Subject 5. Ethno-social and political processesUkrainian lands in the early twentieth century.
Nationality, nation, the Ukrainian nation's modern political nation, the politicization of society, political party, autonomy
1900 1900-1903 biennium, 1902
1.Problemy formation and consolidation of the Ukrainian nation
In the second half of the nineteenth century. after elimination feudal and feudal relations on the territory of Ukraine has intensified and accelerated the consolidation process Ukrainian nation on ethnic basis *.
Nation (From Lat. Natio - people) - large
community of people who are aware of their unity
political, economic and cultural interests in the shaping of their
Common areas of economic ties, language and
nation state or mass struggle for its establishment.
The consolidation of the Ukrainian nation – process that occurs under the influence of modernization and characterized great awareness of common human need to create your own national state on the basis of community boundaries and territory of residence formation and distribution of a common language and culture, strengthening economic ties.
It manifested itself primarily in the development of national consciousness that became the unifying factor of the Ukrainian community. Decisive role in This process played a major part of Ukrainian lands, known as Main Dnieper Ukraine. That is, objectively formed on large base of ancient historical and geographical regions, was a compact integrity, without which there could be no Ukrainian nationality nor Ukrainian nation.
Factors affecting the formation of the Ukrainian nation and caused the features of this process
Further consolidation of the Ukrainian nation is closely linked to features of modernization processes that includes all areas of life society. She was accompanied by population growth throughout territory of the Ukrainian lands, which occurred both by natural gain and the displacement due to these lands, including representatives of other nationalities. In the early twentieth century population Ukrainian lands is becoming more multinational. According to researcher A. Ponomarev, most people in the Ukrainian lands were Ukrainian - 72%, there were Russians - 12%, Jews - 8% Germans - 2% Polish - 1,2%, Belarusians, and Tatars - by 0,9%, Moldova - 0,8%, Greeks and Bulgarians - by 0,3%, Czechs - 0,2%, Armenian - 0,05% Karaites and the Turks - on 0,03%, Gypsies, Estonians, Latvians - on 0,01%, representatives of other national groups - 0,5%. Moreover, ethnic composition of different regions was not uniform, explained that different historical destiny of the population of a region and the nature modernization processes. Under these conditions there was a question of becoming modern nation, as the person to be incorporated into the world, which quickly was updated, it was necessary to change the scope and samoutverdzhuvatysya, identifying himself not with a small local group (family, community, settlement), but with large communities such as the nation.
The term "modern nation" became established in domestic political thought in the early twentieth century.
Let us turn to sources
In a modern day Ukrainian, as an ethnic nation, have become the driving
force in building the nation state. In the early twentieth century.
national movement embraced all strata of the Ukrainian population. Leaders
This movement began to realize that Ukrainian modern political nation should be going not only ethnic Ukrainian, but also ethnic minorities living in Ukraine.
However, the close relationship between the development of economy, culture and language and the process of consolidation at the turn of XIX-XX centuries. not happened. Politics ruling circles of Russia and Austria-Hungary led objectively to the denationalization of the Ukrainian population. Impediments to development national consciousness was and insufficient level of education. Finally the very existence of the Russian-Austrian-Hungarian border uskladnyuvala economic, social, political and cultural ties between western and eastern states. It created the strongest negative impact on the formation and consolidation of Ukrainian modern nation, which could be completed only if reunification Ukrainian lands into one state.
2. The politicization of Ukrainian society and the liberation movement
What evidence of politicization of Ukrainian society and the liberation movement?
In the early twentieth century. increased the politicization of Ukrainian
Society *, which was conditioned by intensive development of economy,
shifts in the social structure of society, growing protest
potential in relation to power, the deployment of the national movement,
development of parliamentarism. Existing internal contradictions strengthened
contradictory processes of modernization of society, economic crisis
worsening the lives of workers, exacerbating the agrarian and national
questions *. The main force of the protest movement was the intelligentsia, which
joined by workers and peasants.
1900-1903 years associated with massive speakers industrial workers. May 1, 1900 (Day celebration Labour), a mass demonstration workers in Kharkiv with the requirements of 8-hour workday and political freedoms *. In March 1901 mass demonstrations of workers and students took place in Kiev. U1902 was May Day demonstrations and strikes have already covered several large cities of Ukraine: Kyiv, Ekaterinoslav, Kharkov et al. Requirements protesters were: freedom of trade unions, strike, 8-hour day, abolition nadurochnih works increase salaries. Often the organizers of similar events were representatives of radical political parties.
Especially large-scale strikes and demonstrations unfolded in July-August 1903, covering Kyiv, Nikolaev, Yelipavethrad, Ekaterinoslav, Kerch et al. They took part in 115 thousand workers of various industrial regions. Participants, in addition to traditional economic requirements and put forward the slogan "Down with autocracy!".
