Theme 20. POLICY OF SOVIET GOVERNMENT IN UKRAINE IN 1919 (textbook)

Theme 20. POLICY OF SOVIET GOVERNMENT IN UKRAINE IN 1919

  1. Introduction of the Soviet state and its character.
  2. Insurgency.
  3. The fall of Soviet power in 1919 and its renewal.
  4. Red and White Terror.
  • Basic terms and concepts of the theme

Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, USSR constitution, nationalization, food dictatorship, White Guard Terror

  • Key dates topic

January 6, 1919, March 10, 1919 December 16, 1919

  1. What was the state organization of Soviet Russia?
  2. How and why was formed Volunteer Army A. Denikin?
  3. As there was fighting between the Red Army, Denikin army and united the Ukrainian army in the spring - summer of 1919?


1. Introduction of the Soviet state and its character

  1. How has the state system of Ukraine for the Soviet regime?
  2. Describe the system of government and management, which made the Bolshevik regime.
  3. What was the first socio-economic measures of the Bolshevik government?


During the winter-spring 1919 in the territory of Ukraine (except Nadzbruchya) Bolsheviks and their power. January 6, 1919 decision Temporary worker-peasant government name of the state - Ukrainian The People's Republic, which was adopted by the Central Council, and the repeal was introduced new - Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic (SSR). Legal registration of the Ukrainian Soviet states held on 10 March 1919 with the adoption of the Third All-Ukrainian Congress of the Soviets first USSR Constitution.

Emblem of the Soviet Ukraine. 1919

Let us turn to sources

From the "Constitution of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic"

  1. Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic is the organization dictatorship of the proletariat exploited masses of workers and poor peasants over their oppressors and exploiters age - and capitalists landlords.
  2. The task of this dictatorship is the transition from bourgeois to socialism?
  3. ? Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic expresses its firm determination to join the International Single Soviet Socialist Republic, once the conditions for its newly occurrence?
  4. The right to elect and be elected to the Council using regardless of nationality, residence, etc. citizens SSR both sexes, which before election day over 18:         
    1. all who earn a living and productive socially useful work, and persons involved wit economy that provides for the first opportunity of productive work and  namely: workers and employees of all kinds of categories that are in session industry, trade, agriculture and others., peasants and Cossacks landowners;             
    2. Red Army soldiers and sailors Red Fleet; ...
  5. Do not elect and can not be elected the following persons, if they were one of the above categories:         
    1. persons who resort to wage labor to eliminate benefits;
    2. people living on incomes netrudovi, namely%% of capital, profits of enterprises, revenue from property, etc.;
    3. private traders, trade and commercial intermediaries;
    4. monks and religious ministers of churches and religious worship;
    5. employees and agents of the former police special case gendarmes and security departments, and members of reigning in Russia dynasty. ?
  6. Guided by the interests of the working class as a whole, USSR  deprived of political rights of individuals and individual groups who use  these rights to the detriment of the communist revolution.
Who created the document and when? What was the state system and SSR political regime? As defined in the Constitution of the future State? How do you see the democracy of this Constitution? And what is it limitations?

For Ukrainian Bolshevik model state in the form and content was Soviet Russia. Therefore, the Ukrainian government was named - Council  People's Commissars (CPC), repeating the name of this Russian body. The government elected Ukrainian Central Executive Committee (Central Executive Committee), and in Russia - All-Russian Central Executive Committee. Chairman of the Ukrainian government recommended the appointment of Moscow Rakovskyi.

Meet near

Christian G. Rakovski (Christie Stanchev)(1873-1941) - politician and statesman USSR. Born in Hradec (Bulgaria). With 15 years became a professional revolutionary. Years of study in High School, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva and was for years becoming one of the active workers and leaders of social democratic movement in Bulgaria and Romania move closer to Russia's leaders revolutionary movement of G. Plekhanov, L. Trotsky. V. Ulyanov (Lenin). In 1918 joined the ranks of the Bolshevik Party, he served as Chairman Supreme autonomous board established to fight against Odessa counter-revolution in Ukraine. Aided by Lenin and Trotsky carried L. number of important assignments in Ukraine in 1918: a diplomatic mission to Odessa, which signed the Russian-Romanian treaty (for which within 2 months Bessarabia was to be released), held talks with the government of Hetman Skoropadskiy established contacts with the Ukrainian opposition led by V. after. therefore it was proposed to head the government Soviet Ukraine. Carried away by the ideas of internationalism set question the existence of a separate Ukrainian nation. But then changed his views and began to advocate the expansion of political and economic SSR independence. In 1923 he criticized Stalin for national construction. After that was removed from the post of Government of USSR and sent first ambassador to England, and then - France. After returning to the Soviet Union was expelled from the ranks Communist Party, later repressed. Shot in Orel prison.

