Theme 12. Strengthening of the economic and political crisis in the Russian and Austro-Hungarian Empire
Public crisis, social tensions
May 5, 1915, 25 October 1916, October 27, 1916
1. Nazrivannya social crisis in the Russian Empire and Austria-Hungary
The war worsened the economic situation in Russia and Austria-Hungary. And it affected the Ukrainian lands. From the earliest days of the war most serious problem for the Dnieper area was lack of fuel. Russia lost to the Germans occupied Poland, Dombrowski minefield that gave 20% of the all coal mining. Donbass remained the only major source of supply of military industry and railways fuel. These were brought tens of thousands of Chinese workers laborer from the Central Asian regions of the empire, 75 thousand POW soldier Austro-Hungarian army. New workers were inefficient, and forced labor of prisoners of war was ineffective. The measures taken have allowed little to increase coal production relative to prewar levels. However Donbass could not meet demand Empire in the fuel.
No better was the situation with the production of iron ore. In its Kryvorizhia production in 1916 declined by 27% compared with 1913 Coal Shortage and iron ore has led to a reduction in metallurgy and metal shortages threatened to undermine the weapons production. In the Russian Ukraine in two During the war closed 532 businesses. Those who survived, worked in mainly on the war, but their equipment is barely updated.
In 1917 it came true because of the collapse at engineering plants. Lack of fuel and metal (rails production in 1916 declined by third compared with the pre-war time) led to disruption to transport. In end of 1915 due to lack of fuel and transport disruption due to the rapid retreat of the Russian army on the railroad backlog 150 thousand cars from unsent goods.
The war has complicated the situation in agriculture. During the war years in Dnieper left the village only 38,7% of able-bodied men the rest were at the front. A requisition of horses for the Army almost half farms had no traction force. As a result, the 1917 planting area in Ukraine decreased in comparison with pre-war time by 21,3% and yield of 8%. Rapidly growing shortage of food.
Heightened social tension. Trying to defend their interests, workers resorted to strikes. Between 1914 and 1917 took place in Ukraine 400 strikes, which was attended by almost 300 thousand people. Not remained aloof and peasants. From August 1914 to end 1916 in Ukrainian lands happened about 200 peasants were speeches that act despair and testified about the inability to continue to tolerate the burden of war and landowner arbitrariness. Government responsible for such activities repression arresting strikers and sending them to the front. Discontent Government covered the general public and transmitted to the army. Soldiers began refuse to fight, seemed to deliberately capture, resorted to desertion, bratalysya the enemy.
The most acute form of protest were soldiers rise. Yes, 25 October 1916 was made six thousand soldiers covered antiwar sentiment at the recruiting office in Kremenchuk. The government tried to control the situation not only violent methods, but also through the influence of NGOs, which emerged from its authorization: the company, military and industry committees and committees help victims of war. Yes, thanks to the activities of the Provincial and Municipal governments have been created to assist the front - Union and Union zemstva cities. Committee of the All-Russian union of cities in South-Western Front came under the control of Ukrainian leaders who were able to direct the organization through this large amount of money from the state budget Galicia residents who find themselves in Dnieper.
Summer of 1915, there were the Society to the population of South Russia, affected by the hostilities "based Ukrainian intelligentsia lands. It was intended to help the sick and wounded soldiers and refugees. In addition, during the war on the ground have created public committees which assisted health service helped create shelters for orphans were cultural and educational work. With committees in Lviv and Kiev actively collaborated Vyazlov A., D. Doroshenko, A. Nicovsciy, F. and Matushevskiy other known members of the Ukrainian intelligentsia. Community partnerships and committees of the victims ended operations in 1917 However, all attempts of liberal government and the public to overcome socio-economic and political crisis failed.
Let us turn to sources
American historian A. Rabinowitz of the economic and political crisis in the Russian Empire
Three years to the edge of World War exacerbated the situation in the country. Necessity, the loss on the front, a national crisis, which deepened desire to finish the war increased the mass by the people against the royal government. Revolutionary wave is impossible to stop within the existing system. Abdication of Nicholas II was unavoidableWhat is it about the document? Why in the opinion of the historian "revolutionary wave is impossible to stop within the existing system?
