Theme 18. UNR Directory (textbook)

Theme 18. UNR Directory

  1. Formation Directory. Restoration of the UPR in armed conflict with Soviet Russia.
  2. Labour Congress. Otamanschina.
  3. The military defeat of the UPR.
  4. Fight against Denikin army. Association of Ukrainian army.
  5. The psychological climate in society
  • Basic terms and concepts of the theme

Directory Labor Congress of Ukraine, Otamanschina, the Ukrainian Galician Army

  • Key dates

November 1918, 14 December 1918, January 1919, February 5, 1919, May 1919, July 1919

  1. What military events unfolded in Bolshevik Russia in late 1918 to early 1919?
  2. Who are the White Guards?
  3. How and with whom were formed by A. Denikin troops?
  4. Why was another change of government in Ukraine?


1. Formation Directory. Restoration of the UPR in armed conflict with Soviet Russia

  1. What social forces have embraced the Directory, and why?
  2. What was the social policy of the Directory?
  3. As the population responding to such a policy?


The revolution in Germany and the collapse of Austria-Hungary have dramatically changed political situation in Ukraine. Allied troops began to leave her territory. P. Skoropadskyi, left without their support, made attempt to communicate with the political opposition, which represented the ONS. However, these attempts were unsuccessful, as attempts to find support of the Entente. On the night of 14 November in Kiev at the meeting was ONS Directory created, composed of V. Vynnychenko S. Petliura F. Shvets, A. Makarenko, A. Andrievsky. It was aimed at organizing armed struggle against the Hetman regime. The next day the Directory called for an uprising against the Hetman and promised to restore democracy  conquest of the UPR.

Directory of the Declaration of Sophia Square. 1918

Ukrainian State. The establishment of the Directory and to restore the UPR (May-November 1918)

Most active directory support enabled the peasantry. Later on it side began to move troops and hetman, also mainly formed with the villagers. November 18 armed groups directory entered into battle with the forces under Getmanov village near Motovilovka Kyiv. The battle lasted all day and the evening troops Skoropadsky retreated. Armed troops sealed off the capital directory. Situation Hetman was hopeless and 14 December P. Skoropadskyi denied power and left Ukraine together with German troops.

The next day, solemnly entered the Directory of Kyiv declared restore the UPR and appointed government headed by Mr. Chekhov. It was  resolution on the dismissal of all officials appointed during the Hetman. Political leaders, given the popularity among the dilapidated Ukrainian population Bolshevik ideas, planned to set up Ukraine national variant of Soviet power. To this end, the Government unveiled a series of proclamations against the landlords and bourgeoisie.

Let us turn to sources

From the Declaration of UPR Directory

Heroic impulse Ukrainian armed working people swept from  Ukrainian earth shattering landlords-monarchist rule - Hetmanate.
The complete solution of the land reform of the Ukrainian People Republic announced: all the small farms and all labor facilities remain in use prior to their respected owners inviolable, and the rest goes to land use and landless malozemelnyh farmers, especially those who went to the army of the Republic to fight the former hetman. This regulation also applies to monastery, church and state lands.
... Restored the eight-day? right coalitions and strikes, as well as the whole fullness of factory workers' rights committee?
The directory is a temporary supremacy revolutionary time ... Power in Ukrainian People's Republic shall belong only to the working classes -  working class and peasantry, the class that won power with his blood ...
So-called "ruling classes", classes of land, industrial bourgeoisie, by seven months? its supremacy in the Ukraine proved its full failure and extremely harmful for all people and management State ... From the revolutionary government, people put that in  anger and sorrow set against the oppressors, it would be against atrocities all the land after all this allow these classes to participate in the management  country?
Singapore is committed to take under control the main UNR branches of Ukrainian industry and mining for direct working classes and the entire citizenship, not a small group class velykovlasnykiv ...
In international relations, Singapore is on the basis of full neutrality and desire peaceful coexistence of peoples of all countries?
... Classes netrudovym be reasonably and honestly acknowledge the harm and injustice of their former dominance in all times and accept the that the right solved with the fate of most of the people should belong to the same majority, ie classes of employment.

Identify the main directions of domestic and foreign policy Directory. Whose interests reflect? Do you think if you can make such an action plan in late 1918? Why?

