Theme 21. UKRAINE IN EARLY 1920. WARSAW AGREEMENT AND ITS IMPLICATIONS
Vseukrrevkom, War Communism, Labour army, food dictatorship food layout, committees of poor peasants, the Soviet-Polish war, the Warsaw Treaty, Peace of Riga
February 1920, May 1920, April 25 - August 1920, November 1920, March 18, 1921
1. Soviet Russia's formal recognition of independence of USSR
Restoration of Soviet power in Ukraine, accompanied by statements Russian leadership to recognize independence of USSR. Communist regime tried to make the coming Bolshevik troops in Ukraine brotherly help from Russia. For example, the resolution VIII All-Russia partkonferentsiyi in December 1919 noted that Russian Communist Party is on the point of view of recognition independence of the USSR, but also the need to promote zauvazhuvalos the right of workers to use different language in public institutions and to resist attempts to cut out one of languages
Establishment of Soviet power in Ukraine, accompanied by real actions aimed at strengthening centralism through the formation of revkomiv. December 11, 1919 in Moscow was established Ukrainian Revolutionary Committee, which concentrated in the hands of a higher legal and executive power in Ukraine. Chairman Vseukrrevkomu a Bolshevik G. Petrovsky.
Grigory Petrovsky (1878-1958) - Soviet political and
politician. Born in Kharkov. He worked as a laborer at the plant. From
1897 RSDLP member. Supervised illegal labor groups,
Workers organized strikes. Tue Party work. In 1912,
elected member of the Fourth State Duma from the workers Katerinoslavshchina.
Headed by the State Duma of the Bolshevik faction. Repeatedly performed
State Duma with sharp criticism of national policy in tsarist
protect the social and cultural rights language Ukrainian. After the February Revolution he was sent to Ukraine to fight against
UCR. He participated in peace negotiations in Brest by Soviet Russia.
From March 1919 to 1938 Chairman of Central Executive Committee. Actively promoted the holding in
life of Bolshevik policy in the Ukrainian village. Since 1940 he lived and
worked in Moscow, where he is buried. In his honor the city was Ekaterinoslav
renamed in 1926 in Dnepropetrovsk.
Grigory Petrovsky (1878-1958) - Soviet political and politician. Born in Kharkov. He worked as a laborer at the plant. From 1897 RSDLP member. Supervised illegal labor groups, Workers organized strikes. Tue Party work. In 1912, elected member of the Fourth State Duma from the workers Katerinoslavshchina. Headed by the State Duma of the Bolshevik faction. Repeatedly performed State Duma with sharp criticism of national policy in tsarist protect the social and cultural rights language Ukrainian.
After the February Revolution he was sent to Ukraine to fight against UCR. He participated in peace negotiations in Brest by Soviet Russia. From March 1919 to 1938 Chairman of Central Executive Committee. Actively promoted the holding in life of Bolshevik policy in the Ukrainian village. Since 1940 he lived and worked in Moscow, where he is buried. In his honor the city was Ekaterinoslav renamed in 1926 in Dnepropetrovsk.
The main tasks of the newly established central authority included establishment of full control over the territory of Ukraine, the formation of new of Soviet power and the suppression of anti-Bolshevik forces. His residence Vseukrrevkom did proletarian Kharkiv. Restoration local government was through the appointment of provincial Vseukrrevkomom revolutionary committees. They, in turn, created the county and revkomy Township and village asserted.
Vseukrrevkomu activities aimed at strengthening the Bolshevik Soviet power in Ukraine on the principles of centralism and unification of all sides of social life according to the norms prevailing in RFSRR. In January 1920 Vseukrrevkom confirmed previous agreements on the full combining forces and RSFRR USSR. In February 1920 after final establishment of Soviet power in Ukraine amounted Vseukrrevkom his powers and gave councils the power and AUCEC commiss. Last developed training to boards of elections in Ukraine.
