Theme 10. UKRAINIAN LAND AT THE BEGINNING OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR
The First World War, Geopolitics, Main Ukrainian Council Legion of Ukrainian Sich Riflemen, Union of Ukraine's liberation
August 1, 1914, August 6, 1914 August 14, 1914
1.Ukraina in geopolitical plans of the Entente and the Triple Alliance
Territorial encroachment of rival parties before the war and Ukraine
July 19 (1 August) in 1914 sparked the First World War. It was logical outcome of economic and political crisis that engulfed much number of countries. With its state interests shared by two opposing blocs: the Triple Entente and the Union. Because of its geopolitical Ukraine situation will inevitably become a zone of interests of warring parties. Producing only on Russian territory over 1 billion pounds (about 16 million tons) of bread and having vast human resources that could used for military purposes, Ukraine had a magical attractive force for all belligerent forces in the region - from the Austrian and German Government to the Russian Bolsheviks. Thus the interests of their own Ukrainian population in general were not considered. As Franko said: "... on Ukrainian board policy of Europe is not even worthless pawn.
The main player in the field of that war - Germany - before the war spread the idea that the Ukrainian and other Eastern European nations can not create their own state, and so is the historical mission of Germans absorption and development of these lands. Ukrainian lands was seen in * Germany's geopolitical plans as a bridgehead for penetration into the East.
Let us turn to sources
From the secret documents of the General Staff in Germany from December 1, 1915
"? For anyone who actually knows and understands the location and economic position, wherein there is Russia, is conscious of the fact that United Russia could only exist because of the rich inheritance of Ukraine. If we will be able to change the status of Ukraine an independent state and to keep Ukraine's independence in life, then certainly give a mortal blow Great Russia. That is why Ukraine should be considered the heart of Great Russia. In assessing Experts possess a Ukraine makes Russia a great European power. Ukraine, separated from Russia, will create a wall between the properties of Russia Central States and the Balkans, closing access to the Black Sea. "How important is bank Ukraine in the document? Why? What are the plans of Germany to Ukraine?
Austria-Hungary under the banner of reunification "brothers-Rusyns" planned attached to their possessions Volhynia and Podolia, which was part of the Russian Empire. Even England and France, which had no territorial claims to Ukraine, sought to use it for weakening of Austria-Hungary. So the generals divided the land and wealth clearly, without the consent of their owner - the Ukrainian people, which was then delimited between the two countries. Not surprising that Ukrainian land most affected by war.
Russia, under the guise of "unity of all ages purpose Rus land ", claimed to Eastern Galicia, Transcarpathia and Northern Bukovina, which had belonged to Austria-Hungary. Combating parties in their strategic plans speculated Ukrainian issue, arguing that important for them to join the Ukrainian people, but certainly within statehood.
Let us turn to sources
With notes of Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the Ambassadors of Austria-Hungary in Constantinople and Berlin from 20.11. 1914
"Our main purpose in this war is a profound weakening of Russia, and so in case of victory we began to establish an independent from Russia Ukrainian state. In our view, the existence of such a state would cause significant damage to Russia's domination in the Black Sea, or even completely would have destroyed it? "What was the real goals of Austria-Hungary on the Ukrainian lands?
From Manifesto to the people of Galicia "
"For years, suffered Ruthenian nation under foreign yoke? Let no longer be enslaved Russia! Heritage St, land Jaroslav Osmomysl, princes and Roman Danylo let bear flag of a united, large, indivisible Russia! Let accomplish God's Providence that blessed the work of Rus Land collectors. May God help her kingly anointed Nikolai, the Emperor of All Russia complete the work of the great John Kalyta? "What appeals to Russian authorities Galicians with such documents? What she wants?
Austria-Hungary planned to attach to his possessions Volhynia and Podolia, who were part of Russian Empire.
In addition, between warring nations began fighting for the Allies in future war. Yes, Austrian and Russian diplomats began to bend Romania before the war on their side by promising her Ukrainian lands, which they yet only planned to conquer each other.
