THEME 6: EVENTS Russian Revolution of 1905-1907. IN UKRAINE
Topic 6. The events of the Russian Revolution of 1905-1907 in Ukraine
- The revolutionary events in Ukraine in spring-summer 1905
- The rise of revolution
- Ukrainian community in the State Duma
- End of Revolution 1905 - 1907 рр. and its results
- Basic terms and concepts of the theme
Bourgeois-democratic revolution, Workers' Council, a manifesto, the State Duma of Russia,
Spring-Summer 1905, 14-25 June 1905, October
1905, November 1905, December 1905, May
1906, June 3, 1907
- What are the contradictions of social development existed in the Russian Empire in the early twentieth century.? What they manifestated?
- What was the nature of the agrarian and national issues?
- Who were the participants of the protest movement in the early twentieth century.? Why they have participated in such events?
Ukraine in the First Russian Revolution 1905 - 1907 рр.
1. The revolutionary events in Ukraine in spring-summer 1905
- Why Ukrainian lands were involved in the revolution in Russia?
- What events started a revolution in the Ukrainian lands?
Accumulation of political, economic and social contradictions in
early twentieth century. culminated in an explosion of social revolution
Of 1905-1907 Revolutionary events covered and Dnepr
Ukraine, hitting the interests of all strata and groups. Together with
all-revolution objectives: elimination of landlord
land ownership, redemption payments, the overthrow of the autocracy;
establishment of democratic freedoms, the eight-hour day
enterprises, bank Ukraine and put forward their particular
requirements, including the achievement of political, cultural and national
autonomy of the Ukrainian lands, and eventually independence.
The immediate impetus for the bourgeois-democratic revolution was *
Shooting large peaceful demonstration of workers in St. Petersburg Sunday 9
January 1905, subsequently called "Bloody Sunday". Response
on it are numerous natural performances. One of them began to strike 600
South Russian machine-building factory workers and factory Hretera
and Kryvaneka in Kiev January 12, 1905 During the January strike
workers Kharkov Katerynoslav, Odessa, Gorlovki, Uzivka, Mariupol,
Zhytomyr and other cities. During February-March strike movement grew,
Indeed, the incomplete data in the Ukrainian provinces strike 170
Meeting at the October All-Russian strike in Kharkiv. 1905
In February-March 1905 Expandable performances peasants
Left Bank and other areas. Farmers mostly smashed possessions
landlords and rich businessmen. For example, in March 3 thousand peasants
County historical, Chernihiv province beat in sugar factory
Michael Farms, which belonged to Ukrainian entrepreneurs Tereshchenko.
By mid-1905 1300 was the following appearances.
Active participation in the revolutionary events took Ukrainian students, who created in St. Petersburg Home Student Council.
Let us turn to sources
On appeal the Chief Student Council
"To the Ukrainian citizenship, students, workers and Ukrainian
Officers in St. Petersburg. March 2, 1905
democratic republic exhibited Russian democracy
provides civil rights of every individual. In the struggle for these
rights we wish every success of Russian democracy. But the Ukrainian
democracy, the Ukrainian masses need to ensure not only their
general public yet, but some of their national rights, those
rights which the Russian people has been long. With this slogan
National Liberation and must speak Ukrainian mass in
Petersburg. The most comprehensive expression of the idea of national liberation is
national and state independence, and just create your own
sovereign state of the organism can provide widely
cultural development of the Ukrainian people.
What is it about the document? How belonged Home
student council for all-purpose Revolution? What final
Revolution goal for Ukraine saw the authors of the document?
And all-Ukrainian political parties tried to influence the mass movement of population and natural lead performances:
- Party of Bolsheviks of some 4,5 thousand members had
influence among unskilled workers Russified Odessa, Nikolaev,
- The Mensheviks and the Organization of Ukrainian skilled workers
"Union", numbering about six thousand members maintained
skilled workers in Donbass and Kharkiv;
- PA-USDRP (December 1905), which consisted of 3000 members
linked the solution of social and political problems with resolution of
national problems. It had influence among workers Ukrainian Kyiv
and Krivoy Rog.
