Communists, who in many cities of Western Ukraine revolted against the Polish administration. With the largest enthusiasm coming of Soviet authorities supported the poor. Ukrainian peasants often hung blue and yellow flags came out to meet with Red banners and icons.

On the other hand, with suspicion and distrust the new government treated the representatives of wealthy segments of the population, Ukrainian political elite of intellectuals and activists of the OUN.

After the Soviet control over Western Ukraine and Western Belorussia Kremlin leadership sought legality of the accession to the nature of new territories of the USSR.

 

The pre-election propaganda poster

 

22 October 1939 elections to National Assembly of the Western Ukraine. According to official data, participated in the voting 92% of voters. At the polling stations they received already compiled lists no alternative candidates.

26 People's Assembly in October began their work. They accept Declaration about the Soviet in Western Ukraine and requested the take end to of SSR. This decision was approved by the Supreme Soviets of the USSR (November 1, 1939) and SSR (15 November 1939).

 

Distribution landlords land among the peasants of Western Ukraine

 

Document

Of Ukrainian People's Assembly of the Declaration on the adoption of the Western Ukraine USSR and the inclusion of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (October 1939)

Ukrainian people in the former Polish state was doomed to extinction. His was the fate of oppression, destruction and looting. Polish gentlemen did their best to opolyachyty Ukrainian population, even the word "Ukrainian" replaced the words "cattle" and "serf".

Ukrainian peasants deprived of their land. Workers and employees, Ukrainian, were not allowed to work on factories, factories and institutions. Ukrainian did not take into schools. Vykorinyuvaly native Ukrainian language. Sought to destroy Ukrainian culture. All this more than once caused a storm of protest were peasant revolt against Colonial regime ruling circles lords Poland.

But time is over oppression and injustice. Will of the multinational Soviet people, Government by decree of the Soviet Red Army liberated for ever the people of Western Ukraine from the Polish landowners and capitalists.

? Ukrainian People's Assembly, as an exponent of unshakable the will and aspirations of the people of Western Ukraine, state:

Request the High USSR Council of Western Ukraine to adopt the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, to include the western Ukraine to the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in order to connect the Ukrainian people in single state, an end to age disassociated Ukrainian people.

 

Questions for Document

1. What historical circumstances in the document The necessity of joining the Western Ukraine into the USSR?

2. Why is this historic event today differently estimated historians?

3. Analyze this historical document, Tell opinion on it.

 

End of 1939 in Western Ukraine was abolished old administrative divisions. Instead, it was established six new areas Volyn, Drohobych, Lviv, Rivne, Ternopil and Stanislavsky.

Everywhere scale took place sovietization.

 

Terms and Notions

            Sovietization - politics implementation in all sectors of the population of new territories of the Soviet model of totalitarianism. Proceeded with the use of repression.

 

Once was the confiscation of church land and landowners, made nationalization banks and large industry.

It was all prohibited activities Political Parties Ukrainian, Jewish, Polish. Ceased activity social, cultural, scientific organizations, including the "Enlightenment", Scientific Society of Taras Shevchenko. Closed all neradyanski media (newspapers, magazines, etc.).

Was carried out arrests of many leaders legitimate parties. Increasingly began to act by NKVD.

The real tragedy for the Western Ukraine became violent Deportation the population to the east.

 

Terms and Notions

            Deportation - forced resettlement to another country or deporting them outside state.

 

The deportation of the population of Western Ukraine took place in several stages.

First stage deportation falls on February 1940 To Siberia and Kazakhstan were sent to representatives of the Polish administration, military, different officials and their families. Among them were Ukrainian, who once were in the Polish service.

In early April 1940 started second stage mass eviction, which encompassed several populations, primarily community leaders and political organizations of Eastern Galicia. Among the deported were not only Ukrainian nationalists, but also members of the former Communist Party of Western Ukraine (CPWU). A separate group of settlers were called "class Enemies: industrialists, merchants, wealthy farmers.

Third wave displaced persons (June 1940) were fugitives from Poland, in mostJews. They joined members of the local Jewish community and Zionist Jewish religious leaders, representatives of Jewish parties (the Bund, Poalei-Zion et al.), a wealthy Jewish.