Singapore declared its withdrawal of land from landowners without compensation. Apart She announced their intention to eliminate netrudovi Economy in the village. But these measures are regarded as the rural poor is not enough revolutionary, as the authorities left in the hands of wealthy farmers plot area 15 des. land. Left untouched and industrial land companies that belonged to the landlords-sugar manufacture. This policy Directory was caused by desire to save at least partially, in devastation, commodity economy.

After all, the rural poor felt like directory holds policy in favor of landlords and the bourgeoisie, and they in turn argued that the new government reflects the interests only of rural poor.

Members Directory. Kamjanetsky, 1919

Singapore made declarative statements about his dedication workers, its leaders were seized demagogy concerning care "Working people", zarahovuyuchy to "untrustworthy capitalist elements" lawyers, doctors, teachers and others. Such actions do not contribute to stabilization Ukrainian society, but instead only intensified tensions. Very quickly turned out that the new government began to turn away the vast most professionals, industrialists, bureaucrats. In the state rose chaos and anarchy.

Among the members of the Directory was no unity not only in matters domestic but also foreign policy. Yes, Mr. Vinnichenko trying to find  paths to understanding with Soviet Russia and, Petliura focusing on Entente. Thus, the policies of the Directory had contradictory discursive character, which strengthened the destabilization of the Ukrainian society.

Meet near

Simon V. Petliura (1879-1926) - prominent Ukrainian socio-political and statesman and publicist. Born in Poltava  bourgeois family of Cossack origin. Studied at the seminary, but was excluded by demonstration of revolutionary sentiment. Member since 1900 Revolutionary Ukrainian party. He took an active part in revolutionary movement. During World War I worked in the organization of care Front. He was one of the leading figures of the Ukrainian national-democratic revolution. In March 1917 he was elected to the  Central Council, later became Secretary-General for Military Affairs.

During Hetmanat headed Ukrainian Union zemstva. Actively  part in creating opposition Hetman P. Skoropadsky and was arrested. During the uprising against the Hetman regime in November 1918 released from prison and elected to the directory. Subsequently Army was the main leader of a UPR. As a result of political crisis Directory was elected its chairman. He took an active part in the struggle for revival of Ukrainian statehood.

After losing the struggle for liberation has left Ukraine and became a political immigrant. Settling in Paris, organized the weekly "Trident"  conducted an active correspondence with many Ukrainian leaders. In 1926, perished as a result of assassination. Buried in Paris Cemetery Montparnasse.

  1. What role, Petliura played in national liberation movement?
  2. Bring your opinion with facts of his biography.


2. Labour Congress. Otamanschina

  1. Why was convened by the Labor Congress of Ukraine?
  2. What was his solution? What is Otamanschina?
  3. Why is this phenomenon was inherent in Ukraine?


After the overthrow of the Hetman government directory, to resolve problems of power and forms of government, Initiated by the Labor Congress of Ukraine. He started his work January 23, 1919 in Kiev at the Opera House. To participate  arrived in the Congress 400 delegates, 36 of them were messengers western region. Labor Congress was held under pressure circumstances that influenced the agenda of his work and character discussions: in Kyiv the Bolsheviks approached. Consequently, the main issue was the definition of orientation and choice of ally in the Entente or the Bolsheviks.

During the Congress, discussing the prospects of building Ukrainian state, the deputies voted against setting up Ukraine Soviet rule. They recognized Labour Congress Ukraine supreme legislative body. Higher executive had for the Council of Ministers. Local authorities have been instructed make government commissioner, acting under the control of local labor councils elect representatives in proportion to the peasantry and working class. In addition, Congress approved the note of protest against Russian Bolshevik offensive in Ukraine. However, given aggravation of the military-political situation, Congress gave full Directory government, to chair the state congress instructed to perform V. after.

Thus, getting Congress to mandate the "power and defense land, Singapore won the right to a legal, are not limited state activity, that is dictatorial vladuvannya. However, she failed build a strong state.

Leaders Directory, unfold against Hetmanat, based themselves element of a revolutionary peasantry. However, later it was out from under  their control. The real power on the ground belonged to the mythical "Labor councils, as planned Labour Congress, and elected local commander and subordinate armed groups. Such groups were  established in almost every village as the armed forces of the Directory. However, these groups, mainly cared own interests and would not submit to state authority.