The Imperial Government responded to the workers repression. Only 1903 in clashes with police and troops killed more than 100 workers, many protesters were injured, Over 2 thousand were arrested.
Actively fought for their rights and workers of Western Ukraine. In 1900-1903 he Eastern Galicia was 42 strikes. The biggest strike was in Lviv builders, which was attended by five thousand workers. Police and gendarmerie have done over the bloody strikers massacre.
Photo strike oil Borislav
The implications of the polarization property and sharpening contradictions in the
become a crisis and mass peasant movements. Unlike their workers
performances for the most part had a spontaneous character. Peasants seized
landlords' land and the land, opposed the division of land, destroyed
landlords' crops and hayfields, forests cut down, spoke against the sale
property for back taxes, refusing to pay debts and other charges
required improvement leases and other conditions. However, increasingly
and villagers resorted to a more acute forms of struggle. In 1902Dnieper in most mass was by peasants in Podolsk,
Poltava and Kharkov provinces. Rural poor crushed 40
landlords' estates, burned the 2 plants, taken over about 2 thousand acres
landed estates. In the years 1903-1904 in the villages was Naddniprianshchyna
about 1 thousand poor performances.
In defense of its interests were farmers and West lands. The largest scale peasants acquired protest summer 1902 Eastern Galicia, which was attended by over 500 villages and almost 200 thousand peasants.
Although these performances were of massive, generally in the majority they were weakly organized, and claims the rebels - not formulated clearly and consciously. However, the government is not going to make concessions, but failed to repression. Police and troops used weapons against the peasants. Significant number of protesters ended up in jail. Peasants revolt areas were imposed heavy fines, loss of which recovered landowners.
What is common and what you see is different between the workers and peasants' performances this time?
Let us turn to sources
From the striking workers of Odessa cards (July 1903)
Our heavy fighting with government capital. But it is especially difficult in
no rights in Tsarist Russia. Many fellow fighters have seized and
arrested. The Army and the Cossacks, gendarmes and police are ready. Against
We have not operated weapons, but who knows what will happen next?
The mass demonstrations of workers and peasants had a significant performance
impact on the most sensitive part of the revitalization movement of intellectuals -
students. General political disempowerment of the people, the actual deprivation
autonomy of universities, national oppression, police
supervision displeased best part of the students that
vylyvalosya in strikes, Pod Blach
In 1900 Students organized a community assembly in Lviv Ukrainian students from different universities Austria-Hungary, which made a demand for open government in Ukraine Ukrainian university. In January 1901 in Kyiv University for participating in protests, the government has been given to 183 soldiers students. In response to the empire began an all student strike, which was attended by students of Kyiv, Kharkiv, Odessa. They were joined by high school gymnasiums, workshops, real colleges and technical schools. That same year, the requirements of lifting free cultural development of the Ukrainian people, human learn their native language by the students of Lviv National University.
Students sought to unite their efforts to achievement of democratic freedoms and the rise of national consciousness Ukrainian society, creating a secret society in Kiev Chernihiv Lubnah, Odessa, Lviv and other cities. Then they started hold their meetings and endorsed resolutions put forward demands to the government carry out socio-economic and political reform.
Given the intensification of reform sentiment in the community centers antimonarchical liberal opposition were zemstvos. The purpose of a liberal movement was the development of economic society on market principles by replacing absolute monarchy to constitutional. Members traffic develop projects for the reform of local empowerment government, constitution, welfare and cultural and educational standards, ensuring the protection of its health and sent them to the king and government officials. The main earthly power of the opposition movement were intellectuals, nobility and officials. Among the active leaders of the movement were zemskoye B. Grinchenko Kotsyubyns'kyi Lyzogub F., B. Martos and others.
In 1903 Zemskov liberal intellectuals with
founded the Union of Liberation ", which demanded a constitution and
introduction of universal suffrage. That same year, liberal-minded
landowners formed the "Union Zemstvo-Constitution. In the following years
a series of county conventions, delegates will convene sought
representative legislative body of the Russian Empire.
Intensified at the beginning of the century and the liberation movement. Ukrainian public, reputable scientists, cultural workers launched a massive Company for cancellation and Valuev Ems Decrees and Ukrainian deprived of the right to own cultural development. Specifically, 1905 Scientists of the Russian Academy of Sciences Korshia F. and A. Chess prepared a thorough report "On Othman stesnenyy malorusskoho PWB words, which were made at a general meeting of academicians and support received, sent text reports the royal government. In democratic and liberal newspapers published lists of persons who Ukrainian demanded freedom of speech.