2. The policy of War Communism
The essence of the Bolshevik policy was to present the destruction in Ukraine economic system based on commodity-money relationship and its replacement by direct barter. This policy has received in Russia called "war communism".
War Communism - Domestic Politics Soviet power established during the Civil War to concentration of all labor and material resources in state hands. Characterized by widespread nationalization of industry, centralization of industry, freedom Ban trade, and labor input prodrozkladky duties.
An important part of the policy of "war communism" was the process nationalization of the means of production. The decree of nationalization order businesses gave her the right to exclusively USSR government. Law anticipated socialization primarily large companies that have state matter. To guide this process in the republic was created the Ukrainian Council of National Economy (URNH). During 1920 state were over 11 thousand enterprises from 82% of workers. Companies that passed by the state, often obscured by the decline of labor discipline, lack of raw materials and escaped workers who do not zadurno almost like work.
The Bolsheviks believed that the way out of this predicament can be militarization of the economy. In late January 1920 in Ukraine was established labor army. Its functions included provision of raw materials and Food, fuel extraction, providing enterprise workforce et al. Hard reality of the new government does not coincide with its promises that workers become owners of plants and factories.
Peasant question for the Bolshevik Party was one of the most painful. Social support for party calling the working class, and peasantry believed only ally, and that not everything, but poor. To Most farmers Soviets treated cautiously because they were the natural owners of the means of production. Therefore, the Bolsheviks sought spread and nationalization of agriculture.
Even in 1919 they launched agrarian reform, which was conducted by transfer of confiscated lands first collective farms, and only marginally - the peasants. Such transformation of outrage peasants. The Bolsheviks, fearing that the situation in the country can get out of control, were forced to make concessions. Authorities trying to win commitment of the Ukrainian peasants gave them nearly half the land Fund sugar factories. Even these measures are not taken off social tensions in the village. Ukrainian peasants believed that the Soviets did not justify their expectations.
At the village and spread policy of war communism. Personal torhivlyuya food was forbidden. At the end of February 1920 Sovnarcom USSR was to ensure the towns and army food passed a law on food layout.
Food keyboard - a system of food preparations products and agricultural raw materials, based on compulsory barter and confiscation.
Each province was determined amount of grain it had put state. This number "rozkladalas" local authorities to individual peasant economy. After passing the standards of grain farmers remained only cost of living and seeds, the rest were taken without any recoveries. Make prodrozkladky were ad hoc bodies.
Farmers responded to these measures the new surge of armed struggle. Then Bolshevik government resorted to the old well-known method - divide and Conquer. In May 1920 under the decision of Central Executive Committee were established committees of poor peasants.
Let us turn to sources
With the law on committees of poor peasants (9 May 1920)
To protect the interests of the poor and the middle of the village and Township created village committees of poor peasants. These tasks include:
In komnezamy primarily were obligated to present policy Bolsheviks in rural areas and expand the struggle against the rich peasants. For kombidiv to promote removal of grain in government allowed them incarnate leave for their own needs and 25% of confiscated. In autumn 1920 in Ukraine, there were about 11 thousand komnezamiv. They not only have direct representatives of the Bolshevik government, but also subordinated a village council. In the struggle with the peasantry and the communist regime gave Food groups that were formed in cities with workers. From March to September 1920 CC CP (B) together with trade unions sent to prodzahoniv about 15 thousand workers. Moreover, in dealing with peasantry authorities began to use the Red Army. Situation Ukrainian society as a result of policies of war communism was extremely tense.
3. Warsaw agreement
At the end of 1919 Poland, with the loyal support of the Entente continued creation of the state "from sea to sea. She enlarged military capability, with the assistance of the U.S., Britain and France, and spring of 1920 created one of the largest armies in Europe accounted for 738 thousand people. She captured a significant part of Belarus and Ukrainian land to rivers and Zbruch Horyn.
Soviet Russia at that time led to exhausting struggle White Guard troops and could not resist the Poles. Therefore, its government repeatedly approached with offers to Poland to start negotiations but these appeals have remained unanswered.
