Topic 6. The events of the Russian Revolution of 1905-1907 in Ukraine
Bourgeois-democratic revolution, Workers' Council, a manifesto, the State Duma of Russia,
Spring-Summer 1905, 14-25 June 1905, October 1905, November 1905, December 1905, May 1906, June 3, 1907
Ukraine in the First Russian Revolution 1905 - 1907 рр.
1. The revolutionary events in Ukraine in spring-summer 1905
Accumulation of political, economic and social contradictions in
early twentieth century. culminated in an explosion of social revolution
Of 1905-1907 Revolutionary events covered and Dnepr
Ukraine, hitting the interests of all strata and groups. Together with
all-revolution objectives: elimination of landlord
land ownership, redemption payments, the overthrow of the autocracy;
establishment of democratic freedoms, the eight-hour day
enterprises, bank Ukraine and put forward their particular
requirements, including the achievement of political, cultural and national
autonomy of the Ukrainian lands, and eventually independence.
The immediate impetus for the bourgeois-democratic revolution was * Shooting large peaceful demonstration of workers in St. Petersburg Sunday 9 January 1905, subsequently called "Bloody Sunday". Response on it are numerous natural performances. One of them began to strike 600 South Russian machine-building factory workers and factory Hretera and Kryvaneka in Kiev January 12, 1905 During the January strike workers Kharkov Katerynoslav, Odessa, Gorlovki, Uzivka, Mariupol, Zhytomyr and other cities. During February-March strike movement grew, Indeed, the incomplete data in the Ukrainian provinces strike 170 thousand.
Meeting at the October All-Russian strike in Kharkiv. 1905
In February-March 1905 Expandable performances peasants
Left Bank and other areas. Farmers mostly smashed possessions
landlords and rich businessmen. For example, in March 3 thousand peasants
County historical, Chernihiv province beat in sugar factory
Michael Farms, which belonged to Ukrainian entrepreneurs Tereshchenko.
By mid-1905 1300 was the following appearances.
Active participation in the revolutionary events took Ukrainian students, who created in St. Petersburg Home Student Council.
Let us turn to sources
On appeal the Chief Student Council
"To the Ukrainian citizenship, students, workers and Ukrainian
Officers in St. Petersburg. March 2, 1905
And all-Ukrainian political parties tried to influence the mass movement of population and natural lead performances:
- Party of Bolsheviks of some 4,5 thousand members had influence among unskilled workers Russified Odessa, Nikolaev, Ekaterinoslav;
- The Mensheviks and the Organization of Ukrainian skilled workers "Union", numbering about six thousand members maintained skilled workers in Donbass and Kharkiv;
- PA-USDRP (December 1905), which consisted of 3000 members linked the solution of social and political problems with resolution of national problems. It had influence among workers Ukrainian Kyiv and Krivoy Rog.
Summer 1905 mass revolutionary movement of the population grew. Intensified the labor movement. In April-August in the Ukrainian lands were part of Russia were 300 strikes, in which participated 100 thousand workers. June 13 held citywide strike workers of Odessa. The June performances of Ukrainian peasants in 1905 captured 64 of 94 counties. Scale peasant movement Ukraine ranked among the highest in the Russian Empire.
Until July 1905 46% of all counties were Dnieper Ukraine affected peasants performances. Great authority among the peasants used the All-Russian Peasant Union (VSS). In the guise of Ukraine there were seven provinces, a number of county and parish branches of the organization. Some local committees headed by armed VSS rebellion, acted as organs of peasant power.
A. Matyushenko on the battleship Potemkin. 1905
The revolutionary mood and entered the Navy. Among sailors Black Fleet Bolshevik organization was created "Sevastopol Marine Center. Members of this organization and sailors G. Vakulenchuka A. Matyushenko led uprising on the battleship Potemkin, on 14-25 June 1905Most sailors ship (the number of 730 teams) were Ukrainian. At the beginning of the uprising G. Vakulenchuka were killed. Leadership uprising passed to A. Matyushenka and member organizations of the Kharkiv rupee mechanical engineer Oleg Kovalenko - one of the few officers who deserted to sailors and actually became commander of the ship.
Let us turn to sources
With reports of the police officer police station port of Odessa Odessa chief of gendarmerie (1905)
On the rebel ship arrived, representatives of local and Menshevik Bolshevik organizations to sailors to disembark in the port uprising in the city and by working to capture Odessa. However, the sailors refused, hoping to support the whole squadron Black Sea Fleet. However, the king's troops surrounded the port blocking out the battleship at sea. On the night of 15 on June 16 Odessa port during the shooting killed about 100 people, 300 injuries. June 17 Potemkin out to sea to meet with the squadron 13 warships, sent by the government to suppress the uprising. But during a meeting with a revolutionary ship squadron sailors refused shoot for their comrades. Fearing a spread of rebellion on the ship squadron commanders had brought her to Sevastopol. The rebels have carried out road from Odessa to Feodosiya, and then in the Romanian port of Constanta where battleship command seemed to local authorities. Most crew members Potemkin remained in Romania and 54 people illegally returned to the Russia, among them was A. Matyushenko. In 1907 he was arrested and by sentence naval court executed.