For Ukraine, World War I was doubly tragic meaning. The only people the absence of their own state that would protect his specific interests found itself in confrontation of the two camps. Approximately 3.5 million in Ukrainian Russian army and 250-300 thousand in the Austrian army and fought starved for foreign interest to them. But the worst was that the sons of one and the same people, divided between two empires were forced to kill each other.
2 Attitude and politicians before the war Naddniprianshchyna
From the beginning, fighting in the summer of 1914 and some Western Territory Central part of Ukraine became one of the major theaters of war eastern Europe. It came together with the two less powerful allies old enemies - Austria-Hungary and Germany on the one hand, and Russia, on the other. Until early 1918 he held the front line Ukrainian territory. Most land Dnieper Ukraine, as pryfrontova zone, were under the jurisdiction of the Kiev military District.
Military confrontation between the two countries, accompanied by mass repression against Ukrainian, split in half and nationally conscious Patriots Ukraine on both sides of the border.
When the war before the Ukrainian community faced a painful question: to whom target. All the warring countries consistently vtokmachuvaly in your head subjects the thesis of the need to protect their homeland. Nobody wanted be the aggressor. Russia declared war on national. The main steel slogans: help Slavic brothers and civil peace. Across Empire ruled oboronstva views. Had to determine the attitudes to war and Ukrainian.
In the early days after the declaration of war in the Russian Empire went patriotic movement. It has spread and the Ukrainian lands, which were of it. Many workers and students took part in patriotic manifestation, voluntarily sent to the mobilization points. Most of the farmers Dnieper Ukraine welcomed the outbreak of war as German-Austrian aggression: attacked "enemy", "Teuton", we must fight.
Political forces Naddniprianshchyna the first days of the war called on Ukrainian to protect the Russian state within which they are used. On Russia's support was made leader of the Ukrainian Social Democrats, Petliura. He has published in a Moscow magazine "Ukrainian life" article, where Russia called on nations to fulfill their civic duty to state that will allow them to rely on future "Corresponding law". Kyiv newspaper "Board" wrote that Ukrainian should defend the Russian state.
From the position of Russian patriotism were also immigrants - Muscophiles who moved from the war with the West land to Kyiv. They created "Carpatho-Ruthenian Liberation Committee" and through it turned to Ukrainian Galicia, so that they met Russian army moves godparents is necessary and welcomed bells in churches. Committee issued a brochure in Russian Contemporary Galicia, it handed imperial army officers who were sent to the Galician front, so they could distinguish Ukrainophiles (Mazepas) from Muscophiles ( "Rus").
However, Russian authorities are carefully treated Ukrainian political forces and social movements. In particular, she carefully watched over the "Society of Ukrainian progressives" (TUP), which at the beginning of the war adopted a resolution which recommended that the Ukrainian intelligentsia observe neutrality. Many leaders were put under the TUP police supervision, and Hrushevsky even arrested on suspicion of espionage.
Thus, the Ukrainian community in the vast majority were on World War I under the influence of patriotic virnopiddanskoyi waves, hoping that this position will expand their national rights in future. In fact, war has strengthened the contradictions among the Ukrainian and became for their brother.
Ukrainian political parties, social organizations and armed groups during the First World War
3. Establishment of the Main Ukrainian Council
At the beginning of World War II - August 1, 1914 in Lviv leaders three Ukrainian parties (Ukrainian National Democratic Party, Ukrainian Radical Party, Ukrainian Social-Democratic Party) created the main Ukrainian Council (Gur). Chairman of the Council elected K. Levitsky.
