Subject 4. Contradictory processes of modernization of social life
The modernization of everyday life, urbanization, emancipation, migration, emigration
The development of market relations significantly affect the position of the Ukrainian
population. Everyone now had the right to buy or sell land
real estate and other goods to business, prosper or
want according to their effort and ability.
Dominant position in the economic sphere occupied bourgeoisie. It formed from that part of the nobility and the landowners who were able to adapt their estates to the present market conditions, traders, peasants and wealthy others.
Let us turn to sources
From the memoirs of the Ukrainian landowner Skoropadsky
According to its property as the bourgeoisie was divided into large, medium and
sheep. Upper class - landowners, wealthy merchants, owners of banks
and large companies - not many, but had considerable
capital. Middle class were the owners of medium-sized industrial
businesses, merchants and others. Petty bourgeoisie represented by wealthy farmers,
owners of small industrial enterprises, artisan workshops,
stores and others. The bourgeoisie has been active in business
activity and used hired labor. The ethnic composition
it was a multinational, and the Ukrainian had in it
The most numerous population of the Ukrainian lands was peasantry. For property level rozsharovuvalos it on the rich middle and poor. Wealthy villagers oriented economy based on its production of commodity products to the market and approached on its opportunities to the bourgeoisie. They worked themselves in their own economy and using hired labor. With revenue from sales agricultural products they bought the necessary equipment, quality seeds and others. and increased productivity of their farms. However, rich farmers tried to increase their land ownership by acquiring put impoverished villagers.
Farmers middle-owned plots of 8.10 ha and had a traction force (Horses, oxen), typically a few head of cattle. They were economy based largely on the strength of their family. Most of the crop was in their own needs and sell the rest and bought implements and other goods necessary for life.
Ukrainian village. The beginning of the twentieth century.
Much of the rural population were poor peasants - those who have plots of land up to 5 hectares or do not have them. Predicament forced to lease their land to wealthy farmers or landlords or employed in seasonal employment in wealthy households. However, rents often reached up to 60% of the harvest. Together with to note that the reasons predicament of rural poor were not only the shortage of arable land and bezzemellya and sometimes inability to farm, health problems or laziness.
Let us turn to sources
With memories of a peasant from Galicia D. Kuplyala
Notes From a French vice-consul, 1910
In a further development of market relations utverdzhuvalasya new
population - industrial workers. Since excess
workforce in rural Dnieper area was over 9 million inhabitants,
about 1 million of them to swell the number of workers. Early
Twentieth century. in the Dnieper they were 7% of the existing work
By its composition, industrial workers were also not uniform groups. Some of them worked in the business permanently. For them become the only source of wages. A significant share were seasonal workers from the rural poor, who upon completion of agricultural activities were undermining of the industrial companies and, on the field works returned to the village. Their reluctance to break away from the village explained that having land put, they hoped by jobs and land prykupyty improve their social position. In addition, their character vidlyakuvav work in mines, mines and other industrial enterprises. Without own homes, they lived in a working barracks or rented accommodation, paying him much of his earnings. Heavy residential and living conditions, antysanitariya in which villages were working, often were the cause of disease with which few health workers may not could cope.
Accommodation miners in the early twentieth century.
Wages of permanent workers was different depending on
qualifications and character of work, but compared to paying farmers
work, it was much bigger. For example, Lugansk cartridge
plant it varied from 8 to 125 rubles a month, and workers on
oil production in Galicia earned per month on average
100 kroons, which amounted to two-year income for farmers.
In 1900 average daily earnings of miners Golubovska Mine was 1 ruble 42 kopecks. and worker rolling Plant Lugansk Locomotive Plant 1 ruble 47 kopecks. If the worker's earnings compare with the prices of food, the picture was as follows: 1 kg rye bread cost 5 kopecks., Wheat - 7 cop., beef 40-80 cop., pork 30-50 cop., Sugar - 38 kopecks., Salmon - 1 ruble, Potatoes - 3-5 cop. However, prices for clothing, footwear, housing was high, absorbing 60% of wages and work in enterprises and mines, exhausting and dangerous.