Immediate and unconditional deportation subject to all those in whom loyalty Stalinist leadership was not sure. This is particularly true of some border areas. On the Galician region, in particular, were deported nearly every resident of the 10 th.

Establishment of Soviet power accompanied standard action that were already approved in Dnieper. 1940 were nationalized by more than 2 200 industrial enterprises, cooperative and eliminated private trade. On enterprises and institutions created political party, trade union and Komsomol.

In the nationalized enterprises introduced 8-hour day, managed to eliminate unemployment. Was increased wages to employees of education and medicine, because of their new government did in its policy rate Sovietization.

One of the measures was the Soviet collectivization of agriculture. At the end of 1939 was landlords seized the monastery and lands government officials. Some farmers have given it away, another had become the base for collective farms.

In early summer 1941 number of farms in western Ukraine exceeded 2500. They brings together over 170 thousand households, or 13% peasant households. The main participants of the collective farm movement began poor or former hired who had no land, no livestock or agricultural implements. Despite the fact that the collective farmers and provided significant benefits technical assistance, middle and rich peasants did not want to go to collective farms. So these were the best hosts of mass deportation.

An important means increasing the visibility the new government among the Ukrainian population was the policy depolonizatsiyi and Ukrainization. Eliminated Polish model management, education, Ukrainian occupied responsible positions in administrative apparatus.

Widely introduced Ukrainian language. In mid-1940 in Western Ukraine there were about 7 thousands of public school 6 thousand of them study conducted in Ukrainian. Ukrainian became the repertoire theatrical performances, and most ukrayinizuvalysya press publishers. The creation wide variety of national artistic groups: choir, dance, dramatic. From the eastern regions of Ukraine to Galicia zavozylas many Ukrainian books. Was founded in Lviv branch of the Academy of Sciences Ukrainian SSR.

However, together with scientists, engineers, medical staff, educational and cultural figures from Eastern Ukraine came many party activists who had the task to actively establish Soviet values. Ukrainization was strictly limited to the Soviet system.

Politics Sovietization affected and problems church. In total dependence on Moscow Patriarchate was put Orthodox church at Western, suffered persecution and cruel repression Greek Catholic Church.

Since the beginning of formation of the Soviet authorities at Western only force that led to her active struggle was the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN).

Its members distributed anti-Soviet leaflets, putting up blue and yellow flags, set fire to Soviet institutions, even to resort to terror against members of the new government. According to Soviet spy P. Sudoplatova, Counterintelligence OUN without any problems managed vyslidyty NKVD secret apartment in Lviv. The reason for this was the Curious detail: all employees of the NKVD under cloak worn boots. Even if civilian clothes, this one seemingly small thing can give agents OUN NKVD differentiate among the crowd and bystanders and to accompany unnoticed until their secret apartment.

 

Document

With memories Witnesses

            "Nakupyvshy color night shirts in commission stores, their wives (means the wife of Soviet officers - Ed.) Happy they prohodzhalysya streets, being certain that bought "a good dress." There are new ... street names, monuments to Lenin and Stalin, state enterprises, government Schools, government newspaper, that was all ours. In the city ran much evil faces on the streets and in institutions started to make Russian curses, and Russian rustic matron, women officers, washed apples in the toilet and wondered how well it washes. Hungry soldiers like locusts swept all donations from wealthy Jewish shops, eating even a yeast ... On the streets observed over each new prysheltsiv from the East: squinting, Mongolian face with broad cheekbones, squat opasysti Moskovka with brightly pidmalovanymy lips, light colored hair that behaved arrogantly, with brazenly loudness. Often faced drunkards. City slowly began to lose their original form, its spiritual inherency, sign belonging to Western culture. "

Question to document

Which aspect of the policy document reflects Sovietization

 

4. The entry of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the USSR

June 26, 1940 Soviet Commissary Molotov Romanian ambassador handed a note to the ultimate nature with the requirement to pass the USSR Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina. According to Soviet-German treaty, these territories belonged to the interests of Soviet Union. Realizing the hopelessness of resistance, Romania had disagree.