Ruled (1859-1941) - political, State, social activist, author of scientific works "The History of Liberation Galician Ukrainian competition since the 1914-1918 war, a major breakdown. To History of Ukrainian independence from March to November 1918 at the basis of records and documents. Born in a family Tysmenytsia priest. He studied at the Vienna University of Lviv. From 1890 he was engaged in private law practice in. Actively participate in the activities of a number of Ukrainian economic organizations. For a long time was president of the Society of Ukrainian Lawyers in Lviv, with 1899 - Chairman of the Ukrainian National Democratic Party. In 1907 was - was elected to the Austrian Parliament in 1908. - Galician Diet, supervised the operations of the club in the Ukrainian parliamentary Vienna and soymovoho in. After the occupation of the Poles in Galicia 1920-1923 biennium - a member of a foreign government of dictator E. Petrushevych. In 1924 he returned to Galicia, where he continued research and public activity. In the 20's - 30 years headed the Union of Ukrainian lawyers was editor of the publication "Life and Law, Director of the Central Bank. After occupation of Western Ukraine by Soviet troops in 1939 was arrested by the NKVD, but after 2 years - dismissed. In July 1941 he became the founder and chairman of the Ukrainian National Council. Died in Lviv in 1941
Gur was intended to determine the general direction of Ukrainian politics of Austria-Hungary and the development of the national movement during the war. After much debate the Council decided to support Austria-Hungary in conflict with Russia, because the latter took a hard line against the Ukrainians. According to Gur leaders, parliamentary traditions Austria-Hungary, unlike in imperial Russia, gave a chance for the future of Ukrainian autonomy.
Let us turn to sources
From the Manifesto of the Main Ukrainian Council of August 3, 1914
Going to war with the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, Russia threatens death Ukrainian national life which has found protection in the constitutional structure of the Austrian state. Russia's victory would bring Ukrainian people of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy the same yoke, wherein the moans 30 million Ukrainian people in the Russian Empire. So our way is clear. ... The victory of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy will our victory. And the more Russia will be defeated, the sooner you'll kick hour of liberation of Ukraine. ... Let the ruins of the tsarist empire down sun free Ukraine!What fought Ukrainian Home Help? How is it linked Ukraine's future with Austria-Hungary? Do you agree with the statement that Ukrainian national life "have found protection in the constitutional fret Austrian state "?
Ukrainian politicians believe that their statement will be appreciated by Austria-Hungary and create more favorable conditions for development Ukrainian autonomy. Gur asked to appeal to Ukrainian where urged those who are not subject to mobilization to create protection Austro-Hungarian troops of volunteers. Such formation had submit to the main Ukrainian political council.
Thus, the creation Gur demonstrated political activity and organization of the Ukrainian national movement whose main objective was the creation of Ukrainian autonomy within Austria-Hungary.
4. Union of Ukraine's liberation
Since World War Ukrainian Statehood with Gur actively supervised Union for the Liberation of Ukraine (SVU), created Lviv August 14, 1914 in the guise of political refugees Ukraine (Dontsov, V. Doroshenko, A. Zuk, M. Zaliznyak. Melenevskyy M., O.Skoropys-Yoltuhovskyy etc.).
Let us turn to sources
Since the program document SVU "Our Platform
In the Soviet Union represented all the political trends that are on position of state independence of the Ukrainian people, and realize their national political and economic stremlin currently linking with breakdown of Russia in the war. National Union is the political platform of national independence Ukraine. Form of government of an independent Ukrainian state should be constitutional monarchy with a democratic internal build political:, unicameral system of law, civil, linguistic and religious freedoms for all nationalities and religions. of the independent Ukrainian church. In the case of annexation of Austria to a greater or lesser Ukrainian-Russian Union territory will defend the creation of all land, settled Ukrainian people in Austria, apart autonomous province.What Union fought the liberation of Ukraine? Why bind its leaders Future of Ukraine "broke Russia in the war? Do you agree with this statement? Why?
The appeal SVU "to the Ukrainian people in Russia" Austrians and Germans characterized as liberators, to help "destroy that damn jail people, called the king of an empire. " This position attracted German government that was interested in weakening Russia from within, and provided financial support to the leaders of SVU.
In organizational activity SVU employed more than 30 employees. Its center was in Vienna and offices - in Berlin Lviv, Lausanne and Istanbul, and others. Representatives - in ten countries. In During the war they claimed to represent the interests of Great Ukraine and held talks with the states of the Triple Alliance, and some neutral European countries, aimed at liberation Ukrainian lands from the oppression of Russian Tsars.
