Theme 11. MILITARY ACTION IN UKRAINE
Occupation regime, discriminatory policies
August - September 1914, 25-28 September 1914, May-June 1915, June-September 1916
1. Military actions in Ukraine in 1914
Since the war the territory of Ukraine has become an arena of violent battles between the Russian army and armies of Austro-German bloc. On Austrian front, the Russian army, which led the fighting in Ukrainian lands had great success at first. So, one of the most successful battles that held the Russians in 1914, was fought in Galicia 5 (18) August - 8 (21) September), in which both sides participated in more than 1,5 million soldiers. First, success was on the side of the Austro-Hungarian Army, but the Russians Having received reinforcements, captured the Lions, then - Galich, was under siege Przemysl and went to the Carpathians.
Russians in Galicia. 1914
Ukraine in World War I (1914-1915 biennium)
Let us turn to sources
From the letter S. Sheptytsky brother metropolitan Sheptytsky A.
? Russians attack. We failed. District Lime rotten heavy fighting going on? "
From "Memories" by A. Brusylov
? Rich landlord estate of Prince Radziwiff small military footprint evil: vytoptani luxurious beds, jasmine and lilac bushes broken, porch with columns clogged, thick people?, vanity - are located 8 Staff of the Russian Army? Here's to the porch, nearly roztoptavshy people pidlitaye riding Cossack captain. Pochorniv himself from fatigue, but the face shines. He waved the envelope and shouts: "Letter of His High siyatelstvo! Aperture envelope I spoke even voice, preferring not to show their Joy: "Gentlemen! Our advanced parts entered the city "of the voice "Hurrah!" Shake the walls of the old ancestral estates? "How do the events of August and September the authors of the documents? Why and how you think, as regarded these developments, the population of the Ukrainian lands?
Galician battle ended in defeat for Austria-Hungary, which lost about 400 thousand soldiers. Russian troops took most of the Galicia and Bukovina. Exit to the Carpathians the Russians opened the way before them to Hungary.
Sechevyye archers in battle under Galic. 1914
During the fighting in 1914 Sich archers showed themselves well trained and reliable soldiers in the Austro-Hungarian military formations. Preliminary plans for the Austrian command - legionnaires used as consumables in order to gradually get rid of him in battle with the enemy - have changed: Sich started delegate important fronts. Thus, the Austrian command instructed Ukrainian Sich Riflemen Uzhotskoho pass defense, which they courageously defended from 25 to 28 September. It was the first baptism of fire Sich Cossacks, and they passed it with flying colors, not letting the enemy.
Attack path Legion of Ukrainian Sich Riflemen (1914-1917 biennium)
Retreating, the Austro-Hungarian authorities launched massive repression against the Ukrainian people, believing that the cause of the defeat was a betrayal Ukrainian, allegedly secretly helped the Russians. For example, local Transcarpathia notify authorities in Budapest: "The Ukrainian people seen sympathy for the Russians show up everywhere, on their coming of hope. " Thousands of people on charges of treason were sent to special camps in Austria. Especially distinguished cruel regime camp in Talerhof Shtiriyi, which is called the "Ukrainian Golgotha, where only died of typhoid more than 1 million people. All the repressions were executed almost 36 thousand Ukrainian.
In November 1914 the Austro-Hungarian and Russian troops after debilitating battles have moved to defense and year-end action not conducted.
2. Capture by Russian troops in Eastern Galicia and Northern Bukovina
In which position appeared Ukrainian population during the presence of Russian troops in Eastern Galicia and North Bukovina?
In the conquered territories of Russians was formed Governor-General, which was divided into four provinces: Lviv, Peremyshlskaya, Ternopil and Chernivtsi. The nature of Russian the regime is only partially associated with the conditions of wartime. The Russian government was convinced that the land will remain in the western the empire forever. Therefore, the military administration has resorted to discriminatory policy on education, the Ukrainian word, activity Ukrainian organizations, the regulation of property rights, implementation military duty, etc.. On the territory was seized by Russians assigned to the military administration headed by Governor General Earl G. Bobrinsky who sympathized with the Russian chauvinistic movement Black Hundreds. He said: "Eastern Galicia and Lemkivschyna - inseparable one of the great Russia, because their administration should be based on Russian instinct. .
Manage districts and cities were appointed Russian officials, and rural communities - the imperial army officers. In some cases administrative positions were appointed local Muscophiles.
The main task of the new administration was to fight ukrainfil (Mazepas). The new government has banned the Ukrainian press issue, began close Ukrainian schools and libraries, conducted massive searches and arrests. Over 12 thousand people (including many Greek Catholic cannot) was sent to Siberia. Metropolitan of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, A. Sheptytsky was arrested and taken to prison monastery in Suzdal. where he was kept until the 1917 Revolution Almost 200, the Uniate communities were transformed into parishes.