Summer 1905 mass revolutionary movement of the population grew.
Intensified the labor movement. In April-August in the Ukrainian lands
were part of Russia were 300 strikes, in which participated
100 thousand workers. June 13 held citywide strike
workers of Odessa. The June performances of Ukrainian peasants in 1905
captured 64 of 94 counties. Scale peasant movement Ukraine
ranked among the highest in the Russian Empire.
Until July 1905 46% of all counties were Dnieper Ukraine
affected peasants performances. Great authority among the peasants
used the All-Russian Peasant Union (VSS). In the guise of
Ukraine there were seven provinces, a number of county and parish
branches of the organization. Some local committees headed by armed VSS
rebellion, acted as organs of peasant power.
A. Matyushenko on the battleship Potemkin. 1905
The revolutionary mood and entered the Navy. Among sailors Black
Fleet Bolshevik organization was created "Sevastopol
Marine Center. Members of this organization and sailors G. Vakulenchuka
A. Matyushenko led uprising on the battleship Potemkin, on 14-25 June 1905Most sailors ship (the number of 730 teams) were
Ukrainian. At the beginning of the uprising G. Vakulenchuka were killed. Leadership
uprising passed to A. Matyushenka and member organizations of the Kharkiv rupee
mechanical engineer Oleg Kovalenko - one of the few officers
who deserted to sailors and actually became commander of the ship.
Let us turn to sources
With reports of the police officer police station port of Odessa Odessa chief of gendarmerie (1905)
night from 14 to 15 June arrived in the port of Odessa? military
battleship "Prince Potemkin, the sailors who at 5 am zvezly
battleships from the shore? dead sailor Gregory Vakulenchuka on
his chest pin fastened proclamation, as follows: "Cities
Odessa residents, before you lies the body of the slain sailor Gregory
Vakulenchuka, killed his senior officer torpedo battleships "Great
Prince Potemkin Tavria "because he said that no borscht
good. Poklyanemosya, friends, workers, and say: "land down to you!
Wringer take our revenge, death oppressors, long live freedom, one for
all and all - for one! Crew Potemkin .. "
On that question in the document? What events unfolded on
ships? As called for sailors in the given text in a document
On the rebel ship arrived, representatives of local and Menshevik
Bolshevik organizations to sailors to disembark in the port
uprising in the city and by working to capture Odessa.
However, the sailors refused, hoping to support the whole squadron
Black Sea Fleet. However, the king's troops surrounded the port
blocking out the battleship at sea. On the night of 15 on June 16
Odessa port during the shooting killed about 100 people, 300
injuries. June 17 Potemkin out to sea to meet with the squadron
13 warships, sent by the government to suppress the uprising. But
during a meeting with a revolutionary ship squadron sailors refused
shoot for their comrades. Fearing a spread of rebellion on the ship
squadron commanders had brought her to Sevastopol. The rebels have carried out
road from Odessa to Feodosiya, and then in the Romanian port of Constanta where
battleship command seemed to local authorities. Most crew members
Potemkin remained in Romania and 54 people illegally returned to the
Russia, among them was A. Matyushenko. In 1907 he was arrested and
by sentence naval court executed.
- What is manifested by the rise in autumn 1905 Revolution?
- What is the nature of the tsar's manifesto October 17?
- What consequences should his appearance?
His revolutionary movement reached its peak in October - December 1905 In Octoberworkers organized a strike-wide. In the Dnieper in
It was attended by over 120 million people. Slogans of the strikers were:
"Down with the tsarist government!", "Long live the popular uprising". Protest
campaign workers escalated into armed clashes and fights with barricades
's army (Ekaterinoslav, Kharkov, Odessa).
During the strike movement in October and November in Kyiv
Yekaterinoslav Luhansk Kamians'ke, Gorlovka, Yenakiyevo (more than
50 cities and towns the workers) have Board Workers' *.
