Theme 24. People in the heroism and artists, their contribution to national and world culture in the 1917-1921 RR.
Constructivism, autocephalous church
March 1917, May 1920, October 1921
1. The development of literature.
Liberation struggle and civil war caused the revival literary life. Ukrainian literature came a large number talented youth. Among them, P. Ticino, M. Rila, V. Chumak, M. Semenko et al. The vast majority of them were directly involved in the fight for revival of Ukrainian statehood. In his writings reflect explosion of the national liberation movement, civic patriotism revolutionary romanticism. A worthy representative of a new generation Ukrainian writers was Vasily Chumak. By age 16 he was with enthusiasm greeted the beginning of the struggle for the rebirth of Ukraine's statehood. In poem "to work" a young poet called:
"Get up dear brother.
For shame us to sleep:
We slept century - rather have a dream! "
Vasily Chumak advocated an independent Ukraine not only words of poetry but also an active political struggle, was shot by Denikin army.
Literature of this period was colorful. A worthy representative Romantic literature was in the direction of Mr. Sosiura. The events of the war years poet eloquently described in the novel "The third cavity. Of November 1918 to February 1920 was the poet warrior army UPR. Defeat Petlyura troops set V. Sosiura a choice: captive foreign country - or the Red Army. The future author of the poem "Love Ukraine" chose the latter. And contributed to the contemporary politics of the Bolsheviks, who began play on national strings "recognize" the independence of Ukraine in "Soviet" form.
An interesting direction in literary life represented a group of young Ukrainian writers "neoclassical", who united around the journal "Bookseller. Among them were M. grains, M. Rila, P. Philipp, M.Dray-cloud, Klen et al.
Part of creative young people joined the Symbolists (P. Ticino, D. Zahul, Y. Savchenko et al.).
In 1917 against the backdrop of lack of Ukrainian books and urgent need public in the spirit of speech in Ukraine there were fifty private and co-publishers: "printer", "Well," "Time" and others. In addition, almost every newspaper, magazine opened the literary section. A large number of literary magazines "Path", "bookseller and others. Also an increase in publications in Ukrainian: if in 1917 to Ukraine was published 747 such titles, in 1918 - 1084.
Much attention is the development of literature and publishing government paid Skoropadsky. His efforts were taken from all customs duties literature vvozylasya to Ukraine. Authorities provided significant support newspapers and magazines. But while the government introduced tough Hetman censorship by trying to subordinate the literary process of its political interests.
During Hetmanat large circulation published works of young writers (P. Tychyny Rylskyi et al.) and Ukrainian classics (P. Peace, Kobylyanska, S. Vasylchenko, V. Stefanik).
2. Creative achievements of Ukrainian art.
Has undergone drastic change during this period Ukrainian arts and especially Theatre by M. Sadowski. In his repertoire were pieces Shevchenko, I.Karpenko-Karim, Myrnogo, I. Frank, Starytsky, M. Kropyvnytsky, Ukrainian Lesya, Bachelor of Arts et al. Talented and thoughtful director Oleg Zaharov readily exhibited, plays Goldoni, Moliere ("Tartuffe"), etc. ..
In addition to authoritative masters of the stage and tried to force their theatrical youth. It yednalasya Society "Young Theatre in Kiev, which led L. Kurbas. Their repertoire was mostly global and domestic classic. Youth team was an example of enthusiasm, creative discipline, introduction of advanced technology copyright art. On beginning of the revolution with great success in the theater was Sophocles play "King - Oedipus.
Let us turn to sources
Les (Alexander) Kurbas of the main ideas of individual creativity
... Creates and pursues the following forms of theatrical art, which could well manifest creative individuality of modern young generation of Ukrainian acting not "ukrainophiles", and European, national in form, culture, completely breaking with banal traditions of Ukrainian theater, build their new valuesWhat is it about the document? Which saw Kurbas ratio National and European culture in the creative activity of the theater?
Everything was unusual in the organization of the theater: the fact that it consisted of actors with a complete theatrical education, and that from the beginning was formulated his artistic platform, and that the group was legally designed and had approved the charter, which regulate legal fiction Board rights and responsibilities of the director.
It was during this difficult period was established Ukrainian Drama and opera, there are other creative groups. But theater life is not only limited capital. Continued its activities Kharkov City Theatre, Odessa Russian opera, drama Mariupol Theatre, Poltava Ukrainian dramatic society and others.
Active participation in the creation of Ukrainian music at that time were young artists Verykivsky, G. Rope, V. Kosenko, P. Kozytskiy, O. Kosice, M. Leontovich, B. Lyatoshynsky. B. Podgoretsky Revutskiy, K. Stetsenko (Author opera bath spark ") and others.
Let us turn to sources
Activity directions on the works of M. Leontovich
Having absorbed the beauty of Ukrainian melody composer not abandons his own musical thinking, his means, his technique her original personality makes it all for what concerns, and its main purpose is to let the achievements of composers mood, give a picture, picturesque kolorytnist folk tunes to listener could just feel the inner meaning of folk melodies, which not always given to understand, not always and not all ...Jaki side of the composer's creativity determines the author of the document?