In the late nineteenth century. in Kyiv Initiative and V. Antonovich A. Konyskyi was formed all Ukrainian non-party democratic organization (ZUBDO). This politically-association was aimed at join the Ukrainian intelligentsia culture is to work for national revival in Ukraine. In the early twentieth century. ZUBDO counted over 150 people, combining the former leaders of the Old Kyiv communities, "Fraternity tarasivtsi and others. From 1901 This organization was not with individual members, with 20 autonomous communities, of which elected delegates to the congresses, held twice a year. ZUBDO directed its efforts at promoting ideas among intellectuals Ukrainian national cultural renaissance, and publication distribution of Ukrainian written word, which created the basis future Ukrainian political organizations and to form frames for them.
Since over eastern Galicia the Ukrainian word prohibition tended and print here illegally imported to many in Naddniprianshchyna Ukrainian publications. A company "Falcons" and Sitch, who acquired mass distribution, the Ukrainian Galician patriots actively nurtured young people in the military traditions of Ukrainian Cossacks.
Map. Social and political life of Ukrainian lands in the second half of XIX - early XX century.
3.Ukrayinski and the all political parties
Political Party (From Lat. Pars (parties)) - part of the group) - political organization, which expresses the interests of a particular social group (or groups) brings together the most active of its members and strives to achieve certain goals and ideals.
The first Ukrainian political party was established in 1890 in
Lviv Ruthenian-Ukrainian Radical Party (RURP) that attempted
protect the social interests of Ukrainian peasants and defended
national rights of the Ukrainian population of Galicia. However, the party not
received broad support among the Galician by radicalism and
socialist ideology. Eventually some of its members left the RURP and
united with the populists, created in 1899 Ukrainian
National Democratic Party (the UNDP). Combining these two factors
political forces was their departure from socialist ideas in favor of
national. UNDP, based on a national platform and exposure
autonomous region as part of Austria, became a powerful political force that
have resisted the Polish nationalist movement in Galicia.
Another political party that emerged from RURP in 1899, was the Ukrainian Social Democratic Party (USDP) - legal reformist Socialist Party, which operated in Galicia and Bukovina. Relying mainly on industrial and agricultural workers and taking care of their social protection, was on USDP positions of collegiality and independence of Ukraine. It has actively cooperated with trade union movement, but broad support among the population is small.
Together with parties representing the political forces Ukrainophiles in Western lands were Russophiles and political associations. In 1900 Lviv Ruska formed People's Party (ANP). Its members were mostly members of the clergy and in part - peasantry. The main purpose of ANP proclaimed unity of the Ukrainian Russians, using the Russian language in all spheres of public life. ANP led struggle against the Ukrainian national parties, accusing them of trying to split the "only people of Rus', which Party leaders attributed and Ukrainian, and focused in their activities in support of the Russian Empire. This caused a negative reaction from Austro-Hungary, who in return appointed to administrative positions in Polish Galicia, trying to make people like them regime, oppose the deployment of Ukrainian national movement.
In such circumstances, the Ukrainian national movement, led by political parties was increasing opposition to the imperial power. He is focusing on his own strength among the people and had him support.
At the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. emerging political parties and in the Russian Ukraine. In 1900radical Ukrainophile created for college students in Kharkiv Revolutionary Ukrainian party (RUP). Its founders were members of the student community of Kharkov D. Antonovich, M. Rusov, P. Andrew et al. Chairman of the party became D. Antonovich. He made a request to write a program for the newly formed party to M. Mikhnovsky, which is still studying at the Faculty of Kyiv University, 1893 developed the basic political principles of "Brotherhood tarasivtsi.
M. Mihnovskiy has developed and issued it as a brochure entitled "Independent Ukraine".
Let us turn to sources
From the Revolutionary Ukrainian party program "Independent Ukraine"
Using the established party publications and local branches, members parties tried to influence political thought in Society, organized propaganda of their ideas primarily among the peasants, are considered the foundation of the Ukrainian nation. But then, most of Party demanded to coordinate activities in PA social democratic side as opposed to ideas of independence. In 1903 Party rejected the program and took Mihnovskiy M. new - social democratic. Part of MSA led D. Antonovich, V. Vynnychenko Petliura, M. Porsche transformed into Ukrainian Social-Democratic Party (USDRP). Her program included idea of autonomy of Ukraine, the confiscation of land ownership, has seen possible association with RSDLP on federal basis *.
Supporters M. Mikhnovsky, which in 1902 out of the MSA created Ukrainian People's Party (UNP), a software framework based on M. Mihnovskiy brochure "Independent Ukraine". Moreover, M. Mihnovskiy wrote a short program of the newly formed party known as the "Ten commandments of the UNP, which became one of the most critical documents Ukrainian independent movement. The document was criticized by political opponents of the UNP, but Ukrainian nationalists, represented by its position as defensive, aimed at self-preservation Ukrainian, as opposition great-Russian chauvinism, which tried denationalize Ukrainian. The main aim was to achieve UNP Ukraine's independence by launching strikes and armed uprisings. Party members were mainly intellectuals, students, small landowners.