  1. What were the views Rakovskyi?
  2. How are they changing?
  3. What the consequences in his life it led?


Simultaneously Sovnarcom there and party power. Her head - The Central Committee of the Bolshevik Party of Ukraine (TSKKP (b)). Typically, the government and party leadership were one and the same people.

At locations in provincial centers were created as board, parish centers operated military revolutionary committee. The new government officially calling them by the dictatorship of the proletariat, although in fact they carried out by the dictatorship of the Bolshevik regime.

Scope of internal policy of the Bolsheviks was to ruin Ukraine's existing economic system based on commodity-money relations and its replacement by direct barter. This Politics got in Russia called war communism and began introduced by the Bolsheviks in Ukraine since the end of 1918

It was an important part of the process of nationalizing the means of production in  industry and agriculture. The peasantry constituted at the time  approximately 80% of the population of Ukraine as the Soviet government was interested in  its support. Agrarian reform began with the confiscation of the landlords, autonomous, the monastery and church land. But not all of them passed and landless peasants malozemelnomu. Top black Bolshevik government transferred the newly created state farms and communes. Apart that the most productive land passed nationalized sugar plants and factory. The rest of the state has provided land to the peasants, but on condition  establishment of a large collective farms. Such a policy, as forcible seizure of food from villagers raised their dissatisfaction.

Second Ukrainian-Soviet War. Installation of the Bolshevik regime in Ukraine (December 1918 - June 1919)

2. Insurgency

  1. What reasons caused the peasants rebellions in 1919?
  2. What was the policy of Soviet power in relation to peasant militias?
  3. What role was played Otamanschina?


Economic policy of the Bolsheviks aimed at eliminating private ownership of the means of production, expropriation of grain, converting peasants  of poor in the labor force in spring 1919 sparked a wave of disaster anti-Soviet speeches led atamans Green, Struk Sokolovsky et al.

Grass-roots movement against the Bolshevik regime of the Soviets branded kulak banditry, directing punitive expedition against him, who carried out mass executions and burned villages. But such actions have more ruined agriculture. In April 1919 Bureau of the CEC Soviet Ukraine was forced to make a decision on the inadmissibility of burning villages during the suppression of the kulak uprisings.

Let us turn to sources

3 of resolution Presidium of the Central Soviet of Ukraine of 16 April 1919 "On the inadmissibility of the burning of villages during the crackdown kulak revolts "

... The repeated burning of villages during the crackdown kulak uprisings is impractical and extremely harmful to the cause Soviet power is to offer Sovnarkoma urgently to issue orders to all appropriate agencies in the complete cessation fear of strict liability and burning villages on the measures undertaken CEC report.

Who created the document and when? Can I trust him? What it shows? What kind of attitude is it you? Why?

But this decision is almost ignored punitive detachments. In response villagers launched a more active fight against the Soviets. Yes  when in April 1998 there were anti-Bolshevik speeches, in June-July, they numbered 328. Peasant revolt against Bolshevik regime covered almost all of Ukraine.

Pantsernyy train Ataman Grigoriev. 1919

In early May, broke one of the largest in Ukraine Bolshevik uprisings led by the chieftain M. Grigoriev yevym. The basis of his  groups constituted the peasantry, which initially supported the Bolshevik government,  spryynyavshy her really popular. But after making sure that it is predatory towards them, the peasantry to rise Bolshevist uprising. Grigoriev issued a proclamation "to the Ukrainian  people ", urging people to destroy prodzahony and commissioners and  create a council without the Bolsheviks. The rebels captured Ekaterinoslav, Cherkasy, Aleksandrovsk, Kremenchug, Nikolaev, Kherson. Against them were sent the Red Army, who took the main force in ticks M. Grigoriev Kobelyaki near Poltava and defeated them. Ataman himself with small detachment retreated to the Kherson region. He tried to join with forces of another peasant chieftain N. Makhno. But between them occurred conflict, during which Grigoriev was killed.