They introduced an 8-hour day, in enterprises, establish
food prices in the factory stores, controlled release
governmental and regional newspapers, organized public health from
pogroms and robbers and so on. Meanwhile trade unions were formed
to protect the interests of workers. At the end of the revolution in the guise of
Ukraine has already operated 284 trade unions.
Spring 1905 increased and the peasant movement. In the Dnieper
Ukraine were about 300 cases defeat the landlords'
estates. Special events have gained publicity in the village of Vyhvostovi
Chernihiv region, reflected in the work of M. Kotsyubinskogo «Fata morgana», when
October 1905 peasants defeated the landowner's estate and factory. In
response prosperous peasants - "kulaks" had killed 15-poor villagers.
All-Russian political strike paralyzed the country and forced the king
issue October 17, 1905 * manifesto about "civil rights and
political freedom, "who" gave "the nationals of person,
freedom of speech, conscience, assembly and association. Proclaiming convocation
legislature of the State Duma elections involving all strata
population. With the declaration of the manifest political forces that supported
it created its own political parties to participate in the activities of thoughts:
big industrialists, merchants and landlords - the Union of October 17 "
(Octobrists), middle class and intelligentsia -
Constitutional Democratic Party (Cadets).
Odessa citizens protesting against the tsar's manifesto of October 17. 1905
Began to prepare for elections and the Mensheviks and Social Revolutionaries. The Bolsheviks are
called for a boycott of elections and the escalation of strikes by workers in
armed insurrection to seize power and establish "the dictatorship
proletariat ", and virtually unlimited power of their own party.
Some large landowners, businessmen, chynovnyh, police ranks
and other monarchist-minded representatives of various social strata
considered manifest sign of weakness of imperial power and demanded his
immediate cancellation and suppression of the revolution by force. Support
Government supporters of the monarchy created the political organization of the Union
russkoho people "," Union of the Archangel Gabriel "," version monarhycheskaya
batch and others. who prepared for the formation of "black hundreds" for
physical violence from members of protest and "inorodtsyamy.
Black Hundreds accuse the Jews in the unrest in the country and started
Jewish pogroms swept in Odessa, Katerynoslav, Kharkiv,
Mykolayiv city of Donbass. Only in Kiev were killed during the pogrom of 1923
persons and 223 injured.
Compared to the all-party influence and strength
Ukrainian political organizations in autumn 1905 were much
smaller. In late 1905 changed its name to PA and USDRP
strengthened their cooperation with RSDLP, which ended its accession
the rights of individual national organization. UDP and PSA teamed up
one party - the democratic-Ukrainian Radical Party (UDRP), which
demanded cultural and national autonomy and standing positions on a
close to party leaders, which worked. On of independence
positions remained the UNP, urging all parties to create
inter-block for strengthening the national character of the revolution.
- What was the population Naddniprianshchyna features performances in October - December 1905?
- What political forces have participated in their organization?
У November 1905 in Sebastopol was new
Black Sea Fleet sailors revolt on the cruiser Ochakov "which
support another 12 ships. Led by his lieutenant P. Schmidt, who
telegram to Nicholas II wrote: "King, left the Black Sea Fleet
subordination of your irresponsible ministers cut Crimean
Peninsula, announced federal republic Crimea peninsula
requires full amnesty to political prisoners and the early convening of
Constituent Assembly. After 13-hour battle with loyal Tsars
troops of the rebels were defeated. P. Schmidt and his accomplice were
arrested and executed military tribunal verdict.
November 18 Moreover, in Kiev, rose 800
soldiers demining team led by Mr pidporuchykom Zhadanivskym.
The soldiers, together with the workers of South Russian factory went
to the Azov Regiment barracks. After a brief battle with insurgents loyal
government troops of the uprising was crushed. 23 November the speech Kharkiv garrison soldiers and workers, which was attended by about 15 million people.
Group participants in the uprising in the yard engineers Lukianivska prison in Kiev. 1905
Holodnogorsko political prisoners in jail in Kharkiv. 1905
In December 1905 Mhar in farmers' sitting
the police officer was arrested and officers. Assistant spravnyka who came from
detachment of Cossacks, to release the arrested fork and they met
pins. Subsequently, the uprising was suppressed. Villagers forced more than four
hours to stand on her knees in the snow near the township board,
then they were beaten and many were sent to prison Poltava.