SVU making active efforts among soldiers in the Russian Army - Ukrainian. Thanks to the Union, a significant number of them managed to put separate camps in Austria-Hungary (Fraynshtadt, Duna-Sardahel) and Germany (Vetslyaro, Zaltsvedel, Reshtat), which have been improved overall living conditions, organized by schools, libraries, churches and more. Among prisoners held national-raising activities.
After all this activity SVU among prisoners are allowed to create Ukrainian Division - Sirozhupannykiv Synozhupannykiv and who later took participation in the struggle for independence of the Ukrainian State. So, SVU represented more radical positions of the Ukrainian movement in compared to Gur, which reflected not only in its political program, and and in practice. Moreover, this activity is mixed Governments estimated the Triple Alliance. In particular, Austria-Hungary feared that the activity of SVU on social and national basis against Russia could spill over to its own territory.
There was unity in the assessment of SVU and from Ukrainian politicians. In sharp criticism of SVU were left Ukrainian Social Democrats, who accused the leaders as agents of SVU Austro-Hungarian imperialism. Negatively treated SVU Hrushevsky. He recognized the liberation of Ukraine Union Law act on behalf of Ukrainian citizens living in the Russian Empire.
Thus, in a war of aggression occurred split and fragmentation of the Ukrainian national liberation movement.
5. The formation of the Legion of Ukrainian Sich Riflemen
Leaders of the Ukrainian national liberation movement are well aware their plans to revive the Ukrainian statehood without a military units can not be turned into reality. The first practical step toward meeting began March 18, 1913 in Lviv Society "Sich archers, which was the basis of pupils and students youth. Later the company have branches in other towns in Galicia. Before the war they numbered 96, they were united by more than 8 thousand members. Since World War Austria-Hungary launched mobilization. The main Ukrainian Council declaring its support for Austrian government in the war against Russia, was allowed to form Legion of Ukrainian Sich Riflemen.
August 6, 1914 Gur wrote to the Ukrainian people on the manifesto declaring a military formation of the Ukrainian Sich Riflemen (USS). In her appeal during a yellow-blue flag Ukrainian Sich Riflemen Legion wanted to 28 thousand volunteers, representing all segments of the population. The vast most of them were pupils of youth organizations "January", "Falcon" and Plast. But the Viennese government was afraid to equip all Ukrainian Volunteers are selected and only 2.5 million people. Among enrolled USS ranks were women. Ukrainian Legion was the only formation in asters-Hungarian army which served women. Some of them gained fame in fights and had awards.
Creation of the Legion of Ukrainian Sich Riflemen marked resumption of armed struggle for the freedom of Ukraine. Although its formation occurred in the structures of the Austrian army - it was then the only possible path of the Ukrainian army - is not meant that striletstvo little strange to defend his interests. Combining the best forces young people, representing almost all social strata Galicia USS Legion became the embodiment of advanced political thought and expressed hope nationally conscious of Galician Ukrainian society in fighting the Ukrainian state. The first evidence that its inception Ukrainian legion stood on national positions were to abandon their attempts to take the oath of loyalty to the Habsburg dynasty, which though not successful, but clearly defined priorities shooting.
Let us turn to sources
With a single oath, declared that the soldiers USS
? I, Ukrainian Sich Sagittarius, swear Ukrainian princes hetmans Zaporizhzhya Sich, and graves all over Ukraine, who faithfully serve Native land, boronytymu it before the enemy will fight for honor Ukrainian weapons to the last drop of blood. So to me, O Lord God and Archangel Michael help. Amen.What causes the feeling you had the oath? About USS targets it presents?
Rifle corps chiefs
Having started its activity as a patriotic group, but poorly organized and mostly distant from military service people (38% personnel Legion USS was intelligentsia) Sich archers made tremendous efforts to overcome various obstacles to its path. They managed to make time for a small legion of well- trained, in fact the Ukrainian military structure of the national symbols of their own uniforms and insignia, and Ukrainian official language and Ukrainian terminology.
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