Meet near

Daniel Ilkovich TerpyloKnown as the chieftain Green  Born into a peasant family in s.Trypilli in Kiev. Graduated dvoklasne College. Teacher. During the revolution of 1905-1907 was member of the group of socialist revolutionaries, and later headed it. I arrested and exiled. In 1914-1917 he was - was in a field duty on Western Front. In 1918 he returned to Ukraine. Between UCR - active propagandist and organizer of the independent Ukrainian army. By Hetmanat times becomes the leader of peasant uprising in Trypillya and Kaniv counties Kiev lips. In November 1918 he headed formed  in Trypillya Dnieper division (2,5 thousand) and supported antyhetmanske revolt led by the Directorate of the UPR. Together with troops Petliura and riflemen in December 1918 masters Kyiv. With  gift organizer and good talent speaker actually chieftain Green became the head of Prydniprovska republic "were in control of Kyiv, Skvyrskyi, Tarashchansky, Vasilkovsky and other counties and later part of Poltava. Conflict with Petliura led to what Ataman in January 1919 moving to the side of the Bolsheviks under preserving independence parts that were under his command. Helped the Bolsheviks seize Kyiv. After the last reform demands its division by the Soviet model parts returned to the area and Tripoli  declared themselves "independent Bolshevik." In early April 1919 supporting the discontent of the peasantry of Bolshevik policy, started fights  with regular Red Army units. His rebel forces in this time numbered 12 thousand people. had six guns and 35 machine guns. First it it has been put forward the slogan: "For without the Communists." He announced his Army of the independent Soviet Ukraine. Planned to take in siege Kyiv. But to join forces with Ataman Grigoriev refused. Against rebels had thrown a regular part number in Red 21 thousand people. In the fierce battle 11 - May 15, 1919 units of "father" were defeated and retreated to the left bank of the Dnieper. Finally troops commander were killed in August 1919 in one of the battles near Cannes father-commander was mortally wounded. Buried in Trypillya.

  1. On the example of Green's biography chieftain explain what Otamanschina.
  2. What policy conducted atamans? How it affected the life of the population?


In an atmosphere of mounting anarchy large scale mass acquired pogroms directed primarily against the Jewish population. They brought about due to many social and psychological factors. This yudofobski traditions that have remained since the days of tsarist and a significant percentage  Jews among Bolshevik leaders that the heated anti-Jewish mood. Not role in the pogroms played uncontrolled Otamanschina.

S. Petliura attempt to influence the pogrom, he ordered shot atamans for several murders committed by them. Directory leaders understand that stop this process is possible only through brutal violence. They even enlisted the support of Labor Congress of Ukraine, securing  the right to dictatorial powers. But to use this law had not dared. As stated Foreign Minister UNR Arnold Margolin, Singapore "revealed its inability to stop terrible violence and killings that happen in Proskury Ananiev and  other cities.

3. Military UPR

  1. What steps have made the Bolsheviks after the abolition of the Brest peace?
  2. As the government responded to this directory?
  3. What you see reasons for its military defeat?
  4. What contributed to the military victory of the Bolsheviks?


Freed from the conditions of the Brest peace treaty, the Bolsheviks started preparations for the seizure of power in Ukraine. They are created with idle on the fronts of the Ukrainian Soviet military forces army that in December 1918 launched an offensive in Kharkiv and Kyiv. In January 1919  Soviet troops captured Kharkov.

Let us turn to sources

Telegram Lenin and Stalin holovkomovi V. Vatsetisu (29 November 1918)

In advance of our troops to the west and Ukraine to create temporary Soviet regional governments to strengthen the local council. This  circumstance has the good side, depriving able chauvinists Ukraine,  Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia regarded as part of our movement and occupation creates a favorable atmosphere for the further advancement of our troops. Without present circumstances our troops would be placed in the occupied regions in impossible situation, and people have not met them as liberators. From Therefore, please give appropriate military command elements Parts indication of what our troops to provide full support for temporary Soviet governments in Latvia, Estonia, Ukraine and Lithuania, but, of course, only the Soviet government.

To document addressed? Without any circumstances Soviets "Would be put in the occupied regions in the impossible situation? What power in Ukraine, Lithuania, Latvia, Estland and encourages telegram? Why?

Government Directory appealed to Moscow asking why Russian army invaded without declaring war in Ukraine. Bolshevik User response that Russian troops in Ukraine is not, and hostilities  place between the troops and the Directorate of the Soviet government in Ukraine.