At the beginning of the century have intensified their activities and representatives liberal-democratic trend, which in 1904 created Ukrainian Democratic Party (UDP). Its leaders became Efremova, B. Grinchenko Were revised and others.
With the appeal "from the Ukrainian Democratic Party"
The main principles of our party are:
1.Znesennya political absolutism, the introduction of a parliamentary system, people's participation in public affairs on the basis of public direct, equal, proportional voting and hidden things. 2. Individual liberty, expression, faith ... assembly, association, organization, strikes. Destruction of states. 3. The introduction of popular language in schools, courts, and administration in all public institutions. 4. Demand for ... territories inhabited by the Ukrainian people, autonomy. 5. With regard to economic ... on: a) 8-hour day, b) to state pension workers that lived to 60 years in) the progressive tax revenues. 6. Determine that the earth can only handle those that it process ...
For people who live in Ukraine ... We define equal with Ukrainian law to meet their national, cultural, political and economic needs.
What are economic or political, dominated in the document? As proposed UDP solve the national question?
Let us turn to sources
With the appeal "from the Ukrainian Democratic Party"
In 1904 emerged in Kyiv another Ukrainian national
Liberal Party - Ukrainian radical (PSA), which led
Writers Grinchenko B., S. Wilkens, F. Matushevskiy. In 1905
the two parties merged to form a democratically-Ukrainian Radical Party, which with
1907 was named the Ukrainian Labour Party.
Except for Ukrainian political parties in the Dnieper and the all were.
The cells most numerous ones of the Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP) operated throughout the Russian Empire, in including the Russian Ukraine. In 1903 in RSDLP was split: the majority, led by Lenin (Ulyanov) would create a strong party of revolutionaries with a firm discipline under management directives of the Central Committee (Bolsheviks), and a smaller part, led by L. Martov was for a looser organization Workers by type of German Social-Democrats (Mensheviks). On Bolshevik positions were Ekaterynoslavsky, Nicholas committees. Menshevik position occupied Kyiv, Kharkiv and committees RSDLP Donetsk union workers. There have been many organizations that for various reasons undecided. Despite the disagreements, the ultimate goal was RSDLP declared victory in the socialist revolution and building proletarian state on the territory of a single indivisible Russia.
In the Dnieper were branches of the party and national type - General Union of Jewish workers in Lithuania, Poland and Russia (Bund), established in 1897 Before 1903 Bund was a RSDLP the rights of autonomous organizations in matters relating Jewish proletariat. Its leaders have offered to build for RSDLP national principle, but did not receive support. In Ukraine, the Bund was active in Kiev, Podolia and Volyn provinces and major industrial cities.
Another all-party, acting in Ukraine, was the Party Socialist Revolutionaries (SRs), established in 1902 Its program based on the ideas of democratic socialism and a special way to his agrarian countries, mainly Russia and set the main task overthrow the power of the king, and the democratic republic socialization of the land so that it belonged to those who work it. This position provided her party's support from the peasantry. In related to formation of Russian statehood Revolutionaries fought for federal Republic of the broad autonomy of urban and rural communities as well as Regions with national recognition for their right to self-determination.
Some effects on the population in Dnieper Ukraine and organization were anarchists.
Ruling class (bourgeoisie and landlords) at that time not yet felt the need to have their own political party, but because they created later. Some achievements of the Ukrainian liberation movement was engaging in a group known spolschenyh medieval nobility families. They joined in the fight for the rights of Ukrainian citizens and some of them Ukrainian became the founders of conservatism (F. Umanets, V. Gorlenko, Doroshenko et al.) Leading spokesman for conservatism Ukrainian political thought was Mr. Lipinski (1882-1931), who believed only our own state, built by the Ukrainian nation in its ethnographic territory, save the nation from economic collapse and bloody anarchy. The tenor of V. Lipinsky are the words: "No we do not build a country where we do not build it yourself, and none of us not make a nation when we are a nation does not want to be. "In his view, consolidating factor of Ukrainian society is the idea constitutional monarchy founded by Bohdan Khmelnytsky. This should be labor, legal and hereditary monarchy headed by Hetman. The main foundation, which has bottomed Ukrainian monarchy Mr. Lipinski called aristocracy, creation of the Ukrainian political nation ("territorial patriotism" *), a peasant as a social foundation state, religious spirit.
Nation V. Lipinsky serves as a political community that includes a state of all citizens, regardless of their ethnic accessories. Ensuring national unity and territorial serves patriotism - a recognition of its territory, to love their land, a sense unity and cooperation among all its residents, regardless of their origin, social class and ethnicity, religion.
Stages of Ukrainian nation
The essence of the processes taking place