An important event in the Ukrainian art was the discovery in 1918 during the Hetman State Symphony Orchestra, who headed A. Horilyi. In Soviet times it was renamed the National Symphony Orchestra named. Lysenko. In addition symphony orchestras were in Kharkov, Yekaterinoslav Odessa.
By Hetman days been established in Kyiv First Ukrainian National Choir under the direction of Kosice. He enjoyed so great popularity, which was established Second National Chorus. From initiative K. Stetsenko In 1919 they merged into the State traveling Capelli (in abbreviation - "Opinion"). U1919-1920 established several traveling choir chapels. In some cities of Ukraine, including Kharkiv, Poltava, have professional choirs, Bandurist.
A significant event in the Ukrainian art was discovered in December 1917 , the Ukrainian Academy of Arts. Academy founders were professors and artists and F. V. Krichevsky, M. Boychuk, G. Narbut, M. Burachek, M. Zuk and etc. .. It became a center of art training, rezbarstva, construction, prints and crafts. Under her patronage of the talented young people were gathered, which is well understood by tradition of folk art. Among them were: L. Lazovskyy, G. unborn, I. Padalka Petrytsky A. et al.
Through the activities of artists Academy of Art acquired its development Ukrainian schedule. Yes Narbut G. (1886-1920), born in Deaf, in his work combined the principles of geometric composition V. Krichevsky and folk nationalism M. Boychuk. This wizard has arrived in Ukraine during the 1917 Revolution, he in a short time of its stay at home, opened a huge work and fall asleep Ukraine masterpieces of his new art: drawings of coats of arms, money, stamps, diplomas, all sorts of book design - illustrations, screen savers, cover, titles etc.. G. Narbut managed not only is there a huge collection of drawings, but conquered by example youth and three - four years, founded a school for young graphs. On Unfortunately, the early and unexpected death urvala G. Narbuta work at the rise.
Violently contradictory and developing Ukrainian folklore. From one hand, created the folklore centers, preparing staff, issued work and on the other - ideological dictates skovuvav development creative thought. But despite the difficulties were collected unique archive materials issued by the Labour Hrinchenko, C. Flowers, A. Loboda, P. Popov A. Beletsky, V. Petrettsa, A. Crimea. In Western lands in Currently working on a study of folklore V. Hnatiuk. F. Kolessa, M. Wozniak.
At this time the genre evolved and political posters. Artists trying to keep up with the times, responded immediately to changes in public life. Artistically designed political posters were close and clear general public.
During the war and revolution in the architecture of most West European direction extension takes constructivism.
Constructionism - Style architecture, that based on the principle of functionalism - adjustment of each part its practical purpose, a complete removal of decorative decorations.
Constructivism is widely using reinforced concrete structures glass and other advanced at the time of building materials, for buildings of architectural structures that are basic geometric shapes, light zakroyeni widely overlapping, large smooth areas, terraced songs and more. To the best buildings are constructive direction power in Kiev, cloth factory in Kremenchug, houses Dniprel'stan, home office in Lviv patients and a huge complex of buildings "Derzhtrestu in Kharkiv.
3. Religious life.
A special area of
Autocephalous church (From the Greek. Autos - himself kephale - Head) - The Orthodox Church, which is absolutely independence in solving organizational and religious issues.
Ukrainian clergy expressed their for an independent Orthodox Church. Spring 1917 the movement was headed by Archpriest Vasily Lypkivsky. He founded the Brotherhood of resurrection ", which have been active in at creation of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (UAVPTS). In March 1917, was created "The executive committee of clergy and laity. The purpose of the committee - separate from the Ukrainian dioceses Russian Orthodox Church. However, these developments have taken place against the background political instability and constant change of the government. In particular, Bolshevik seizure of Kyiv at the beginning of 1918 turned to Ukrainian clergy terror. The coming to power Skoropadsky affected priority of the Moscow Patriarchate.
Let us turn to sources
With the Law on Temporary State System of Ukraine " April 29, 1918
Consolidation of power triggered directory autocephalous movement Ukrainian Orthodox Church, in May 1920 at the plenum "Ukrainian Orthodox Church Council, she was still proclaimed. But the UPR turned back the Bolshevik regime, which began a new offensive against the Ukrainian autocephalous Orthodox Church (UAOC). Many priests and faithful suffered terrible repression. However, in October 1921 was held Ukrainian Orthodox Church cathedral, which chose Basil Lypkivskyi first episkopom UAOC and Metropolitan of Kiev and All Ukraine.
So, in the cultural and spiritual life of Ukrainian society period of liberation have been significant changes. At that time there was a actively seeking ways of developing Ukrainian national school. It made a significant contribution to the educational process, provided an opportunity to provide economy needs qualified professionals. Rebirth in this time and Ukrainian science. The role of focal point it became play the newly created Academy of Sciences. Significant achievements have Ukrainian literature and art, which were closely related to the life of the people. The characteristic features of most products was innovation and waivers stereotypes. This positive influence on spiritual development Ukrainian society.
Guidelines for Development of Culture
The events and figures of cultural life