Complexity of the situation was associated not only with massive attack Red Army troops as the collapse of the directory. January 12 Bolsheviks seized Chernigov and approached Brovarov, where the  40000th Petlyura army. UNR troops have fourfold advantage  in manpower, but despite this, after a three-day fighting retreat. In  January 1918 Dnieper division, which was located near Kyiv, together with the peasants surrounding villages has set the requirement Directory transfer power to the Soviets and nationalize large companies. , Petliura sent his army against the rebels. But Petlura were broken, and some of them moved to the side of the Bolsheviks. In late January zbilshovyzuvalysya Zadniprovskyi parts division, which were South of Ukraine. They went out of control and began fighting Directory on the side of the Red Army against the Whites and the Entente troops. On Soviet troops began to support N. Makhno, who initially formed an alliance with Petliura and received from him the weapon, and then went to the Communists. Army UPR melting before our eyes. In mid-December 1918 it accounted for 100 thousand people., And in late January 1919 (ie six weeks) of it left only 21 thousand soldiers.

Government directory, trying to find a way out of difficult situations sent to Moscow to negotiate a diplomatic mission to Moscow. It resigned to the proclamation of Soviet economic and conclusion  agreement between the UPR and RSFRR. Instead, Soviet Russia proposed stop the offensive of its troops in Ukraine and to recognize the independence of the UPR. But mission ended in failure, as Moscow, given the fall authority of the Directorate, it is not perceived as an equal partner. Then, Singapore January 16, 1919 officially declared itself in a state War with Soviet Russia. The Bolsheviks responded to this attack on Poltava Ekaterinoslav, Donbass. February 5, 1919 Soviet troops came to Kyiv, and early March drew near to the winery where there was a directory.

Bolshevik army is in Kyiv. February 5, 1919

March 15, Petliura, reordering his troops suddenly Bolsheviks went on the offensive in the Korosten-Berdichev to reflect Kyiv. Part of the Soviet retreat began, and came Petlura  to the capital for 50 km. However, further develop their success could not. The Bolsheviks transferred in from other parts of Kyiv land and moved to the front Petliurites. In April, Soviet troops captured Zhitomir, Kamenets Podolsky, Gusyatin, Novograd Volyn and others. city.

Successfully acted against the Bolsheviks and the Directorate for the southern sector Front. Petlura men here were almost completely broken, but remnants of their forces departed by Rumanian border. For a short time almost the entire territory Right-bank Ukraine was under Bolshevik rule.

In May 1919, Petliura reformed his army. He vykorenyv partyzanschynu and strengthened discipline. This enabled the Directorate to stabilize the front line Starokostyantiniv - Proskuriv - Kamenets Podolsky. But the catch lost the initiative in fighting Bolsheviks failed. UNR Army experienced serious problems with material supplies and armaments.

4. Fight against Denikin army. Association of Ukrainian army

  1. For what purpose blew Entente troops in the south of Ukraine?
  2. What were the requirements of the Directory in negotiations with the Entente?
  3. What they ended?
  4. In what circumstances and for what purpose was made to unite the Ukrainian armies?
  5. Have implemented the army leadership that goal in concrete action?


Second Ukrainian-Soviet War. Installation of the Bolshevik regime in Ukraine (December 1918 - June 1919)

In southern Ukraine the situation is complicated by the fact that the end of 1918  And Odessa Entente blew his landing, a total of  almost 60 thousand people. to support the White Guard of A. Denikin troops.

Singapore tried to seize the initiative in the fight for South Ukraine. December 12, 1918 Directory of troops came to Odessa. The appearance of  in the city, crowded Whites and Entente troops, more exacerbated tensions, which began to develop in local conflicts. Commander of Allied Powers asked the Directorate to withdraw their troops from Odessa. Singapore agreed on condition that between the UPR and the Entente begin negotiations on normalization of relations.

During the negotiations got tough Entente, agreeing Directory admit only on condition of submission of A. Denikin (which defend the one and indivisible Russia, within which there can be independent Ukraine) and the withdrawal of its members left. V. Vynnychenko In Chekhivsky et al. out of the directory, and as Chairman undertook S. Petlura. However, this does not change. Entente tried just Ukraine used to help the White Guards in the fight against Bolsheviks.