His revolutionary movement reached its peak in October - December 1905 In Octoberworkers organized a strike-wide. In the Dnieper in
It was attended by over 120 million people. Slogans of the strikers were:
"Down with the tsarist government!", "Long live the popular uprising". Protest
campaign workers escalated into armed clashes and fights with barricades
's army (Ekaterinoslav, Kharkov, Odessa).
During the strike movement in October and November in Kyiv Yekaterinoslav Luhansk Kamians'ke, Gorlovka, Yenakiyevo (more than 50 cities and towns the workers) have Board Workers' *. They introduced an 8-hour day, in enterprises, establish food prices in the factory stores, controlled release governmental and regional newspapers, organized public health from pogroms and robbers and so on. Meanwhile trade unions were formed to protect the interests of workers. At the end of the revolution in the guise of Ukraine has already operated 284 trade unions.
Spring 1905 increased and the peasant movement. In the Dnieper Ukraine were about 300 cases defeat the landlords' estates. Special events have gained publicity in the village of Vyhvostovi Chernihiv region, reflected in the work of M. Kotsyubinskogo «Fata morgana», when October 1905 peasants defeated the landowner's estate and factory. In response prosperous peasants - "kulaks" had killed 15-poor villagers.
All-Russian political strike paralyzed the country and forced the king issue October 17, 1905 * manifesto about "civil rights and political freedom, "who" gave "the nationals of person, freedom of speech, conscience, assembly and association. Proclaiming convocation legislature of the State Duma elections involving all strata population. With the declaration of the manifest political forces that supported it created its own political parties to participate in the activities of thoughts: big industrialists, merchants and landlords - the Union of October 17 " (Octobrists), middle class and intelligentsia - Constitutional Democratic Party (Cadets).
Odessa citizens protesting against the tsar's manifesto of October 17. 1905
Began to prepare for elections and the Mensheviks and Social Revolutionaries. The Bolsheviks are
called for a boycott of elections and the escalation of strikes by workers in
armed insurrection to seize power and establish "the dictatorship
proletariat ", and virtually unlimited power of their own party.
Some large landowners, businessmen, chynovnyh, police ranks and other monarchist-minded representatives of various social strata considered manifest sign of weakness of imperial power and demanded his immediate cancellation and suppression of the revolution by force. Support Government supporters of the monarchy created the political organization of the Union russkoho people "," Union of the Archangel Gabriel "," version monarhycheskaya batch and others. who prepared for the formation of "black hundreds" for physical violence from members of protest and "inorodtsyamy. Black Hundreds accuse the Jews in the unrest in the country and started Jewish pogroms swept in Odessa, Katerynoslav, Kharkiv, Mykolayiv city of Donbass. Only in Kiev were killed during the pogrom of 1923 persons and 223 injured.
Compared to the all-party influence and strength Ukrainian political organizations in autumn 1905 were much smaller. In late 1905 changed its name to PA and USDRP strengthened their cooperation with RSDLP, which ended its accession the rights of individual national organization. UDP and PSA teamed up one party - the democratic-Ukrainian Radical Party (UDRP), which demanded cultural and national autonomy and standing positions on a close to party leaders, which worked. On of independence positions remained the UNP, urging all parties to create inter-block for strengthening the national character of the revolution.
У November 1905 in Sebastopol was new
Black Sea Fleet sailors revolt on the cruiser Ochakov "which
support another 12 ships. Led by his lieutenant P. Schmidt, who
telegram to Nicholas II wrote: "King, left the Black Sea Fleet
subordination of your irresponsible ministers cut Crimean
Peninsula, announced federal republic Crimea peninsula
requires full amnesty to political prisoners and the early convening of
Constituent Assembly. After 13-hour battle with loyal Tsars
troops of the rebels were defeated. P. Schmidt and his accomplice were
arrested and executed military tribunal verdict.
November 18 Moreover, in Kiev, rose 800 soldiers demining team led by Mr pidporuchykom Zhadanivskym. The soldiers, together with the workers of South Russian factory went to the Azov Regiment barracks. After a brief battle with insurgents loyal government troops of the uprising was crushed. 23 November the speech Kharkiv garrison soldiers and workers, which was attended by about 15 million people.