Complicated was the situation in Western Ukraine, which became the scene fierce battles. During the war years in Galicia was destroyed over 40% commercial and residential buildings more than 1,5 thousands of industrial facilities. The civilian population was used for defensive works. Agriculture Industry continually suffered from lack of seeds and traction force. Only in Bukovina with the war horse herd decreased by 60%.
Burden laid on the shoulders of people requisitioning products food, clothing, horses and other property held constantly Russian and Austro-Hungarian administration starving population. Thus, November 1914 Drogobyts'ka city council appealed to the Russian Governor General of Galicia to assist 27 thousand starving. In 1915, the famine embraced Transcarpathia. Particularly severe was the winter 1916 in Uzhgorod, where there was no bread. Cities were overcrowded refugees. Following the devastation of famine and epidemic came to literally vykoshuvaly people.
Along with physical and material losses caused war exacerbation of destructive processes in the economic and political life population bore the general social crisis. Western Ukrainian population, as well as population Dnieper managed to antiwar protest (to avoid mobilization of the Austrian army desertion, surrender in captivity). October 27, 1916 Ukrainian held a public anti-war demonstration in Ukraine under the slogan "Down War, "" Turn our fathers and men "and others.
2. Trends in the national movement in the 1915-1916 biennium
The First World War has protracted and aspirations of leaders national movement to solve the Ukrainian issue has become increasingly more hopeless. Support eastern and western Ukrainian "their governments "in the war did not produce the expected results. Hopes revive Ukrainian statehood in this way proved futile. Considering situation, leaders of national movement in Western Ukraine have decided to change tactics and reorganize the main board was created in Ukrainian Lviv at the beginning of the war to an organization to represent the interests of Ukrainian people. It was established May 5, 1915 called "General Ukrainian Council (ZUR). The headquarters of the organization was located in Vienna. She became president K. Levitsky. Ukrainian political leaders, based on ZUR tried to draw attention of Ukrainian and European public to the idea of
However, a similar issue and tried to solve the Poles. They also wanted to revive their national state, in full respect of this western lands. Germany and Austria-Hungary's war with depleted Russia decided to stay away from her newly established Polish state.
In November 1916 the Austro-German bloc agreed to the formation Kingdom of Poland, to which access was Galicia. Among Ukrainian leaders of the General Council took precedence emotions and November 6, 1916 ZUR was in protest as rozpustylasya. Tried to rescue the situation Ukrainian parliamentary representation, led by J. Romanchuk, which existed on the rights of Ukrainian political club in Vienna Parliament. But his speeches and attempts at parliamentary activity protection of the Ukrainian national movement did not bring fundamental changes.
In the Dnieper, few expected that the Austro-German troops bring Ukraine national liberation. Did not produce results and Ukrainian intelligentsia support the Russian government in the war. However, failure of the Russian army gradually changed psychological climate in society. Provoked a wave of anti-government criticism in defeat and allowed Ukrainian raise their voice. In August 1915 the Minister of Education Ignatiev took the Ukrainian delegation in State Duma deputy part of Professor E. Ivanov, teacher and Public activist and journalist Rusova S. F. Matushevskiy. Members delegation submitted an application for the needs of education in Ukraine and necessity to introduce Ukrainian language in schools.
In February 1916, a group of public figures sent to Poltava the deputies and M. P. Miliukov Chheidze document which asked the following Requirements: 1) the Ukrainian people in Russia must be equal in rights with Russian, 2) permit the teaching of Ukrainian in the folk schools, and 3) freedom of the Ukrainian press and publishing, and 4) free activity Ukrainian cultural - educational partnerships; 5) legislative confirmation State guarantees for national cultural development of Ukrainian people.
During this period the members of the State Duma Oleg Kerensky and M. Chheidze received from students and working youth largest cities in Ukraine petition to the claim of autonomy of Ukraine on the same law, which promised Poland full freedom of speech, press, opening a rift "return of exile all Ukrainian political prisoners and amnesty.
Authorities did not allow thoughts of possibility and deployment Ukrainian national movement. Gradually the need for change became clear policy for its leaders.
In 1915 came the Katerynoslav committee had to prepare creating a new organization "Ukrainian independent union, to which was the proclamation of an independent Ukrainian republic. But the police Committee exposed and arrested the organizers of this event.