28 June 1940 Soviet troops under the command G. Zhukov passed River and established their control over Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina.

Ukrainian, who made a percentage population of these areas for years were ruled by different foreign States. Ukrainian population is constantly suffered from oppression of local authorities, lived in extremely difficult circumstances. According to historians to escape the heavy socio-economic and political conditions, more than half a million Bessarabians-Moldovans Ukrainian, Russians, Jews and others. emigrated to America, crossed the Soviet territory. Entry into the Ukraine will meet the Ukrainian population, which was a part of Romania.

2 August 1940 USSR Supreme Council decided to include And Northern Bukovina Ukrainian Danube lands of the SSR. Northern Bessarabia and the former Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1915 August 1940 were combined within the newly Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (MRSR).

New inquiry to establish the government does not wish people, but implemented policies Sovietization, already tested in Western Ukraine. Actively carried out the nationalization of industry and trade enterprises carried out the confiscation of landowners and church lands started organizing farms and more.

Were distributed repression, which at first captured the "class-hostile elements" government officials Romanian administration, political parties and Ukrainian, Romanian, Polish, Jewish organizations. Later, Stalin's repressions were directed to the Bessarabian Communists.

Total for 1940June 1941 to Siberia and Kazakhstan, Komi Republic, was deported 90 thousand "socially dangerous elements", most of whom died.

However, significant gains were achieved in education development. Given the multinational composition of the new territories, training conducted in schools as the Ukrainian language and minority languages: Romanian, Russian, Hebrew, German and Polish, education system significantly demokratyzuvalasya: much most people got the opportunity general and vocational education.

Significantly improved Medical public service. If to 1940 Bukovina in 1972 there were medical facilities with a staff of 112 doctors, after inclusion of the USSR medical services performed respectively 200 institutions and over 500 doctors.

Thus, one hand, the process of joining the West, Bessarabian and Bucovina lands to Soviet Ukraine had severe consequences for the population, has suffered suffering from repression and social experiments of Stalin's regime. But However, for the first time in many centuries in one state were almost all the territories that were inhabited by ethnic Ukrainian. It is this twist events responsible attitudes of most people. Though not for long, these Ukrainian territory were withdrawn from the war.

 

Questions and Tasks

1. Who signed Soviet-German non-aggression pact?

2. When commencing World War II?

3. Is that from signing the "Treaty on Friendship and the State border" of the USSR and Germany finally divided spheres of influence in Europe?

4. To which countries Ukrainian lands were on the eve of World War II?

5. On which lines had pass the limit of the interests of Germany and the USSR for "MolotovRibbentrop?

6. Identify concepts "Sovietization", "deportation".

7. In what regions vyselyalosya population of Western Ukraine during the forced deportation in 1940?

8. Define chronological sequence of events:

signing the Treaty of Friendship and the State border ";

beginning of the Second World War;

signature "Covenant MolotovRibbentrop.

9. Show on the map, which Political and administrative and territorial changes were Ukrainian lands during 1939-1940

10. What is contradictory nature Sovietization the lands of Western Ukraine, North Bukovina and Bessarabia?

11. What is common, and that was excellent in establishing Soviet rule in Eastern Galicia Northern Bukovina and Bessarabia?

12. Events 1939-1940 in the Ukrainian lands historians interpreted as "Annexation", "reunion" «inclusion the USSR. Which statement do you think right? Justify his point of view.

13. Some historians believe that signing pact with Germany and taking part in distribution Poland, the USSR helped resolution of the Second World War. Do you agree with this point of view?

14. What measures of the Soviet power, in your opinion, had run against the most active resistance from the Western population? Why?

15. Swiss historian W. Hofer include the words: "There was very much the exception agreement concluded between a number 1 anti-fascist and Stalin anti-Bolshevik №1 Hitler. Thus each of them betrayed their ideology: Stalin betrayed the world communist movement .. and Hitler behaved so allegedly abandoned plans to gain living space in the East. " As You understand the phrase Swiss historian? Do you agree with his opinion?