Group participants in the uprising in the yard engineers Lukianivska prison in Kiev. 1905
Holodnogorsko political prisoners in jail in Kharkiv. 1905
In December 1905 Mhar in farmers' sitting
the police officer was arrested and officers. Assistant spravnyka who came from
detachment of Cossacks, to release the arrested fork and they met
pins. Subsequently, the uprising was suppressed. Villagers forced more than four
hours to stand on her knees in the snow near the township board,
then they were beaten and many were sent to prison Poltava.
During the all-political strike in December 1905armed struggle has made the greatest rise. The Bolsheviks and partially Mensheviks and SRs called on workers to armed insurrection. They led directly to his training and fighting. In Ukraine, the armed Workers revolt erupted in Kharkov, Yekaterinoslav Olexandrivska (Zaporozhye), Donbass and other cities. In these events opposed the king's army special armed combat groups (Wife) workers.
One of the largest number of participants was armed uprising workers in the Donbass. The first group of combat fighting with the king's troops on 13 December and YASINOVATAYA Avdiyivka. Then the center events was Gorlovka. It was there December 16 royal troops staged massacre of local factory workers. In support of insurgent fighting squads arrived from neighboring towns and other plants - all 4 thousand. Of these, 800 combatants were armed with firearms, and Other - pykamy, iron bars and axes. December 17 rebels workers after 8-hour battle broke out and the army forced them retreat in the desert. The rebels were defeated after the aid 's army reinforcements came. Since 1906, revolutionary growth of the population went into decline.
What shows up raising the national liberation movement during the Russian Revolution?
In 1905-1907 he revolutionary forces under pressure the Russian authorities made some steps in addressing national issues. In particular law on November 21, 1905 were allowed to issue the language of literature, newspapers and magazines to produce, create cultural and educational associations, national theaters to open. In some schools began teaching the Ukrainian language. In many cities opened Ukrainian clubs, musical and drama groups, academic Society. Began to publish newspapers and periodicals in Ukrainian: in 1906 there were 18 such publications, and in 1907 already 25. The first Ukrainian daily newspaper was "Public opinion" (later "Board") out of the September 15, 1906 on August 2, 1914 It collaborated leading figures of Ukrainian culture, in particular Hrushevsky, I. Franco, A. Oles, W. Vynnychenko et al. Daily newspapers Public word "," Advice "," new community "kept philanthropist Were revised.
Let us turn to sources
With the announcement were revised and B. Grinchenko of the position paper "Public word"
Passed into the Ukrainian language and the oldest at that time in Ukraine
Journal of the Kievskaya antiquity ", which began issued under the name" Ukraine ".
This year from Lviv to Kyiv moved edition
"Literary and Scientific Bulletin" Hrushevskyi. Formed imprint
was published fiction and popular scientific literature in Ukrainian
including Ukrainian classics.
During the 1905-1907 biennium there were nine in the Dnieper cultural and educational organizations "Enlightenment" with 30 affiliates to Revolution successfully operated only in Western Ukraine. Active participate in their activities were prominent figures of Ukrainian culture literature and science: in Kiev - B. Grinchenko Kosach L. (Les Ukrainian) and Lysenko: in Yekaterinoslav - D. Yavomytskyi; in Chernigov - M. Kotsyubynsky; in Poltava - P. Rudchenko (Panas Mirny) in Nikolaev - M. Arkas; in Odessa - Komarova et al. "Enlightenment" founded the library, reading rooms, organized literary and musical readings, performances, lectures, etc., promoted his poems, performed annual "Shevchenko anniversary. At the same time they sought to establish Manufacture of scientific and popular literature in the Ukrainian language, opening schools native language.
Revolutionary events found your comment in eastern Galicia, North Bukovina, Transcarpathia Ukraine, where a wave of massive performances against social and political oppression and national government, Polish, Romanian and Hungarian powers. To guide the people's movement in November 1905 established the People's Committee, led by J. K. Romanchuk and Levitsky. Meeting the requirements of popular education reform and open new schools with the Ukrainian language in 1905 took place in Lviv, Drohobych Bortnichi Tovmatskoho County and other towns and villages. Long, if ineffective, was a struggle for opening of a Ukrainian university in Lviv. Democratic public protest exclusively German character Chernivtsi University, insisted there right to use their native language and open Ukraine's history department.
3.Ukrayinska community in the State Duma
In late February - early March 1906 was elected
And to the State Duma, which operated 72 days (from April 27 to July 8). From 9
Ukrainian provinces were elected 102 deputies: 24 landowners, 42
Representative of Peasants, 26 - intellectuals, 9 workers, 1 priest.