Old way vidkatky coal. Donbass, 1911
In addition, companies would normally have been co-owners
Foreigners were placed strict orders. Thus, Uzovskij
Steel Plant for the worker to neglect their
duties were punished by a fine - 3 rubles for smoking while working - 2
Ruble, for being late by 15 minutes daily income deprived.
A higher standard of living had families of skilled workers. They ate better, buying expensive clothes, their homes oblashtovuvaly quality furniture. Highly skilled workers wrote out magazines have books in libraries. On the weekend visiting with family cinema, popular culture houses, Sunday schools.
In general standard of living of Ukrainian lands, which belonged to Russia was in 2 times lower than in Germany, four times - than in England.
The situation of workers in Western Ukraine was determined weave in the economy and capitalist forms of economic retardation. At the beginning of XX century. working hours on enterprises in Galicia was much longer than in other provinces Austria-Hungary, and ranged from 11 to 16 hours. Permanent disaster was injuries of workers. Only during the 1902-1904 biennium on Galicia enterprises was about 8,5 thousand accidents. And the owners of factories and mines shied away from paying any compensation to victims. Wages of Workers of Western was the lowest in Austria-Hungary and did not provide a living minimum. They lived mainly in shacks, huts and so on.
Was extremely unsatisfactory situation of such groups as the workers farm. Despite the departure of the peasantry to earnings, the bulk of it on the Right Bank and Left Bank to naymalasya local landlords and rich peasants on usurious terms. Among main forms of employment of labor (by day, month, and fixed years) dominated by char and annual shape. Resorted to hiring mainly and landless peasants malozemelni at very low wages. For example, on the Right Bank in 1910 it ranged from 62 to 86 kopecks. a day. Pay for women and adolescents was 42-77% of earnings "full" worker. Working day practically was from east to west. The absence of any occupational safety often led to accidents. Use of entangled systems fines opened wide scope for abuses by the administration estates.
The structure of Ukrainian society, but these groups were also social groups such as military, government officials, clergy, traders and others.
2. The process of modernization of everyday life
In the early twentieth century. as a result of modernization, which included
transition to higher levels of economic life with the relevant
structural changes in society, and a significant change in
everyday life of people of Ukrainian lands.
One of the important aspects of this process was the displacement of old noble elite, the bourgeoisie, which utverdzhuvalas as the new dominant stratum. For the old elite was characterized by preservation of noble Honour, high education, excellent education and aristocratic style behavior that revealed in the external elegance, sophistication and arrogance. She liked to receptions and splendid balls.
Bourgeois were people with entrepreneurial vein, not all of them had university education, with preference for the acquisition of knowledge related to practical business, commerce. Other and have fun. Merchants, such as liked to gather in their clubs and arrange for banquets celebration of events and festivities with a lush meal.
The old elite treated with contempt the bourgeoisie, but losing its position in society was forced to reckon with the new classes, which nourish their capital in the economy and claimed political power.
The result was the modernization of property * polarization among the population. However, in a life rich peasants, middle and poor hardly differed among themselves. All were of approximately the same clothes, did not significantly differed and household decoration. The villagers went to church together, the village assembly. Among them were polite, greeted each other, despite level of wealth.
Polarization property in the town was more contrast from the outside. Wealthy residents (bankers, businessmen, merchants) have spared no money for construction own luxury housing. It was built in exquisite architectural styles oblashtovuvalos household amenities (electric lighting, telephone, water, sewerage), luxuriously meblyuvalosya.
Former Villa r.Kovshevycha, Lviv
However, in urban backyards, ravines crowded house urban masses.
Often the owners of such housing might give part of the families of workers
thus trying to improve their financial situation. Family
Workers looking for cheaper housing and often settled in the so-called
apartments bed capacity komirchanoho-type. All arrangement consisted of
beds, chests, a small table and a couple of chairs. Lived in such families from
wages in pay, were often in debt, eating poorly.
Clothes worn by cheap sometimes homemade.
Relations between the rich burghers and urban poor were not friendly and often hostile.
The modernization process has strengthened urbanization. Growth urban population is mainly happening with the advent of large number of farmers who lost their livelihoods in the countryside, seeking work in city.
Urbanization – quantitative increase and development of cities, increasing urban population, displacement of rural population in the city and its annexation to the values of urban life, urban life.
