TOPIC 8. CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT early XX century.
1.Osvita in Ukrainian lands
Contents, form, stylistic change in the culture depends not only on evolution of art, they are closely related to all aspects of the life society, with special features and patterns of historical process in whole. In the early twentieth century. social life becomes more and more rice mass that determines the concentration of labor in the economy and formation of massive social and political movements in the political sphere. Progressive social and economic differentiation causes an increase politicization of public life, the emergence of the historical political scene parties are actively vying for power. All these processes of world supplemented by specific scale and largely unfavorable conditions in which developing Ukrainian culture.
What impact do you think, committed to promoting a culture of each of these conditions?
The process of modernizing the economy and society in general in the early twentieth Art. require improving the cultural and educational level of population training qualified personnel for industry and agriculture economy. These requirements caused the first increase in schools. Only bank Ukraine from the late nineteenth century. to 1911 the number of primary schools for children of workers and peasants increased by 40%. Increased network of trade schools and schools mining and commercial schools, where trained personnel for industry and trade. Number of schools in Dnieper Ukraine has reached 129 (52 men and 77 women).
Staff Novorossiysk University. First left - Bogomolets in center - Ushinski
It was opened on 8 Teachers' Institute, 10 seminaries. Higher education provided by three universities: Kyiv, Kharkiv, Novorossiysk (Odessa), Institute of History and Philology Nezhine (in 1875 converted from the Lyceum), Polytechnic Institute in Kiev (1898) Technology and Veterinary Institute, women's higher rates (1907) Women's Medical Institute (1910) in Kharkov Mining Institute (1912 ) in Yekaterinoslav (1912) and others. Worked for more than 140 libraries population.
In 1914-1915 he was the Dnieper in 452 secondary schools operated in which trained 140 thousand students and 19 universities, with 26.7 thousand students. In 1917 higher education was already 27 and in They studied 35 thousand students.
However, the general level of education was unsatisfactory. Not was a sufficient number of schools, and those that were not covered in the children's needs school age. In particular, the 1000 population in primary, incomplete middle and high schools enrolled only 67 students. Thus, in the Kyiv region Volhynia and Podolia, which belonged to the Kyiv School district, not zemstva was, but because there was no county schools, and only a few ministerial or church parish school.
Classes in traditional school number 60. Kyiv, 1910
Number of schools in Kiev school district in the early twentieth century.
|Region||Number of schools||Number of pupils||In% of total number of children|
|Kyiv region||1812||103 641||17|
However, the county areas are not all was well. For example, 1900 in Vorzelskomu county in Chernihiv on the soul 153 022 population were 57 primary schools with 5643 pupils, remained outside of school 3835 children. Only in 1909-1912 he developed the overall implementation plan primary education in the Russian Ukraine, up to ten years.
Map. Literacy of the population of the Ukrainian lands
1. What conclusions can be drawn from data on the map? 2. How can we explain this great difference between regions?
It is clear that the percentage of literate people was different in different provinces. In 1910 in Ukraine the level of literacy of the population was below average for the entire European part of Russian Empire index - 30%.
Education nabuvalasya exclusively Russian. Throughout Russian Ukraine there was no institution with the Ukrainian language of instruction, no Ukrainian schools in the state hold. Correspondent of "Council" in 1913 bitterly reported that those teachers who want schools to teach in Ukrainian, is called fans. A trustee of the Kyiv School district general Derevytskyy P. banned in schools hang portraits of Ukrainian writers to "Black" list includes Shevchenko, Korolenko et al. Not native to Russian Ukrainian children perceived difficult, often indication to low performance.
Let us turn to sources
From the article Ukrainian teacher and writer Vasyl'chenka S. (1911)
School stepchild of language, alien in spirit only by great teachers misunderstanding might be called folk?. entirely clear why our people look at my school basically as a path to the various positions or, as they say, to "light bread" and not as an institution which should serve their very first spiritual needs. Only after that, if sounded in our schools and our native language? all would become clear that through our people "double-illiterate"What is it about the document? How the author of the document Ukrainian treated schools teaching in Russian? Why S. Vasilchenko Ukrainian people call "double-illiterate"?
Something was in better shape education in Western Ukraine especially in Galicia. During law school here there were two types of schools: lower - and higher rural - urban. U1900, in eastern Galicia 4250 classes worked with the Polish language of instruction, 2250 - Ukrainian language. At the same time from 6240 villages in Galicia in 981 villages had no schools. Secondary schools throughout Galicia there were 49, and only four of these studies was conducted in Ukrainian.