Spring 1919 Volunteer Army led by General A. Denikin began to capture Ukrainian territory. The rapid advancement Denikinites is possible because the Soviet leadership, trying to support socialist revolution in Hungary, which began in March 1919 sent troops there. But after the Bolsheviks were forced to abandon their plans, because in May in their home front began large-scale  rebellion M. Ataman Grigoriev.

In early May 1919 Denikinites captured Kiev and later entire Donbass. In June, expanding its offensive, White Guards captured Kharkov Katerynoslav. Encouraged by the success of A. Denikin gave order to prepare the attack on Moscow, which the organic component of the strategy considered complete capture of Ukraine.

In late July White Guard have established their control over the Crimea and  almost all over the Left Bank, in addition to Chernigov. Offensive White Guard troops in Ukraine rozhortavsya in two directions: northern - in Kyiv, and south - to New York. Late summer Denikinites occupied almost all of Ukraine.

In July 1919 the Ukrainian Galician Army (UHA) - military association created in Western Ukraine and replaced with Poles own territory, passed Zbruch and combined with the army under the UPR the direction of Chief Ataman Petliura. The signed agreement between them noted that the union intended to common struggle for independence Ukraine. The total number of united army was 80 thousand soldiers from  They were about 50 thousand Galicia. Later it turned out that both parties have serious differences regarding plans for the joint fight. Thus, the western Ukrainian, led by commander Gen. Abaya Tarnavsky thought it appropriate to begin the liberation of Ukraine from going  to New York. In their view, the exit to the Black Sea coast would open opportunities to establish ties with the Entente, and enlisting its support then move to Kyiv, to free him from the Bolsheviks. Leadership UPR led by Petliura insisted on an immediate offensive in every way  Kyiv, as it had strategic importance in the struggle for Ukraine. In addition, Petliura distrustful attitude to cooperation with the Entente through that it supported the Whites.

Eventually the two sides reached a compromise: to advance simultaneously on Odessa and Kyiv. It was the worst that could be done in that situation,  for the powers of the Ukrainian army dissipated. Was unsuccessful and regrouping of Allied forces in Ukraine. , Petliura instructed Galicians to Kyiv, and UNR troops to go to New York. That is, each party  had to act according to plan their opponents.

The attack by the Whites in Ukraine. Allied counter-offensive of the Ukrainian army and their defeat (July - October by 119)

Joint Ukrainian troops march began at the end of July 1919  At first he rozhortavsya successfully. In August of the Bolshevik army was released Vinnitsa, Zhitomir, Berdichev, Popelnyu. The Soviet Army could actively operate in Ukraine, as both held the front against Denikinites. August 30 Bolsheviks left the capital Kyiv and to take part of UGA. But the next day in the city vderlasya cavalry Whites and captured a significant part.

Command attempted to communicate with UGA Denikin army, with a view  with them to create a common front against the Bolsheviks. Finally, Galicia signed an agreement under which Ukrainian troops left the capital and left on-line Ihnativka Vasilkov. Loss Kyiv adversely affected moral and material condition of the armed forces of the UPR.

More successfully in the early events unfolded in the Odessa area, where UNR troops were commanded by O. Udovychenko. In late August they  Bolsheviks defeated the parts and successfully advanced to New York. But subsequently, their progress began to fade due to lack of weapons and military equipment.

And proceeded to New York Denikinites. For Petliura became apparent that avoid military action against the Whites can not. However, the fight simultaneously with the Bolsheviks and to Denikin army exhausted and ill secured UNR army was extremely dangerous. Therefore, Petliura in September 1919 concluded a treaty with N. Makhno on joint fight against the army A. Denikin.

Made it was timely, since A. Denikin commanded the month friendly forces to seize territory controlled by the UPR army and destroy its troops. When Denikinites began to execute the order, Makhno's men carried out a lightning raid on tylah Whites and disrupted their offensive against the Ukrainian army.

5. The psychological climate in society, devaluation of human life

  1. Which depended on the psychological climate in Ukrainian society?
  2. What mood prevailed in the majority?
  3. What can be wrong?


The psychological climate in society and the mood of the population largely  depended on the military-political situation in the Ukrainian lands, which changed rapidly during November 1918 - September 1919 in the desert, hamlets and villages was a war across space, with no specified line Front. Some villages obedient white part supported N. Makhno, part - S. Petliura - or create their own guerrilla force. War wore a spontaneous, uncontrollable nature.