Urban population in the Ukrainian lands was part of Russia (1910 - 1913's)
On that particular modernization processes are evidenced in the table data?
Increased demand for cheap housing has led to cities in
lodging houses, barracks, inhabited by newly commoners, not yet
time to adapt to the urban environment. They departed from
peasant culture building and not included in the rhythm of city life.
The situation of these people was shaky, as a result of low skill
fluctuations in demand happened in their work and share some of them
to swell the urban gang of criminals, vagrants, beggars. All this
intensified tensions in society, as quantified growing city
bottoms "tyrazhuvaly" among a certain segment of urban population requirements
egalitarianism and consumerism.
Considerable controversy generated and national composition of cities, because popovnyuvalos urban population, mostly, not only in Ukrainian rural poor, but also immigrants from the Russian provinces. They came to town with his Ukrainian mentality, culture, language. In Russian-speaking cities Naddniprianshchyna utverdzhuvalos environment. This trend and strengthened the imperial policy of Russification. Considerable percentage of the population of Ukraine's cities were Jews, as well as foreigners (British, Germans, Frenchmen, Belgians and others.) that were involved business, working engineers, craftsmen at industry, taught in universities, not know the Ukrainian language and means of communication with local people to they became Russian. As a result, Ukrainian culture and language lost its position in the Ukrainian cities. Specifically, in Kiev in early Twentieth century. Ukrainian language was considered only 16% of their native townsmen.
Changing infrastructure of the city. The central streets zabrukovuvalysya, sidewalks mostyly brick, granite, slabs, later - the asphalt. In Odessa, downtown streets were paved with granite. Local authorities paid much attention to greening cities for example, decorated the streets of Kyiv alley Jul, chestnuts, poplars. In Southern cities - Yekaterynoslav, Odessa, Mariupol, Berdyansk planted acacia. Particular attention was given to parks, squares - "Lungs of the city. Urban parks have become a favorite place of rest and Entertainment citizens. In summer, bands played, the Pavilion could tasting ice cream, milk. In the summer of the park turned into a kafeshantan, winter skating rink.
Also in the second half of 60's Nineteenth century. in cities appears gas lighting, and in late 80's electric. However, only lit downtown streets and are usually in large administrative or industrial cities, small towns and the outskirts large when the sun found themselves in the dark.
An important area of municipal infrastructure was the construction of water supply *, have appeared in Kiev, Odessa, Kharkiv, Zhytomyr, Alexander. However, the waterway water provided by a small privileged part urban population, most used rivers and water wells.
Being improved in the cities and vehicles, for example Mayor horse railways (specific). At the turn of the century in many cities competing for passengers with existing awnings with new types transport: electric tram cars, which speeded up the pace rhythm urban life. The main means of communication was in Lviv tram from early horse and later electric. The first tramway in Russia and Dnieper Ukraine 1,5 km. was built in Kiev. In the late nineteenth century. tramway traffic was opened in Odessa, Yekaterinoslav Zhytomyr Yelyzavethradi, in the early twentieth century. - In Poltava and Kherson and other cities.
In the early twentieth century. manifested generated by industrialization environmental problems. Gone are the days when the Seversky Donets, Oril vodylasya big fish - Kutum, in the southern plains can wild horses were found in the woods was a lot of bears, ermine, wild goats. Ridshaly forests - trees cut down not only on housing, but to pass on a lot of wood distillation.
3. The fate of women
How to change the status and life of women during the modernization of society?
Modernizing impact on the fate of women. They became more more active participants in economic life. Growing in number women who worked. Thus, in Odessa rosiyanok among workers was 33%, Jewish women - 19%, Ukrainians - 8%. Striving to improve standard of living for their families, women were organized out-worker, in stores, in factories. Usually, without qualification, they worked at part-time jobs. And the wages of women was 1 / 2, or at best 2 / 3 of men's salaries. Such discrimination has caused dissatisfaction among workers and they attempting to resist it by creating partnerships to protect working women.