Rebels anarchists

The Bolsheviks tried to subordinate the interests of its farmers, convert them into agricultural workers who will have become a pillar of Soviet power. Implementation of this intention Bolsheviks associated with the destruction of peasant militias. This was done balanced and consistent not only with respect to peasant detachments fought against the Soviets, but against those who joined the ranks Red Army. In particular, this potentially dangerous to the Bolsheviks, was the 3rd Brigade Zadniprovskyi deviziyi led by N. Makhno, who passed on the side of the Red Army and fought well with it against Denikinites. In June 1919 by decision of the worker-peasant members of the USSR Defense Makhno staff were arrested. Ataman, predicting further progress events as dangerous to himself, left the Red Army. With a detachment of the faithful  he number of people in 800 people. N. Makhno went on the Right Bank, where launch a campaign against the Bolsheviks.

Makhno

Meet near

Nestor Ivanovich Makhno (Mihnenko) (1888-1934) rebel chieftain, one of the leaders of the anarchist movement. Born in peasant family in s.Hulyay Polje in Katerynoslav. Graduated two classes  elementary school. Worked for the landlords, then the worker. U1900-1908 he was - a member of Anarchists-Communists Union of poor farmers,  comprising participated in expropriation. In 1910 he was sentenced to  death, which was replaced by penal servitude for life. The February Revolution was bound. In 1917 he returned to the walk-Fields, where he started their own revolutionary transformation: distributed among peasants landed estates, formed armed squads.

Not recognized or the Provisional Government or UCR. In the summer of 1918 led peasants fighting against the Hetman regime and the occupiers., then against UNR Directory and Denikinites side of the Bolsheviks. Ideological was away Bolshevism and anarchism.

After the speech against the Soviet policy of war communism was Soviet authorities declared illegal. During the occupation of Denikin led an active struggle against Denikin in rear. In 1920 he was with the Bolsheviks actively in defeat Wrangel.

Upon completion of this operation began mass destruction his troops During the Soviet authorities in 1921 led the fight against the Red Army but in August was forced to emigrate. Lived in Romania, Poland, Germany, in Paris. In his last years was engaged in literary activities.

  1. What were the political opinions of Makhno?
  2. How do you assess his political activities?


Otamanschina has become traditional for Ukrainian village. Central power at that time changed many times, and chieftaincy existed years. The villagers sought protection in atamans, not in government, which was far from them and constantly demanded bread, giving nothing in return. Chieftaincy was closer to the peasants. Ataman defended the peasantry, but it  supplied and maintained their reserves to fight Denikin regime.

3. The fall of Soviet power in 1919, and its recovery

  1. What were the objectives of the regime established by A. Denikin occupied territories?
  2. Which means they were made?
  3. What were the reasons for the defeat Denikinites?


A. Denikin

Spring-summer of 1919 Denikin's Volunteer Army A. invaded Ukraine.  Soviet power was eliminated. Denikin regime in Ukraine directed its efforts to protect the interests of landowners and businessmen. The new government, backed by military units began to take away from the peasants  divided by the landlords' land, obliging them to give landowners free of charge  third harvest 1919 in compensation for losses. In addition,  farmers had to support the Volunteer Army of taxes in half of 5 pounds of grain for each tenth of the earth. When late deposit volume grew at double tax. The enterprises were prohibited trade unions and strikes. The working day was determined in 9.5 hours but in terms of production needs of its administration could increase.

The attack by the Whites in Ukraine. Allied counter-offensive of the Ukrainian army and their defeat (July - October by 119)

Speaking for a single indivisible Russia, A. Denikin, refused in Ukrainian  establishment of its independent state. Mode negative attitude to any manifestation of Ukrainian national life. Administration issued  order the removal of portraits of Shevchenko in all institutions. Zemstvo forbidden to provide material assistance to Ukrainian schools, schools teach in Ukrainian subjects was abolished, was minimized activities of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. The government initiated and provoked national hatred. Special dimensions become Jewish Massacre that period denikinschyny Ukraine has committed more than 400.