As recalled in his memoirs, A. Denikin: "Ukrainian chaos best  characterized by calamitous situation Ekaterinoslav of which military  communicating in the middle of November, 1918 reported: "The city is divided into  five boroughs. At the top of entrenched Voluntary wife, in District City Council - Jewish self-defense; further - ring cover Germans, volunteers, self-defense and the Germans surrounded Petlura and Finally, the whole city is surrounded by the Bolsheviks and Makhno. "

Frequent changes of government initiating living in Ukraine. If November-December 1918, Petliura Hetman changed, then the Bolsheviks S. Petliura has given way, the villagers hardly rozdyvyvshys "face" of the new government,  began to rebel all over Ukraine - is against the Bolsheviks.

Caricature. For freedom and peace in Ukraine. 1919

  1. What is the main idea of
  2. What forces brought to Ukraine "peace and freedom"?
  3. Are they brought "peace and freedom"?
  4. A reason.
  5. In which position opynalasya population of Ukraine?


During this period, in some places 18-20 varied modes of power, and sometimes  more times, finally demoralized by poor peasants, blowing up his confidence in any government. Simultaneously the position of wealthy peasants preserved, it still remains strong, almost independent of  weekly changes in the political situation. Subsequently, as noted by historian V. Ermakov, "it led to that 3 / 4 of the rebels and the various gangs was poor, which was on hold kulaks, which isolated them  Bread delivery.

Let us turn to sources

From the records of the Voluntary Army lieutenant S. Mammoth

During the civil war spoiled everything - and white and red, and Makhno's men, and even, on occasion, just people (estates). Once in Yuzivtsi,  many times that pass from one to the other, I talked with peasant.
- Who do you actually stand?
- Anything for anyone. Rob white, red and Makhno's men rob rob. How do you want us to have sympathy for anyone? M
He just forgot to add that they are robbing themselves. Alongside was ransacked property.

From the memoirs of A. Denikin

We enter the village, allegedly became extinct. Corpses lying in the streets. Terrible silence. And long will it violates voicelessness dry crack of shots guns: "liquidate" the Bolsheviks ... Many of them ... Who are they? Why would they, deathly tired of 4-year war, go back into battle and to death?

On that question in the documents? What unites them? Where situation appeared Ukraine's population? What was his attitude to any power? Are the White Guards who were executed by Bolsheviks?  Do you think why the peasants, "dead-beat 4-year War, go back into battle and to death? "

So, in a society dominated by frustration in local democracy contempt for law, human rights, to any government. Dominated atmosphere of fear, violence and despair. Znetsinyuvalosya human life.

  1. When and under what circumstances was established UPR Directory?
  2. Why was restored UPR?
  3. What were the main lines of policy of the Directory?
  4. What Otamanschina?
  5. When and how the Bolsheviks launched an aggression against Ukraine?
  6. When the Allies landed troops in southern Ukraine and where?
  7. What are the reasons for the defeat of the Directory?
  8. In what circumstances and for what purpose was made to unite the Ukrainian armies?
  9. As Allied armies march rozhortavsya? Why did he fail?
  10. Define the objective and subjective reasons for the fall of Skoropadsky? Will be under the circumstances to retain power? Why? Explain.
  11. As you know one of the last decisions of hetman was in agreement alliance with non-Bolshevik Russia. It still causes different evaluation historians. Some believe that it was a tactical move aimed at consolidation of the anti-Bolshevik forces in the Don and Kuban. Other - what is Hetman was open to counter-revolutionary transition camp and betrayal ideas  independence. What you think? Why?
  12. Analyze Directory stay in power under the plan:  why he came to power, social support, basic directions domestic and foreign policy, actual policy measures and steps reasons for the defeat.
  13. Why is Singapore so quickly seized power, was unable to keep it? Which of you would have corrected errors, how?
  14. Compare the UCR, the hetman and Directory by table following criteria: name, the authorities, finding the term in power; Social support; main directions of domestic and foreign policy;  The actual policies and measures. Make necessary in your view, conclusions from the analysis.
  15. Why Denikin could so quickly capture the Ukraine?
  16. What was the mood of the population of Ukraine in conditions of constant change of government?