On the eve of the First World War in Galicia there were already 3500 Ukrainian elementary schools where teaching was conducted in their native language. Of 86 gymnasiums in Galicia was only 6 public and 15 private institutions were run by Ukrainian companies and educational Uniate church and were teaching in Ukrainian.
In Bukovina worked in 1900, six middle schools and no Ukrainian language. In 1913 the 13 public and private schools, only 2 were Ukrainian and 2 - in German and Ukrainian language learning. In South Bukovina there were 305 primary schools. The worst situation was in our region. In all four secondary education institutions was only in Hungarian. In Western Ukraine, there were 4 higher education institutions, of which 3 in Lviv (University, Polytechnic Institute and Academy of Veterinary medicine for the Polish studies) and University of Euro - with German language.
Thus, throughout the territory of Ukraine there was no university establishment of Ukrainian language teaching, no Ukrainian schools that was to be supported by the state. Even after the Revolution, 1905-1907 tsarism he never gave permission for the introduction of instruction in schools Ukraine language.
2. The development of science and technology. Prominent Ukrainian scientists
Economic and social needs of society modernized, greatly accelerated the development of national science and technology. A number of scientific and technological achievements showed a high level of engineering. Most research has been closely associated with production.
Michael Kurako (1872-1920) entered the Metallurgical Plant in Kramatorsk in 1902 at the invitation Managing Director. You trusted him "rozkozlennya" and improvement factory blast furnaces ("asshole" - frozen in the blast furnace metal - very serious accident). M. Kurako is skillfully able rozplavlyaty "goats", and as famous far beyond Mariupol, where he previously worked. In Kramatorsk led him to prove himself as a prospect Design. ... After removing the accident 30 years was Kurako M. "Pozhaluvano" Assistant Chief blast, and he proceeded to pursue his dreams. In 1903 the plant built Kurako blast furnace of its own design. According to eyewitnesses, it was a blast furnace, which surpassed all that existed in Russia and abroad. "Famous domenschyk "- so will call it then historians and colleagues - really was a Pole by birth, the landowner Mogylivs'ka province. Exceptionally talented self-taught metal worker, knew the secrets Kurako blast through self-education and experience, although his luggage with "Academic" knowledge testified only one single document - certificate of completion of 2-classroom school in the Ministerial s.Borschivtsi Roslavskoho County Mogylivs'ka of the same province.
Do you think why a person with primary education had been entrusted as an engineer?
The study played a major role Donbass geologist L. Lutugina. His original map of the geological structure of Donetsk basin was awarded a gold medal at the World Fair, and his conclusions are not lost scientific and industrial importance to our time. The overarching processes of development and exploitation of coal deposits were Donetsk devoted to research by Professor A. Terpyhoreva.
Development of domestic aircraft contributed Aeroclub first opened in 1908 in Odessa. His pupils N. Efimov and S. Utochkin participated in domestic and international aviation competition and sought Records speed, altitude and flight duration. Military pilot VP Nesterov during service in Ukraine (1913-1914 biennium) explained the theory of higher pilotage and demonstrated in practice a number of methods, including famous "Loop", the national aviation brought into one of the first places in world.
Progress in aeronautics promoted technical progress of aviation. In 1912 in the Odessa Club and workshops were built about twenty airplanes different systems. Later, on the basis of this workshop arose Aviation Plant. A number of aircraft of its own design built Member Kharkiv flying club, aviation designer S. Gryzodubovoi.
Intensive construction of new designs of aircraft, helicopters and planes developed in Kiev at the Kiev Society aeronautics (1907-1916 biennium), one of the most active in the country. It started its operations here D. G. - designer of the first world seaplane (1912), I. Sikorsky - the world's first designer multi-engined aircraft (1912-1914). Hereditary worker Kiev "Arsenal" plant F. Anders in 1911 built the airship "Kyiv" original design, which this year made the first experimental flights.
Known scientists in the field of radio physics, radio engineering were D. Rozhanskyy, T. Tailor, M. Pylchykov. In the field of medicine Zabolotny D. first proposed for effective ways to combat plague. A distinguished biologist Mechnikov (1845-1916), who has long worked in Novorossiysk University (Odessa), later moved to Paris, where he founded the Laboratory at the famous Pasteur Research Institute. Ukrainian scientist was awarded the world's highest scientific award - Nobel Prize (1908) for achievements in a new field of biology and Medicine - Immunology (the study of protective properties of living organism from infectious diseases). On the proposal to return home Mechnikov replied resolutely refused, stressing that carries tsarism purposeful destruction of national science policy.