Along with the intensification of activities of Polish armed forces, in Ukrainian territory, there were fierce battles UNR troops who conduct The first winter hike on tylah Red Army. In February 1920 they forsuvaly in the Sky Zolotonosha and launched struggles for Lypovets, Uman, Cherkassy,
, Petliura wanted to take the complication of relations between Poland and Soviet Russia. He is playing on their contradictions, looking for opportunities get a chance to save UNR. Chief Commander sent to Warsaw mission, which was to start negotiations with the Polish side of a single Anti-Bolshevik Front. Negotiations were conducted in several stages and have been very difficult for the Ukrainian side, because Poles used every possible exigency UPR and demanded permanent concessions from Petliura.
April 21, 1920 both parties signed a general and trade and economic convention, which the Polish government recognized independence of the UPR. The Convention defined the new Polish-Ukrainian border. Under the Polish government went Galicia, western Volhynia, Polesie part, Lemkivschyna, Kholm, Podlasie and Posyannya. April 24, 1920 was concluded a military convention which foresaw the beginning of joint Polish-Ukrainian war against Bolshevik troops in Ukraine. In addition, S. Petliura agreed for the period of hostilities subordinate forces UPR Polish command.
Let us turn to sources
From Political Convention between the Polish Republic and the Ukrainian National Republic. Warsaw, April 21, 1920
The Government of the Commonwealth of Poland, on the one hand, and the government? Tion of the People's Republic, on the other ... agreed to the following decision:
A military convention between Poland and the UPR. Warsaw, April 24, 1920
Finally, all three made the Warsaw Convention agreement between the UPR and Poland, which preceded the Soviet-Polish war in 1920 large number of Ukrainian politicians condemned Petliura signed an agreement seeing in it the dominance of the interests of the Poles.
4. Soviet-Polish war and Ukraine
Soviet-Polish war and Ukraine. The defeat of Wrangel's troops and detachments Makhno (April 1920 - 1921)
After signing the agreement Warsaw Poland, joining forces with UPR, April 25, started a war against RSFRR. Poles having significant superiority in manpower and technology, struck in the West and the joint South-Western Front. Against the Bolsheviks were united Polish and Ukrainian troops, which numbered 20 thousand Polish and 15 thousand Ukrainian soldiers. They tried using the suddenness attack, the Red Army to surround and destroy it. During the first week of battles Allied forces dislodged the Bolsheviks from Zhitomir, and Berdychiva Kozyatyn. But despite considerable progress, troops under the command J. Pilsudski could not encircle the Soviet armed groups, and this meant that the war was prolonged. Then attack the Poles and Petliurites began to ebb. The last of their great success with the recognition of May 6, 1920 by Kyiv. Three days later the Polish Army and the People's Republic of trying to develop success forsuvaly Sky, but were stopped on the line Vyshgorod-Brovary-Borispol. Troops halted progress J. Pilsudski and Petliura and Odessa area. They did not could reach the Black Sea coast.
The vast majority regarded with fear deployment fighting during the Soviet-Polish war and coming together with Poles Petlura in Ukrainian lands. Participation in war Troops UPR be seen as a desire Petliura any price to regain power in Ukraine.
Keeping Polish occupation troops was a heavy burden for Ukrainian population. Formally, the agreement, the arrival of Poles look like Ukrainian help in liberating their land from the Bolsheviks. Actually held Polish occupation of Ukraine. Administration of the People's Republic officially took shape in early July. However, its capabilities were limited. Poles often ignored it in Volhynia and Podolia it does not formed, and the government is concentrated in the hands of the Polish crown.
From the first days of stay in Ukraine began to export industrial Poles equipment, various products and raw materials. Throughout the entire Ukrainian territory deployed looting, repression, the Jewish pogroms. All this has caused resistance of the Ukrainian population and the armed opposition to the Poles. J. Pilsudski repaired rebels against regular troops, who brutally cruelly with the local population. Mass executions of peasants revolt Poles carried out in Dubno, Rivne, Starokonstantinov and other cities.