During the all-political strike in December 1905armed struggle has made the greatest rise. The Bolsheviks and partially
Mensheviks and SRs called on workers to armed insurrection. They
led directly to his training and fighting. In Ukraine, the armed
Workers revolt erupted in Kharkov, Yekaterinoslav
Olexandrivska (Zaporozhye), Donbass and other cities. In these events
opposed the king's army special armed combat groups
One of the largest number of participants was armed uprising
workers in the Donbass. The first group of combat fighting with the king's
troops on 13 December and YASINOVATAYA Avdiyivka. Then the center
events was Gorlovka. It was there December 16 royal troops staged
massacre of local factory workers. In support of insurgent
fighting squads arrived from neighboring towns and other plants - all 4
thousand. Of these, 800 combatants were armed with firearms, and
Other - pykamy, iron bars and axes. December 17 rebels
workers after 8-hour battle broke out and the army forced them
retreat in the desert. The rebels were defeated after the aid
's army reinforcements came. Since 1906,
revolutionary growth of the population went into decline.
What shows up raising the national liberation movement during the Russian Revolution?
In 1905-1907 he revolutionary forces under pressure the Russian authorities
made some steps in addressing national issues. In particular
law on November 21, 1905 were allowed to issue
the language of literature, newspapers and magazines to produce, create
cultural and educational associations, national theaters to open. In some
schools began teaching the Ukrainian language. In many cities
opened Ukrainian clubs, musical and drama groups, academic
Society. Began to publish newspapers and periodicals in Ukrainian: in
1906 there were 18 such publications, and in 1907 already 25. The first
Ukrainian daily newspaper was "Public opinion" (later "Board")
out of the September 15, 1906 on August 2, 1914 It
collaborated leading figures of Ukrainian culture, in particular
Hrushevsky, I. Franco, A. Oles, W. Vynnychenko et al. Daily newspapers
Public word "," Advice "," new community "kept philanthropist
Let us turn to sources
With the announcement were revised and B. Grinchenko of the position paper "Public word"
word "oboronyatyme the Ukrainian people for their
national political life and therefore require the autonomy of Ukraine,
Ukrainian people to himself poryadkuvav their affairs and had its
boundary popular board, and other peoples in the Ukrainian land to
were also provided with their national law?
What is it about the document? What problem before the Ukrainian press and the people asked the authors of the document?
Passed into the Ukrainian language and the oldest at that time in Ukraine
Journal of the Kievskaya antiquity ", which began issued under the name" Ukraine ".
This year from Lviv to Kyiv moved edition
"Literary and Scientific Bulletin" Hrushevskyi. Formed imprint
was published fiction and popular scientific literature in Ukrainian
including Ukrainian classics.
During the 1905-1907 biennium there were nine in the Dnieper
cultural and educational organizations "Enlightenment" with 30 affiliates to
Revolution successfully operated only in Western Ukraine. Active
participate in their activities were prominent figures of Ukrainian culture
literature and science: in Kiev - B. Grinchenko Kosach L. (Les Ukrainian) and
Lysenko: in Yekaterinoslav - D. Yavomytskyi; in Chernigov -
M. Kotsyubynsky; in Poltava - P. Rudchenko (Panas Mirny) in
Nikolaev - M. Arkas; in Odessa - Komarova et al. "Enlightenment"
founded the library, reading rooms, organized literary and musical
readings, performances, lectures, etc., promoted his poems, performed
annual "Shevchenko anniversary. At the same time they sought to establish
Manufacture of scientific and popular literature in the Ukrainian language, opening schools
Revolutionary events found your comment in eastern Galicia, North
Bukovina, Transcarpathia Ukraine, where a wave of massive performances
against social and political oppression and national government, Polish,
Romanian and Hungarian powers. To guide the people's movement in
November 1905 established the People's Committee, led by
J. K. Romanchuk and Levitsky. Meeting the requirements of popular education reform
and open new schools with the Ukrainian language in 1905
took place in Lviv, Drohobych Bortnichi Tovmatskoho County and other
towns and villages. Long, if ineffective, was a struggle for
opening of a Ukrainian university in Lviv. Democratic
public protest exclusively German character
Chernivtsi University, insisted there right to use their native
language and open Ukraine's history department.