18 years (1898-1915) lived in India comes from Ukraine V. Khavkina 's (Student of Mechnikov). Together with local doctors, he was actively involved in dealing with epidemics of plague and cholera, founded in Bombay bacteriological institution, and still bears his name.
Scientists Botany Navashyn S. and B. Lipsky among the first to give scientific description of the flora of Central Asia, Indonesia, North Africa.
Developed, and the humanities. Contribution to the development Ukrainian linguistics became a four Ukrainian language dictionary Bachelor of Arts (1907-1909 biennium). Outstanding achievements were domestic historians who studied and popularized glorious past Ukrainian people. In particular, Kyiv V. Chvojka archeologist discovered and explored the first Attractions Tripoli culture. A huge contribution to the historical studies made professor of Lviv University, Chairman Scientific Society Shevchenko, Hrushevsky, which in 1907 founded by the Ukrainian Scientific Society in the Dnieper. In St. Petersburg in 1904 Russian out of his "Essay on the history of Ukrainian people "who in three editions 1906, 1911, 1913, those years he and worked on his major multivolume fundamental work "History of Ukraine-Rus", which grounded and developed the concept of history Ukrainian people.
Along with Hrushevskyi then worked other prominent historians. Yes enjoyed great popularity, "History of Ukraine-Rus" Arkas.
Let us turn to sources
Historiographer V. Bidnov about the publishing of "History of Russia" Arkas
"No one Ukrainian book, but" Poet ", was less successful, which fell on the fate of labor Arkas, it bought, read, asked to hobby and sincerely thanked the author for his book by sending it letters. We noticed that M. Arkas realized the great need for popular history of Ukraine, who felt in wide circles of our citizenship ... Arkasova book distributed among workers and peasants Katerinoslavshchina doing all extremely impressed by their readers and boost them in the national consciousness. Author of it, of course, done a great service to our national movement, scientific and artistic faults do not disturb her influence on wheels, of which book spread. The experience of our day gives us vivid evidence that not scientism captures citizenship, but something else, otherwise I '.What she sees the value of mentioned work? What, in your opinion, was keen on "citizenship" beginning of the century?
First female Russian Empire, History of Doctor A. Efimenko published two volumes of the book "South Russia" and the popular 'History Ukrainian people. "Kharkiv University Professor D. Bagaley studied history of Sloboda Ukraine, and his colleague at the University of Professor V. Buzeskul researched the history of ancient Greece. In Kiev University history of the Decembrist movement, socio-economic history of Belarus and Lithuania studied Professor M.Dovnar-Zapolsky, agrarian history of France - Prof. Luchitsky, prominent specialist in the national historiography became professor V. Ikonnikov. Fundamental works on the history of Ukrainian Cossacks prepared a well-known historian D. Yavomytskyi.
3.Ukrayinska Media and Publishing
Development of the Ukrainian language in the press of Russian Ukraine, beginning Revolution of 1905 did not stop until the First World War, although some years there have been serious enough for him. Recognized center Ukrainian press during this period was Kyiv, where out such periodic Edition:
Staff editorial "Native Land". Kyiv, 1909
People read the newspaper "The Council". Kyiv, 1905
Outside of Kyiv out: "sheaf" in Kharkov, "the morning star" in the grave on the tail, "life and knowledge" Poltava, "Kanev Sunday", "Dnipro waves in Yekaterynoslav.
One of the first Ukrainian newspaper became a daily "Public opinion" The first issue which came out December 31, 1905 Unfortunately, it was destined to be short-lived: on the night of August 18, 1906 at the wording of the police vandalized, arrested eleven people. The next day, 19 August, according to the order of the governor-general, "public opinion" closed. Her ideas continued newspaper "The Council" which came out a month later, 15 September. She kept the flag first Ukrainian-language newspaper in the capital by mid-1914 and was closed due to the introduction of martial law. As publication of general political, economic and literary, "Public Opinion" / "The" much of the area took away their pages to the events in Ukraine, Russia and abroad. No room could not without material devoted to the life of that time Kyiv. Newspaper zakarbovuvala on their pages of important points and features of Ukrainian culture provincial and Life Center, fairly reflect the facts of the time reality. In constant headings "Kyiv", "The Ukrainian Life be announced notification of specific events from the realm of Ukrainian.
Before the First World War came out in 1917 in the Ukrainian language journals. Much of it was very well organized, had a permanent employees, including prominent journalists default contingent readers. The problem for some publications have their material support, often covered with donations Ukrainian patrons (most Were revised, V. Simirenko etc.)..