Let us turn to sources

With appeals A. Denikin "K population Malorossii"

The desire to separate from Russia Little Russian Conversation people and not left until now. Former proteges and the Germans Petliura supporters and now continue their evil plot the creation independent "Ukrainian state" and against the revival of unified Russia ... Given this, the foundation will arrange regions in Southern Russia and will be installed  the beginnings of decentralization of government and respect for fundamental life of the local life.

Announcing the official language throughout the Russian language Russian, I believe totally unacceptable and prohibits harassment Little  language. Everyone can speak in court on Little. Private schools that held by local funds may lead to a teaching anything Language ...

What is it about the document? As treated A. Denikin to national interests and needs of the Ukrainian population? How he wanted Ukrainian resolve the issue?

Replacing the Bolshevik, Denikin regime made qualitative changes in the economic life of Ukrainian society. In some  areas it was even tougher than communism, particularly in international relations. Military dictatorship has weighed heavily on shoulders of working people.

Denikinites occupy Kyiv. August 31, 1919

In spring 1919 offensive capabilities with the objective Whites reasons began to melt. First, this was due to increased insurgent  movement in Ukraine, in which suppression of A. Denikin was forced to withdraw Troops from the front. Second, the attack on Moscow Denikinites pitched front line for action to permanently increase the number of troops, and they lacked. Thirdly, held Whites increased mobilization of peasants army formally A. Denikin but also made her undisciplined, with many deserters. In addition, the peasantry at this point going down to support Bolsheviks, as their victory over the Denikin army eliminated the threat divided landlords losing ground. Almost every village had its troops self-defense, which gave Denikin rebuffed in their attempts to hold requisition bread and other products necessary to ensure UPR and the AFSR army.

Actively worked against Denikinites and peasant atamans D. Green, N. Makhno  et al. In August, led by N. Makhno centered four blocks, who subsequently joined in revolutionary-Insurgent Army Ukraine (Makhno). Rebel troops consisting of infantry and cavalry, planted on Tachanka with machine guns. Formation Makhno were very mobile. They carried out regular raids on tylah Denikinites, skovuvaly their strength and seriously hampered progress Whites. Autumn A. Denikin was forced to quit against Makhno two of its best buildings,  but it gave no radical changes.

In mid October 1919 the Red Army, creating a numerical advantage  over A. Denikin troops were able to move in a counter attack. Brunt of the Bolshevik leaders directed toward Kiev-Donbass-Rostov-on-Don. After some time the Soviet troops went on the offensive on all fronts. In particular, they broke the November 6 Denikinites from Chernigov, 12 December captured Kharkov, and December 16, 1919 he came to Kyiv. In late 1919 the initiative belonged to the Red Army and later Denikinites were completely ousted from the territory of Ukraine.

The defeat of Denikin's army. Restoration of the Bolshevik regime in Ukraine (October 1919 - 1920)

Counter-offensive of the Red Army, and completed the victory of the Bolsheviks gradual restoration of the Bolshevik regime in Ukraine.

4. Red and White Terror

  1. Who and how they carried out terror against the population?
  2. Do you think why, as the Soviets and the White Guards to resort to such measures?


Bolshevik leaders are well aware of the need to seize power, it is easier than  keep. So the first day in office it created a system of penal authorities. It included: All Extraordinary Commission (VUNK) People's courts, revolutionary tribunals, police  et al. Its main component was VUNK, relied on her duties against counterrevolution. Her special units were attached, who played a crucial role in the fight against Ukrainian rebels.  This activity was accompanied by terrorist activities against the peasantry, destruction of hostages and political opponents of the Bolshevik regime.

Let us turn to sources

3 reports of the Central Committee of the Russian Red Cross on the activities of the Extraordinary Commissions (Cheka) in Kiev in 1919

The Bolsheviks came to Kyiv in February 1919 and the next day began their action Nadzvychayka rather not even one, but a few. Staffs regiments, district committees, the police, every single Soviet institution imagined as a branch to the Emergency Commission. Each arrested and killed. Throughout the city and took the people. When a person disappeared, to find it was very difficult, especially since no lists was not arrested, and help the Soviet institutions were given very grudgingly. Center for Investigation and executions was Ukrainian Extraordinary Commission. ?