Bucket dumping coke from the steel factory in m.Yuzivka. 1914
However, extending the women's movement in the Ukrainian lands not
restricted only to the economic protection of women workers. Early
Twentieth century. A movement started to gain emancipation (Or
feminism) *. Participants of this movement stood for equal rights with men in
political, social and professional spheres. The first orhanizatorkamy
This movement began in the Dnieper - public character
A. Dobrohrayeva, and in Galicia - N. Kobrin.
In the political life of Ukrainian society appeared national-patriotic public character as H. Alchevsk N. Grinchenko A. Korolev, K. Lozenko et al.
Women actively fought for equal rights with men to education. In the late nineteenth century. Ukrainian lands in the literate women (in age 9-49 years) were 14%, while 40% of men. Efforts of women and progressive society the situation was change for the better, including winning the right to open schools for girls. Daughters of winning the title of spiritual education in the seven-year diocesan schools. Already in 1910 school in Kiev County 60% of the number of students were girls.
Let us turn to sources
A T E S T A T
Of all these subjects received in total and average report mark of 4.1.
Significant achievements reached and womenfolk in high school. For them it was
Higher rates for women opened in Kyiv and Kharkiv offices of:
physical and mathematical, historical and philological, Legal, Medical,
economic, Women's Medical Institute in Kiev, Kharkov and Odessa, Women
Polytechnic Institute in Kharkov, Pedagogical Frebelivski courses in
Kharkov. Subsequently, women won the right to come to study
In Western Ukraine womenfolk also had significant achievements in education, including higher. In Austria-Hungary already in 1900 was law on admission of women to university studies. However, obtain secondary and higher education could not all women who had desire to learn because education was not free. Gradually began occurred here and women's organizations.
Funduklei gymnasium (high school female)
Institute of noble maidens
N.Polonska-Vasilenko - himnazystka
4. Increased migration and labor migration by the Ukrainian population
Identify and briefly write down the causes and consequences of migration and emigration of Ukrainian people.
Severe socio-economic situation of the Ukrainian population prompted him to seek a better life outside of Ukrainian territory. In the late nineteenth - early twentieth century. observed mass, mostly spontaneous, migration * Ukrainian in the Russian Empire. The total number of displaced reached about two million people. They rozselyalysya in South-Western Siberia and Northern Kazakhstan. Settlers gave this lands unofficial name - Grey Wedge. Ukrainian peasants and moved to the Far East. They were selected from the steamers here Odessa to Vladivostok and then newly-built railway Trans-Siberian Railway. In the Far East Ukrainian immigrants in mainly settled in the Primorsky region, Amur region, Khabarovsk. Mastered the territory they gave the name - Green Wedge. Peasant families got here Free 100 acres of land. However, paradise life immigrants were not. Harsh climatic conditions remoteness from centers of civilization, lack of agricultural stock, financial problems are serious for migrants test. Between 1896 and 1906, the East pereselylosya about 800 thousand people. The Jewish population of the Right Bank and Polesie emigrated to America.
Map. Resettlement and Ukrainian emigration in the early twentieth century.
Some part of Ukrainian in the Russian territory was looking for a better life in overseas emigration*.
However, the vast majority of immigrants were peasants
Western Ukraine. They are mainly sent to Canada
U.S., Brazil, Argentina and other countries. During the half decade before
First World War from Eastern Galicia emigrated over 302 thousand
people, almost half the population. Was said marginal
Office of Bukovina in 1900, immigration is "a symptom of morbid
state? broad social strata of the population in terms of their dwarf
farms can not ensure its existence. According
researcher of Ukrainian emigration to America, Dr. George C. Vudsvorta,
50% of immigrants had no capital, 42% had less than 500 dollars. And
only 8% had more than $ 500.
For many immigrants the way across the ocean turned into a heavy test because their homes were provided mainly slow ships, which brought goods to Europe and cattle. On such ships Emigrants waiting overcrowding, antysanitariya, poor nutrition. Many tormented settlers seasickness, and given that travel by Ocean lasted two to three weeks, people were coming down to the shore exhausted. However, this test is not closed by.
Let us turn to sources
Emigration from Ukraine work in the field. Canada. 1904was
Later, having received directions to the place of residence, immigrants subjected to any kind of distress due to ignorance of the language and customs to new their society. They worked hard and often become victims of local swindlers and thieves.
Let us turn to sources