44 deputies who were set to fight in the State Duma for the resolution of the Ukrainian question, May 1906 created a Ukrainian community led by lawyer I. Schrage Chernihiv.
The political program requirements Ukrainian Duma community
Interests whose populations reflect these requirements?
To aid in the Ukrainian community to the Duma from St. Petersburg
City moved Hrushevsky, who was familiar with the experience of
Ukrainian deputies in the Austrian parliament and the provincial Diet
Galicia and Bukovina. For his participation, the Ukrainian community issued
magazine "Ukrainian Journal.
However, the declaration of its program from the rostrum of the deputies had not, And since the Duma was dissolved. Note also that the members of the Ukrainian Duma community raised the issue of Jewish pogroms that held with officials of the king's acquiescence. Ukrainian deputy members of the community made a statement of protest, as head of the faction I. Schrage were brought to justice for his speech with the Duma this issue.
Elections to the Duma II (existed for 103 days) occurred in January - February 1907 From the Ukrainian provinces elected 16 landowners, 4 priests, 17 intellectuals, 59 farmers, 6 workers. Ukrainian deputies of the Duma again formed a community of 47 people. It was part of an all-faction Trudovyk so called itself Ukrainian labor community, received a legacy from predecessor developed or initiated several bills in the land, workers and educational work. Community issued the journal "Mother Right - NEWS Thinking ", which published the speech of labor members of the Ukrainian community.
Let us turn to sources
Since the program Ukrainian migrant communities
In III and IV thoughts Ukrainian factions did not exist.
3. End of Revolution 1905 - 1907 рр. and its results
After the defeat of armed uprisings in December 1905 wave
revolutionary action began to subside. However, workers of Kyiv and Kharkiv
more striking in 1906 anniversary of "Bloody Sunday". Great
scope in 1906 Pershotravnevy performance came from Odessa workers
which involved about 14 million people. May Day strikes and
meetings took place in enterprises of Kharkov and mines and factories
Summer 1906 in plants, factories, mines of Donbass occurred crowded rallies, demonstrations, during which workers carried red flags, singing revolutionary songs. As workers strike factories of Kharkiv and Odessa. According to official data, Ukraine in 1906 striking about 100 thousand workers, and in 1907 - 63 thousand workers.
Spring 1906 in 57, and in summer in 75 counties with 99 Ukrainian provinces was held by peasants. Emerging peasant movement was in some cases a combination of its workers' performances and raising political awareness of some villagers. Yes, by authorized Nicholas Board Workers' peasants organized food help strikers and unemployed. Peasant delegates participated in work Katerynoslavs'ka Board of Workers' Deputies. In some villages revolutionary peasant committees took over the functions of management. Sometimes the villagers to resort even to rallies and demonstrations.
In Lviv, a group of Democratic activists and the national liberation movement headed by Ivan Franco established the newspaper "The public voice" that Suppression of the population supported the Dnieper area. In Galicia was even established organized group of Social Democrats of Russian Ukraine about 2500 people. In 1906-1907 he here turned mass strike movement, which in January 1906 was 300 meetings with the participation of almost 500 thousand people. He embraced and peasants gained the largest scale in summer 1906, when 380 villages spread. Strikers refused to harvest on the lands of the landlords demanded higher pay, transfer land to the peasants for the general election law in the legislative Austria-Hungary - the Reichstag. Thousands rally organized farmers of the border with Russia counties, threatening seizure of landlords' estates. In response to this on the border with Russia was billed three additional cases of Austrian Army. However, the government was forced to make some concessions, including to abolish restrictions on elections to Parliament and give more rights Ukrainian culture.
Active population performances in Dnieper Ukraine continued to mid 1907 Meanwhile, the government was preparing a counter attack. June 3 1907 King signed a manifesto to dissolve the Duma II, which was "To the left" than the first, and signed a new electoral law. Adoption law without the Duma was in violation of 17 October and Manifesto "Basic Laws of the Russian empire. Moreover tsarism violated parliamentary immunity of deputies, arrested dozens of them and sending into exile. That is why events June 3, 1907 believe coup and completion of the Russian revolution. On the same day the head of the Russian government P. Stolypin encrypted telegram sent to Governor of Kiev requirement to establish order in the city and province. For June 4, 1907 to Kiev was sent to prison almost 100 people in Odessa arrested about 70 active members of revolutionary events.
Thus, the revolution took place in several phases of its development: "Exaltation - the culmination - bust that represent drastic changes and shifts in public life. It was defeated not achieved its main objectives. However, during deployment revolutionary events there are new social and political events and trends which further influenced the historical fate of Ukraine:
At the same time has not been settled or agricultural or domestic issues workers are not achieved the 8-hour workday. Democratic rights and freedoms gradually zhortalysya.