3.Ukrayinska community in the State Duma
- What was the social and the party composition of Ukrainian deputies in the State Duma?
- What fought Ukrainian community in the Duma and second thoughts?
In late February - early March 1906 was elected
And to the State Duma, which operated 72 days (from April 27 to July 8). From 9
Ukrainian provinces were elected 102 deputies: 24 landowners, 42
Representative of Peasants, 26 - intellectuals, 9 workers, 1 priest.
44 deputies who were set to fight in the State Duma for the resolution of the Ukrainian question, May 1906 created a Ukrainian community led by lawyer I. Schrage Chernihiv.
The political program requirements Ukrainian Duma community
- Political autonomy for Ukraine in its ethnic boundaries.
- Application of the Ukrainian language in schools, courts and local administrative bodies.
- Solving the agrarian question.
Interests whose populations reflect these requirements?
To aid in the Ukrainian community to the Duma from St. Petersburg
City moved Hrushevsky, who was familiar with the experience of
Ukrainian deputies in the Austrian parliament and the provincial Diet
Galicia and Bukovina. For his participation, the Ukrainian community issued
magazine "Ukrainian Journal.
However, the declaration of its program from the rostrum of the deputies had not,
And since the Duma was dissolved. Note also that the members of the Ukrainian
Duma community raised the issue of Jewish pogroms that
held with officials of the king's acquiescence. Ukrainian
deputy members of the community made a statement of protest, as head of the faction I. Schrage
were brought to justice for his speech with the Duma
Elections to the Duma II (existed for 103 days) occurred in January - February
1907 From the Ukrainian provinces elected 16 landowners, 4
priests, 17 intellectuals, 59 farmers, 6 workers.
Ukrainian deputies of the Duma again formed a community of 47 people. It was
part of an all-faction Trudovyk so called itself
Ukrainian labor community, received a legacy from predecessor
developed or initiated several bills in the land, workers
and educational work. Community issued the journal "Mother Right - NEWS
Thinking ", which published the speech of labor members of the Ukrainian community.
Let us turn to sources
Since the program Ukrainian migrant communities
and bring their recycling of public governance at national and
territorial (land) autonomy of all countries of the Russian Empire, which
humanity must obtain express rights and self-government? On
Economic Affairs, at the first competition we put people
land, who used to only those put to it a
work .. For robitnytskoyi case, we will require
eight-hour day, defense of women and children, insurance
for old age and in case of collapse.
What is it about the document? What is the essence of the political demands of Ukrainian migrant community 'whose interests reflect?
In III and IV thoughts Ukrainian factions did not exist.
3. End of Revolution 1905 - 1907 рр. and its results
- What events transpired in the years 1906 -1907?
- What were the consequences of the revolution?
After the defeat of armed uprisings in December 1905 wave
revolutionary action began to subside. However, workers of Kyiv and Kharkiv
more striking in 1906 anniversary of "Bloody Sunday". Great
scope in 1906 Pershotravnevy performance came from Odessa workers
which involved about 14 million people. May Day strikes and
meetings took place in enterprises of Kharkov and mines and factories
Summer 1906 in plants, factories, mines of Donbass occurred
crowded rallies, demonstrations, during which workers carried red
flags, singing revolutionary songs. As workers strike
factories of Kharkiv and Odessa. According to official data, Ukraine in 1906
striking about 100 thousand workers, and in 1907 - 63
Spring 1906 in 57, and in summer in 75 counties with 99 Ukrainian
provinces was held by peasants. Emerging peasant movement was
in some cases a combination of its workers' performances and
raising political awareness of some villagers. Yes, by authorized
Nicholas Board Workers' peasants organized food
help strikers and unemployed. Peasant delegates participated in
work Katerynoslavs'ka Board of Workers' Deputies. In some villages
revolutionary peasant committees took over the functions of
management. Sometimes the villagers to resort even to rallies and demonstrations.