Let us turn to sources
Russia Union Commissioner D. Doroshenko cities about their experiences following the occupation regime in Galicia
"Now, when we come to accurate information about the complete massacre Ukrainian life in Galicia, where the Kiev station and prison filled Halychans taken, among whom were professors University venerable old priests, intellectuals all occupations, women children, farmers, mountain hutsuly when we saw that vyhopleno from home suddenly, without money, often - too much napivodyahnene, frightened to death, that vezut them to Tomsk, Irkutsk, Arkhangelsk, Astrakhan provinces without the means to know what part and the time from when we Kiev Ukrainian, properly understood, imagine what a "Osvobodytelnaya 'war and what part of preparing our people like it consequences? "As described by social activist from Dnieper actions of the Russian government? How does he treat them? What should be the consequences of such actions?
For private schools introduced Ukrainian Russian. Since local teachers did not know Russian language, in Lviv and other cities have opened special courses in Russian language for future teachers, textbooks were printed in Russian.
Planned to introduce restrictions in the field of higher education: Lviv Polish university to move to Warsaw, and in his place - Warsaw University of Russia. These ambitious plans were thwarted forced a quick retreat of the Russians in 1915.
But the departure of Russians also accompanied by mass deportations population of the region: forsook their homes and moved to the Russian Empire more than 100 thousand people.
The policy of Russification of the new administration supported the leaders of local Muscophiles: W. Manuscript, S. Bandasyuk, J. Jaworski. By so doing they have more aggravated situation in the province.
Let us turn to sources
Historian O. Subtelny occupation policy of Russian troops in Galicia
The attitude of Russians to the Ukrainian Galician, which is well-known Russian politician Paul Miliukov assessed in a speech in the Duma as "European scandal "was the government's continuing policy of the Ukrainian movement in Russian Empire. The outbreak of war was closed almost all Ukrainian organizations and newspapers Imperial Foreign Minister Sergei Sazonov with unconcealed satisfaction said: "Now is the opportune time to time and Get Rid of the Ukrainian movement.What policies and why P. Miliukov called "European scandal"? Or you agree with that assessment? O. Subtelny Why call such policies "Continuation of politics by the government to the Ukrainian movement in Russia Empire? Do you agree with him? Explain.
Was not the best situation in the Russian Ukraine. With the war and advertised on most of its territory martial king authorities have increased police repression against Ukraine. It was almost closed all Ukrainian organizations and newspapers. When in November 1914 renowned leader of the Ukrainian Hrushevsky with family returned to Kyiv, royal authorities arrested him for "anti-Russian activities "and sent to prison Lukianivska. In February, 1915 Hrushevsky stage sent to Siberia. Soon he was in Volga under police supervision.
3. Military actions in the Western lands in the 1915-1917 biennium
At the beginning of 1915 continued the positional battles for the Carpathians. Spring Russian troops have intensified and captured Przemy
From the final defeat of Austria-Hungary, Germany saved by giving her military support. With the advantage of people and technology, Austro-German forces has given way to the Russians and June 9, 1915 knocked them out City. Russian commanders, fearing their troops environment, ordered them to leave eastern Galicia and North Bukovina.
Let us turn to sources
Historian-N.Polonska Vasilenko status of the Russian army in 1915
"... Success of the Russian army in 1914 and early 1915 too costly it. During the first year of the war it lost 82% of officers - slain and wounded, and 64% of soldiers ... There were parts that do not left no staff officers, they replaced "spare warrant, who received short courses ... Tragic situation of increased shortage weapons - guns, guns and ammunition. "Substitute" is not enough for guns training, and they came to the front, taking first in the hands of a gun ... In such conditions was the Russian army, when April 18, 1915 began German-Austrian offensive troops on the Galician front - between Gorlitsa and Tarnava. German Army first used the so-called "hurricane fire "on the Russian front the Germans dragged heavy guns of 200, against which Russian army could put only 4. "As a historian describes the situation of the Russian army in the spring of 1915 do you think why Russia continued to fight?
Bright page of hostilities at that time were fighting for the strategic heights in the Carpathian Mountains - Mt Makivka (March-May 1915).
This height several times passed from hand to hand. The culminating moment of the battle was on May 1. On this day the Russians after a strong shelling took the mountain, but legionnaires went on to assault and repelled her. Advantage Dallas Sich not easy: 42 legionnaires were killed and 76 wounded. Later, one of the German generals said on shooters: My Bavarians fight like lions, and Ukrainian - as the devil. "
Battle for Mount Makeyevka (28 April - 2 May 1915)
After this command Austrian riflemen brought down from front to rest and gave permission at the legionary hovel a regiment. In addition further technical hundred was formed.
Let us turn to sources
A memoir participant Ukrainian legion battle for Mount Makivka
"Smoke from our Moscow and shrapnel girded mountain mist, finally wears out on the languagesWhat words would you convey your impressions of this description? What are the two sides competed and actually fought the Ukrainian people?
In July 1915 the whole of Galicia and Volhynia were captured German troops. Had significant losses at the end of 1915, Russia moved to positional defense. In winter 1915-1916 he was the Russian army enlarged reservists and began to prepare for revenge.