There and Russian edition, published materials and also Ukrainian. Some cooperative and county newspapers Ukrainian materials were even half of the publication. Continued to grow in the Ukrainian press in Western lands. The most famous publication was "Bukovina", "Delhi" and "Young Ukraine". In Ukrainian diaspora most titles (75%) came out in the U.S. and Canada.
One of the interesting Ukrainian editions journal Ukrainian life, intended for the Russian reader who, Petliura, journalist and prominent politician in Moscow began publishing in 1912 and good organizer editor, he managed to unite around a talented staff of the journal and made it a real Ukrainian platform in Russia. In "Ukrainian life "published such prominent authors as Hrushevsky, S. Wilkens, A. Lototsky, W. Lipinski, D. Failure, and others.
|Quantitative development of the Ukrainian press in the early twentieth century.|
|Years||Number of titles||Earth||Outside of Ukraine|
The role of the then Ukrainian press invaluable. As then a kind of chronicler of life at the risk of incur the wrath disgrace and the government (which is not true of Russian-language press), overcoming various (mostly - artificial) barriers, she consistently opposed to anti-Ukrainian campaign, which reached a peak in the years 1913-1914, with dignity reflected the chauvinistic attacks, supported the spirit of national conscious Ukrainian.
4. Achievements of the masters of literature and art
W. and L. Stefanik Martovych
Advanced controversial period experienced at the beginning of the century Ukrainian literature, presented a bright galaxy of names: Ivan Franko Ukrainian Lesya, Kotsyubyns'kyi Vynnychenko, O. Makovey, Kobylyanska, working-class poet sockdolager P., S. Vasylchenko, V. Stefanik, L. Martovycha, Cheremshyny M. et al. In his writings, these authors depicted the realities Ukrainian life, the tensions of revolutionary and liberation struggle Ukrainian people, angrily branded disgrace and reactionary the ruling regimes of Austria-Hungary and Russia, thus responding to needs of the reader, which, by accurate observation of the Western writer Osip Makovey Democrat (and he meant readers all Ukraine), "already nadoyily: 1) the theme of the past, written" to fool Styles 2) of the life of the people, processed by the old ethnographic manner. M. Kotsyubynsky urged the writers to develop the theme "Philosophical, social, psychological, historical and other, not limited to describing the life of the peasantry, but also pay attention "to other groups community, the intelligentsia, factory workers, military, world artistic, etc... "
At this time in the cultural field okreslylysya clearly two trends - preservation of national cultural identity (populism) and transplantation on Ukrainian soil samples of the newest European Artistic Expressions (modernism *). Synteznoyu characteristic model populism and modernism became the "new school" of Ukrainian prose (Kotsyubyns'kyi V. Stefanik, A. Kobylyanskaya, M. Cheremshina), which in its works seamlessly combined traditional national literature etnohrafizm, first-person narrative with the latest European achievements - * symbolism and psychoanalysis. A characteristic feature of Ukrainian version of modernism in literature was a significant effect * Romanticism, which is explained as a tradition and mentality Ukrainian people, to which romanticism is an organic element outlook any day.
Despite the ban, developing Ukrainian art, especially music and theater. The leading role belonged to the musical life of Lysenko in musical heritage of which there are many works on texts by Ivan Franko, Taras Shevchenko, Ukrainian Lesya, Heinrich Heine and other poets, hundreds of arrangements of Ukrainian folk songs that have great artistic value. Many of them composer's life and did not see the world. In particular, despite exactions advanced society, royal authorities did not authorize statement on the historical and heroic opera Lysenko "Taras Bulba" - masterpiece Ukrainian opera classics. They opposed scenic performance and other works.
Teachers and students of Ukrainian Drama Music and Drama School in Kyiv Lysynka M.
Music is life dreamed that the gifted young people from were able to obtain a special higher education in music. 1904 he founded in Kiev, music and drama school and guided it until his death. School prepared conductors, choirmaster, performers playing folk Ukrainian instruments, singers, directors, actors. To prepare theater professionals found a two departments: of Russian and Ukrainian drama. From the walls of this school came many Prominent artists: composer K. Stetsenko, M. Mykysha singer, actor B. Romanytskyy, O. Vatulya et al.
Continuing school talent Lysenko were composers M. Leontovich, J. Steppe, S. Ljudkevych. Internationally recognized singer was pupil Krushelnitska Lviv Conservatory. Its unique voice that enchanted listeners in Europe, America, Africa, rightly belongs to the treasury of vocal art world.