In Lviv, a group of Democratic activists and the national liberation movement
headed by Ivan Franco established the newspaper "The public voice" that
Suppression of the population supported the Dnieper area. In Galicia was even
established organized group of Social Democrats of Russian Ukraine
about 2500 people. In 1906-1907 he here turned mass
strike movement, which in January 1906 was 300
meetings with the participation of almost 500 thousand people. He embraced and peasants gained
the largest scale in summer 1906, when 380 villages spread.
Strikers refused to harvest on the lands of the landlords demanded
higher pay, transfer land to the peasants for the general election
law in the legislative Austria-Hungary - the Reichstag.
Thousands rally organized farmers of the border with Russia
counties, threatening seizure of landlords' estates. In response to this
on the border with Russia was billed three additional cases of Austrian
Army. However, the government was forced to make some concessions, including
to abolish restrictions on elections to Parliament and give more rights
Active population performances in Dnieper Ukraine continued to
mid 1907 Meanwhile, the government was preparing a counter attack. June 3
1907 King signed a manifesto to dissolve the Duma II, which was
"To the left" than the first, and signed a new electoral law. Adoption
law without the Duma was in violation of 17 October and Manifesto "Basic
Laws of the Russian empire. Moreover tsarism violated parliamentary
immunity of deputies, arrested dozens of them and
sending into exile. That is why events June 3, 1907 believe coup and
completion of the Russian revolution. On the same day the head of the Russian government
P. Stolypin encrypted telegram sent to Governor of Kiev
requirement to establish order in the city and province. For June 4, 1907
to Kiev was sent to prison almost 100 people in Odessa
arrested about 70 active members of revolutionary events.
Thus, the revolution took place in several phases of its development:
"Exaltation - the culmination - bust that represent
drastic changes and shifts in public life. It was defeated
not achieved its main objectives. However, during deployment
revolutionary events there are new social and political events and trends
which further influenced the historical fate of Ukraine:
- binding and co workers, peasants and the national liberation movements;
- awareness of the masses efficiency and effectiveness of the pressure on the autocracy;
- of large-scale popular revolts;
- expansion due to the king's proclamation boundaries Manifesto
legal political and cultural activity, it marked a significant
Revitalization and diversification;
- intensification of the mass society of self-organization (the formation of political parties, councils, trade unions, etc.)
- appearance in opposition official legal channels of influence on power - Duma rostrum.
At the same time has not been settled or agricultural or domestic issues
workers are not achieved the 8-hour workday. Democratic rights and
freedoms gradually zhortalysya.
- How do you understand the concept of "bourgeois-democratic character of the revolution in Russia of 1905-1907?
- What segments of the Ukrainian population and how took part in it?
- Describe participation in the revolutionary events of the workers, peasants, intellectuals and bourgeois landlords.
- What was the role of political parties in the revolutionary events?
- Make a chronology of events and briefly describe the revolution any of them.
- What events are indicative of the revolution part in the military?
Comment on the statement of historian A. Boyko: "calibration uncertainty
oscillation of the peasantry and the Army that has traditionally supported or at least
loyal attitude toward autocracy, were also new
socio-political factor that played a vital role in
political developments, especially in the crucial 1917 "
- How to respond to different political parties manifesto October 17? How it affected the deployment of revolutionary events?
- What shows up raising the national liberation movement
the Russian Revolution? whether he was linked with other revolutionary
- For that fought in the Ukrainian community and second thoughts?
- Why the Bolsheviks considered very important for the interests of the revolution on the side of rebels crossing representatives troops?
- Is the revolutionary explosion in Russia of 1905-1907 of the modernization process? How?
- Why during the Revolution have Workers' Council? What role they played in the revolutionary events?
- Why Revolution defeated? Write a short essay, which argues the position on this issue.
- Assess the value of events in Ukraine during the revolution for the further fate of the Ukrainian nation and state.
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