In 1916 inter-socio-political organization, the Society Ukrainian Progressives "made a demand to the Russian authorities to Ukraine autonomy to providing cultural, national and political rights of the Ukrainian people.
Let us turn to sources
With Cards - Declaration TUP "Our position"
"We, the Ukrainian Progressives, are on the basis of the autonomous system states with which we are united historical destiny; state, we understand how free union of equal and equal nations?, we fight and borotymosya for a democratic Ukraine's autonomy guaranteed by the same federation of equal peoples, with full support cultural and national valuesWhat are the main goals TUP? As they see their own ends?
TUP established relations with the Duma factions that supported Ukrainian harassment, but then it went off. The situation in the guise of Ukraine at that time showed a popular expression: "The Russian Democracy always ends where it begins the Ukrainian question. "
Active underground work conducted in the Ukrainian provinces Social Democrats and Social Revolutionaries. In November 1915 agreement was signed synergies between organizations Ekatherinoslav USDRP and RSDLP. Ukrainian eserivski organization advocated for the defeat of czarist Russia in war. They were in Kiev, Chernigov and Kharkov promotional work among students and distributed campaign materials SVU.
So, as the historian J. Hrytsak, "before 1917 Ukrainian movement had a political agenda, some political and military structure, and gained experience of campaigning and could expect support of the Ukrainian population and other non-Russian movements in Russia? ".
3. The life of people at the front and in rear
Zatyahuvalasya War. Front stood almost unchanged. Mobilized to Front soldiers who were ill, froze, died in battle and from wounds sustained during everyday trench war, lost faith in victory.
Let us turn to sources
Letter Ukrainian Andrei Rublev soldier from South-Western Front (The Russian Army, 29 May 1916)
"The ranks of our mingled with fire and earth, and when we shout cheers was coming to the enemy trenches, I just remember that bullets and shells whistled and cried around, and people falling. But how many soldiers were there: in place of killed and wounded more and more? And when did dobihly their wire fences, which were trenches, I cast one by one their four bombs in their trenches. Then, with bayonets?. Dear sister, who right disgusting war. When a man strikes the bayonet, it is in pillow and the heart is just boring .... As always the Austro-Germans fear of attack, quickly run away ... And with the right gun, and and and and Spotlight missiles and light up more often, so I saw her hands are in blood. I figured as long as I own bombs killed people, but perekolov bayonet, but that all? "Soldier writes about? What impression you this letter? What mood in the army in 1916 he illustrated?
In late 1916 - early 1917 the Russian army largely lost its fighting spirit. It is composed of the reserve - the elderly and very young boys, which also often commanded "warrant inventory, not staff officers and civilians, who have passed a few months training. Conscripts months of inventory sitting idle in barracks, waiting when they entered the front. They do not even have enough rifles to training military training.
In early March 1917, General A. Denikin as described condition and 14 th 15 th Division of the Russian Army in South-Western Front: "Horses died from lack of food, people froze without boots and warm clothes and thousands were sick, with unheated Romanian cars, unsuitable for sick and wounded, and dead bodies were pulled out as firewood, for station platforms. Soldiers throwing weapons bratalysya the enemy, escaping from the front. "
Returning home from the front - in their village, the soldiers have seen here and grave consequences of war.
Let us turn to sources
From the Diary of a soldier O. Zamriya
When I arrived home was full steam threshing bread when I entered the court I met my sister ... She was not married to all in war, their wives worked at their household. My sister cried bitterly that we lost our father and mother. Was difficult to meet under such circumstances and nothing to be done, but must finish thrashing. Our farm then planted 20 acres pahoty and peasant in the economy was not, and all But by that time many were captured Austrians and Hungarians, or rather Ukrainian, as we talked to them - zapadnyky.What is it about the document? As housing for the village? Why?
For sold bread, grown hard work of women and children could much less to buy industrial goods than before the war. For example, War can be 1,5 puda wheat pood buy iron, and in 1916 pood of iron was worth six pounds of wheat per pood of wheat before the war could buy 10 yardstick chintz, and in 1916 - only 2. In such circumstances farmers started cutting production.