A. General Brusilov
In 1916 Galicia and Bukovina were again the scene of fierce battles. Russian army offensive began under the command of General A. Brusylov. As a result of a longstanding battle many areas of Galicia, especially The region, was completely destroyed, the population evacuated management and estate - lost.
At least bring disaster to the population of Galicia and the June attack Russian troops, who threw to the Austro-Hungarian front A. Kerensky in 1917 This gamble did not bring her victory initiators, by contrast, ended complete defeat of the Russian army and its retreat by the river Zbruch.
Ukraine in World War I (1916-1917 biennium)
May 28, 1916 the Russians attacked across the front line and captured Chernovtsy. During the summer they again went to the Carpathian passes vidvoyuvavshy most of Bukovina and Galicia. Austria-Hungary lost in these battles 1.5 million soldiers and officers over 580 guns, plenty of ammunition. New test for the Legion of Ukrainian Sich Riflemen at this stage War became the battle for Mount Lysonya in the region, in September 1916 Austrian command prypustylosya tactical error by trying stop the advance of Russian troops in small Zaporozhian by throwing them into battle in turn. As a result, Sich lost over two thirds of the personnel composition. The remains were taken to legionnaires overhaul.
In the battles for Galicia. 1916
In October-November 1916 legionnaires had already participated in the battles for the new Carpathians. But it had been the last race with the forces of imperial Russia, because it is already approaching the 1917 Revolution
Battle of the Ukrainian Sich Riflemen way not only covered with glory, and and abundantly watered with blood. Hard to find a place between the gold and lime Zbruch where it was not shooting the graves, which, along with the names fallen heroes, forgotten already been carved inscriptions, and sad at the same time proud: "fell for freedom of Ukraine. It was a real army of knights, because they known a single case to Sich killed civilians or prisoners. Among the legionnaires were gifted artists, writers cruise, love, humorous songs: "Oh the meadow viburnum", "Cossack rode on viynonku, Zazhurilis Galichanka "and others. His struggle shooting got a lot of celebration and praise, respect and sympathy aroused allies, led to a face that even enemies. Yes, Russia command, describing the USS in secret directive, emphasized This "qualifying troops who call themselves Ukrainian and dream about restoration of an independent Ukraine.
While your main goal vyborennya Ukrainian statehood, Ukrainian Sich Riflemen aware that the implementation needs thorough and focused training. Therefore, in the Legion acted series social, educational and artistic structures designed to acquaint shooters, shooting mostly recruits, with their tasks in war, increase the educational level, to prepare for postwar public activity. First you mark the library, "care by echelon gymnasium, and Press quarters comprising of working A. Bab 'yuk (M. Irchan), A. Lototsky, O. Nazaruk, Shkrumelyak Yu, L. Lepkyy, M. Gayvoronsky, R. Kupchinsky, O. Kurylas and other talented writers, journalists, composers, actors, artists. Efforts established artists Almanac Issue "Red Kalina, satirical magazines "Samohotnyk", "self made", published several books and more.
From the 1914 Best of striletstva conducted outreach among the Ukrainian people in places of his post, and involve them in joint demonstrations helped to create the various national institutions, in par? ma, chytalen, societies of Enlightenment ", economic cells, and organized courses eliminate illiteracy and so on. Evidence that the Ukrainian Sich Riflemen and worked on perspective, was their participation in the organization and support of the Ukrainian education. In particular, during 1916 - beg. 1917 about two dozens of shooters led by captain and D. Vitovskogo chetariv M. and M. Sayevych Gavrilko organized in Volhynia to 100 Ukrainian schools teachers working in them and even gave out textbooks for Volyn kids. Important for dissemination and advocacy national, state and had views of cultural and artistic activities USS. Often it is through small songs, music, performances, etc. Ukrainian population of a country with the idea first oznayomlyuvalosya Ukrainian statehood, diznavalosya truth about their past, conceived of the future.
In late 1916 the offensive capabilities of the Russian troops were exhausted, and they stopped on the line r.Stohod-Kyselyn-Zolocheve-Bershad-Galich-Stanislas-Rohatyn. In winter 1916-1917 he was fighting took positional character.
In the occupied territory was created Galicia-Bucovina Governor-General, headed by F. Trepovym. Unlike 1914-1915 years, the local Ukrainian population exposed to significant national and religious oppression, but the attitude to him was sufficient suspicious. It was believed that the influence of "mazepinschyny" still remains noticeable.
Even after the overthrow of the autocracy, in March 1917, temporary government approved the Provincial Commissioner of Galicia and Bukovina D. Doroshenko, who appointed to administrative positions Ukrainian, helped revive rural and urban authorities, the opening of cooperatives: national schools, charitable institutions.
Military actions in Ukraine
a) The most active hostilities in Western Ukraine in 1915 opened for the strategic heights in? .-?. ?.:
b)? -?? lost in these battles 1.5 million soldiers and officers, over 580 guns, plenty of ammunition.