In addition to natural peasant speeches against the Poles were underground organizations, mostly led by the Bolsheviks or representatives of other socialist parties. In late May, active organizational activity deployed Zafrontove Bureau of the CC CP (b) U. It was not limited only preparation of the Ukrainian population revolts against the invaders, but also carried out the anti-war propaganda work among Polish soldiers. Ukrainian Bolsheviks established even issue of "Zholhnezh Polish, Polish soldiers for printed leaflets, pamphlets, proclamations, which urged them to turn their arms against authorities J. Pilsudski.
Soviet leaders have forwarded to the Polish front most combat-ready part. June 5, 1920 Red Army moved in counteroffensive. As a result there was a threat to the Poles and the environment they were forced to retreat. After two days the Bolsheviks captured Zhitomir and Berdicheva, and June 12 - included in Kyiv.
Soviet troops went on the offensive on all fronts. In July, Army Yu Polsudskoho left the winery, Zhmerinka, Proskuriv, Kamenets Podolsky. The military operations were moved to the territory of Western Ukraine. Along with the successes of the Soviet Southwestern Front, which acted in Ukraine, the Bolsheviks actively deployed by Western front in Belorussia.
Polish troops gradually began to panic cover their retreat from Ukraine has increasingly become similar in flight. Poland faces threat of total collapse. The Soviet government was so confident in their victory, decided to advance on Warsaw only by Western Front and portions of Southwest - sent the Lions, hoping raise the socialist revolution in Western lands.
J. Pilsudski sought the assistance of the Entente. Supreme Council Entente July 4, 1920 sent a note to the Soviet government to start negotiations between Russia and Poland. In the event that the Bolsheviks Entente leave the right to provide Poland with any assistance. The Soviet leadership has agreed to talks, but also gave order his troops to force the attack on Warsaw.
The Bolsheviks captured the ideas of world revolution. They viewed Polish lands as a base of its penetration in Western Europe. From the arrival of Soviet troops in Poland there was a Revolutionary Committee headed by F. Dzerzhinsky. This body deployed from active formation local councils began to be nationalized. Landowners estates naymytskyh passed under the management committees.
In Eastern Galicia in August was proclaimed socialist Galician Soviet republic led by Halrevkomom chaired by a Bolshevik V. Zatonsky. However, in the county Skoliskomu Communists raised against Polish uprising and created Boykovskaya Soviet republic. Western population examined the formation of regional soviet republics as a form of protest against the arbitrariness of the Poles. However, population Western Ukraine was indifferent to the socialist revolution and Bolshevik hopes its deployment is not true. Soviet troops failed to capture the Lions. Having suffered heavy losses, they blunted his progress.
The Soviet troops in Warsaw and gradually began to fade (all became more noticeable fatigue, loss of manpower, lack of ammunition). Threat again incur the dependence on Russia rallied Poles. They stopped the Bolsheviks near Warsaw in the suburban fortress Modlin and passed in counterattack, inflicting a crushing defeat the Red Army. But develop your success Poles could not. Were exhausted offensive opportunities and Soviet Russia.
In August 1920 the two sides began talks in Minsk truce. Under these conditions, the UPR army decided to continue the fight against Soviet troops themselves. However, using the Red Army Truce regrouped their forces and in November 1920 knocked out Petliurites from Ukraine to Poland.
Peace talks between warring parties started in Minsk were moved in early September 1920 to Riga and continued there until the spring After 1921, March 18, 1921 Poland on the one hand and RSFRR and SSR the other signed the Riga peace. By its terms, both parties obliged to cease hostilities. In addition, the contract annulled Warsaw agreement between Poland and the UPR, and set new boundaries, which Western Ukraine and Western Belarus was part of Poland.
The signing of the Polish-Soviet peace treaty. Riga, 1921