Railways not cope with traffic. While the trains of harvest often stuck at railway stations and were plundered by local population and refugees from the front in the industrial centers lacked products. Started downtime in refineries, mills. Every year War growing food deficit. In the cities became a common phenomenon of thousands of queues for bread, which for many families become a major staple. In 1917 the price of clothing, soap, tobacco and others. consumer goods increased by 200% compared to war. However, real wages fell in three.
Growth of prices for food products in the Dnieper Ukraine
|in cents per pound|
Cost for daily food family of four in Russia
|2 kg of bread||16 kopecks.||60 kopecks.|
|750 gr. meat||28 coins.||1.5 rubles.|
|250 gr. fat||13 kopecks.||50 kopecks.|
|Tea and sugar||7 kopecks.||15 kopecks.|
|2 cups milk||6 cop.||28 coins.|
|Plant worker fee||50 rubles.||100 rubles.|
The tsarist government attempted to resolve the issue of emergency food measures. In December 1916 he was introduced mandatory distribution of bread. However, this caused the revitalization of the black market and tremendous growth speculation. West-Ukrainian lands were destroyed by continuous battles.
Let us turn to sources
Vasil Stefanik of fighting in the villages of Galicia
From the short story "Maria"
Moving Ukrainian territory troops belligerents inflicted huge losses. For example, a summer retreat from Galicia 1915 Russian Command led a large-scale destruction most important facilities, transport routes, stockpiles food. Chief military communications front general - major I. Pavskyy in their telegrams stated that "in all directions intendantski goods exported, destroyed the railroad, station facilities destroyed, trains and cars exported to the east.
Destruction of Western Ukrainian village. 1915
Civilians became victims of repression on the part of the Austro-Hungarian and Russian authorities.
Let us turn to sources
With memories of a prisoner, arrested by Austrian police on charges of spying for Russia
"? August 31, 1914 at 3:00 am, not even giving the tea, drove prisoners in the prison yard. It stayed until 9 am. Thereafter all brought about 1600 people on the street. Kazymyrivska and street. Gorodetsky to the main palace. Within a few kilometers ozvirilyy Lviv crowd "patriots" of Jews and Poles beat us, especially priests, sticks, pins, we threw stones and pus, spit in face. The windows were thrown out of the pots of flowers. One of those arrested this pot prolomyv skull, and he died right there on the street. Before we Station waited for 2 hours. Turns out, the police deliberately kept us about five hours on the street to give the crowd an opportunity to "show sense of "us" traitors. "What thoughts and feelings is a document? Why are people so regarded for prisoners?
Often, the repression against the civilian population acquired character massacre on national soil. Tortured were more Hungarian military units. Thus, Przemysl Hungarian soldiers slew the street arrested in 1940 Ukrainian intellectuals and peasants. Total prisons in our region to got to 800.
Let us turn to sources
J. Hasek mockery of the Ukrainian population
"? On the platform stood a group arrested Ruthenians, surrounded by Hungarian gendarmes. There were several priests, teachers, peasants? Hand them skrutyly rope and tied pairs? Farther played Hungarian gendarmes. He priest tied to the left hand and forced cord injury dance czardas, threatening example, and so sharpav that pip zaryvavsya nose in the ground. He could not to gain, for he was tied behind their backs hand, and made desperate attempts to somehow get out of the earth? Gendarme laughed? When the priest finally rose, he sharpav by rope, and poor nose again plowing the ground? "What thoughts and feelings is a document? Why against the Ukrainian was revealed the cruelty?
The victims of the Russian colonial policy was not only Ukrainian, and Polish and Jewish population. They, like the Ukrainians, treated representatives of the Russian military administration in the person of General M. Yanushkevich, potential Austrian or German spies.
Along with the Ukrainian closed Jewish and Polish public organization. September 27, 1914 in the Jewish quarter of the city was Hundred organized pogrom against the Jews.
Thus the war created a deep economic and political crisis in the Ukrainian provinces of the Russian Empire. Were devastated and western lands. Military turmoil, economic hardship and massive impoverishment of the people, led to the devaluation of human life, social tensions in society, and then to the new growth revolutionary and national liberation movement.
a) During the war theater of war was Galicia and Western districts of Volyn and Podolia provinces whose population was exposed terrible loss, destruction and confusion is caused by what?. and?. ?.:
b)? led to the devaluation of human life, social tensions in society, and then rise to a new and revolutionary national liberation movement.