Activities of the Emergency Commission can not enter into any logic. Arrests were made completely at random, often by Donoso personal enemies. Dissatisfied employees, servants wishing for anything to avenge their masters, self-serving views of the property arrested, it could serve as a motive for the arrest and then shot.

As Bolshevik government struggled with dissidents? Why is this power was forced to use terror against the population? Can the Bolsheviks other methods work, why? What you sense is this document?

So, in order to keep power in the hands of the Bolsheviks apply the policy of violence, which was called "Red Terror".

Terror (From Lat. Terror - fear, horror) - a special form of political violence which is inherent cruelty, purposefulness.

In turn, White Guards, including A. Denikin, as clearly used terror as one of the main activities of the administration. On the Ukrainian lands, which captured the Whites, acted laws to implement the uncompromising struggle against Bolshevism and guidance of the hard military methods dictatorship. For example, participation in the rebel movement, the Bolshevik organizations and desertion from the Volunteer Army zastosuvalas death penalty. Commonplace in mass executions. Thus, in Odessa without trial and investigation were persecuted to death about 3 thousand people. A similar situation  was in other cities.

Let us turn to sources

Notice of repression Whites captured on their territories (August 1919)

The first three days of violence over the communists and the Commissioners took place without single trial. Reported arrested, taken to the river and -  execution. Then was formed military field court, but it is essentially things will not change .. .. Eyewitnesses to pass atrocities taking place in  Sinelnik where captured soldiers almost naked naked and kept in a stone building without food for more than a week. Ibid  Sinelnikovo recently shot during a run of fitting Ekaterinoslav 30  Sailors and 8 communists. Immediately spot offering not vbyvalysya and gradually rozstrilyuvalysya to force die in agony ...

Repression and violence are numerous, so you can register them. Executions, robbery, Excavation of the graves of Red Army soldiers and communists hanging on poles and others. ... In Velyka Settlement villager who waited previously white, long prayed to give him a horse, which they recovered, and inadvertently named officer friend and was killed on the spot ... Repression koyatsya mainly by Donoso and fists on the initiative landlords.

Based on the content of the document explain the concept of "white terror". Why White Guards used terror against the population? Can Denikinites other methods work, why? What you sense is this document?

So, in order to keep power in the hands of A. Denikin applied the policy of violence, which was called "white terror".

The victims of both red and white terror was the population of Ukraine, above all, ordinary people.

  1. How was formed the Bolshevik regime in Ukraine? What are its main features?
  2. What was the essence of the policy of Bolsheviks in Ukraine in 1919?
  3. Under what circumstances peasants rebellions occurred in 1919?
  4. When and how the attack turned the White Guard troops on the territory of Ukraine?
  5. What is the set of A. Denikin occupied territories?
  6. How the Bolsheviks defeated Denikin's army?
  7. What was the form of government of Ukraine for the Soviet regime? Prove.
  8. Describe Denikin regime and its consequences for the Ukrainian population.
  9. Why 1919 was associated with peasants rebellions against the Bolsheviks? Who directed these performances, why?
  10. What new features such as a social phenomenon Otamanschina you find yourself studying history in 1919?
  11. When and under what circumstances has restored the Soviet authorities in Ukraine?
  12. Do you think why the Bolsheviks showed themselves most organized force, and managed to get a victory over the Denikin army?
  13. November 30, 1919 Chairman Revviyskrady RSFRR L. Trotsky issued  widely promulgated a decree, which stated: "Ukraine - a land Ukrainian migrant workers and peasants. Only they have the right farm in the Ukraine, to manage it and build it new life. " Comment on this step-chief of the Bolsheviks.
  14. What do you think of the Bolshevik policy of terror and reprisals against the Ukrainian population was the result of objective reasons,  regarding the nature of communist society, the complexity of political  and economic situation, etc. or explained some cruelty Bolshevik leaders, who led the Ukraine? Explain your opinion giving specific reasons.