National Theatre's role contributed Kropiwnicki M., P. Saksahanskoho Starytsky, M.Karpenko-Brown, M. Zankovetskaya, G. Borysoglibska Poljanskaya O., I. Mar serum and others. Under the direction of M. Sadowski 1905-1906 he was livelier in its activities only in Western Ukraine Ukrainian professional theater company "Ruska conversation. 1907 M. Sadowski founded in Kiev the first in Ukraine stationary Ukrainian theater. The following year it was officially marked 25 years of stage genius Ukrainian actress Zankovetskoy. Yubilyarsha received many congratulations from all kiptsiv Ukraine and Russia, including the famous Moscow Art Theatre pioneered by V. Nemirovich-Danchenko and Stanislavsky K. noted that such actresses as Zankovetskaya, is no more than two or three for a century and a cluster of those brilliant artists of the Ukrainian stage should be entered in gold letters on tablets of history of the world art.
Special place in the repertoire of M. Sadowski took musical and dramatic works by famous Ukrainian, Russian, Polish, Czech, Italian composers. Production carried out not only have been tested over time as the national opera, "Cossack beyond the Danube" S.Gulak-Artemovsky and Natalka Poltavka Lysenko, but many other new: Chornomorets, Utoplenytsya "," Christmas Night "," Aeneid " Lysenko, "Catherine" Arkas, "Pebbles" S. Moniuszko, "Sold Bride B. Smetana, "Cavalleria Rusticana" P. Mascagni. All this contributed to the development of better national peculiarities of the Ukrainian theater, where organically combined dramatic and musical and vocal art.З
CD / part of Ukrainian artists continued to work in realistic manner. Among them, a talented painter, critic and public figure of revolutionary democratic direction I. Trush (author landscape paintings, portraits of prominent figures of the Ukrainian democratic Culture Ivan Franko, Lesia Ukrainian, V. Stefanik, Lysenko and others. Large in the cultural life of Ukraine became the first Ukrainian Art an exhibition organized at the initiative of Ivan Trush 1905 in Lviv, where the well represented with works by artists from all regions of Ukraine. Keen success of the visitors had of art "guests from the latest" sponsored by nephew Krasytsky F. Shevchenko (1873-1944), pupil Ilya Repin.
The Art of M. choices, O. Murashka and artists P. Levchenko, M. Samokish, M. Yarovogo, K. Kostandi not only enriched domestic painting new achievements, but also brought it to Europe level. Were very interesting and searching modernists in painting (M. Zuk, A. Nowakowski, W. and F. Krychevskys etc.)..
"Family". F. Krichevsky
In Ukrainian sculpture early twentieth century., In the words of D. Antonovich, eclecticism ruled *. Plasticity uhodyla classicism of the past, replaced went realism that sought to reflect the effects of real life without pomposity and solemnity. It is in this style of working sculptors Naddniprianshchyna - M. Mikeshin, V. Beklemishev, F. Balavenskyy, M. Gavrilko, L. Posen and Galicia - Viytovych P., G. Kuznevych, R. Lewandowski et al.
However, under the influence of Western art schools formed a cluster Ukrainian sculptors-modernists - Viytovych P. M. Gavrilko, V. Ishchenko, M. Parashchuk et al., Works of inherent contrast svitlotinovi effects and deep psychology. Global star A. Archipenko enriched the language of sculpture of the XX century., Forcing the empty space be organic and very expressive element composition. This unmatched master are "treading a woman," a woman who zachisuyetsya "" Cat Woman "and other works. Visitors to the exhibition not understand why A. Archipenko Sculpture no connection with reality. So not surprising that occasionally appeared in print the cartoons in which vysmiyuvalas art sculptor. One of them concerned the sculpture "Cat Woman". Cartoonists believed that the heavy hand of chunky women cat should sit down and thus depicted his squat to the rear Paws with vypuchenymy eyes.
Lions. Railway station
Kyiv. Bessarabsky market
In late XIX - early XX century. Nouveau becoming more common in Ukrainian architecture, which was in sharp geometric lines structures, their dynamic forms. This style is built railway stations in Lviv, Kyiv, Zhmerinka, Kharkiv, Ukraine's first covered market in Kiev (Bessarabsky). Search and experiments architects-modernists intended to ensure maximum functionality of the building, saving At the same clarity in the lines of the facade. The most typical buildings of this style of characteristic of his natural decorative forms and synthesis Art - the "House with Chimeras" (architect Gorodetsky B) and State Bank (architects and O. Verbitsky O. Kabelyev) in Kyiv, art School of Kotlyarevskyi (arhitektor. V. Krichevsky) in Kharkiv and others.
House with Chimeras. Gorodetsky
What features of modern architectural style as evident in this building?