Topic 4: Contradictory processes MODERNIZATION OF PUBLIC LIFE (textbook)

Subject 4. Contradictory processes of modernization of social life

  • Status.
  • The process of modernization of everyday life.
  • The fate of women.
  • Increased migration of the Ukrainian peasantry.

 

      • Basic terms and concepts of the theme

The modernization of everyday life, urbanization, emancipation, migration, emigration

  • What segments of the population consisted social structure of society in the last decades of the XIX century.?
  • What was their position?
  • What main features characterized the daily lives of people in the Ukrainian lands in the second half of the nineteenth century.?
  • As it reflected modernization processes?
  • What do you know about the fate of women in the Ukrainian lands people in the second half of the nineteenth century.?
  • When and why started migration of rural population?

 

1.Stanovysche population

  • What were the social strata of the population structure of the Ukrainian lands in the early twentieth century.?
  • Which of them were dissatisfied with their position?
  • Which of them would have conflicting interests?
  • How this might affect the stability of society?

The development of market relations significantly affect the position of the Ukrainian  population. Everyone now had the right to buy or sell land real estate and other goods to business, prosper or want according to their effort and ability.
Dominant position in the economic sphere occupied bourgeoisie. It formed from that part of the nobility and the landowners who were able to adapt  their estates to the present market conditions, traders, peasants and wealthy others.

 

Let us turn to sources

From the memoirs of the Ukrainian landowner Skoropadsky
When  my brother was 10 and I 8, grandfather (my grandfather ...- former leader of nobility Poltava province) called us to study seriously and said that ... we need to know how people earn their bread. We announced that we build for peasant house and we must help workers ... A month later, hut   was already under a thatched roof ... Then they led us into the field and stated that  This field grandfather gave us, and we must prepare for wheat, sown in the Fall, if bread bear, the grandfather of our harvest  buy. We were taught to plow ... Then the hand planted plowed us field. Brought forth bread. We threshed it, and then brought oxen to harvest  grandfather.
Do you think why the landlords involved in the children business? In that way, they encouraged? Do you are such an effective method of education, why?

According to its property as the bourgeoisie was divided into large, medium and sheep. Upper class - landowners, wealthy merchants, owners of banks and large companies - not many, but had considerable capital. Middle class were the owners of medium-sized industrial businesses, merchants and others. Petty bourgeoisie represented by wealthy farmers,  owners of small industrial enterprises, artisan workshops, stores and others. The bourgeoisie has been active in business activity and used hired labor. The ethnic composition it was a multinational, and the Ukrainian had in it majority.
The most numerous population of the Ukrainian lands was peasantry. For property level rozsharovuvalos it on the rich middle and poor. Wealthy villagers oriented economy based on its production of commodity products to the market and approached on its opportunities to the bourgeoisie. They worked themselves in their own economy and  using hired labor. With revenue from sales agricultural products they bought the necessary equipment, quality   seeds and others. and increased productivity of their farms. However, rich farmers tried to increase their land  ownership by acquiring put impoverished villagers.
Farmers middle-owned plots of 8.10 ha and had a traction force (Horses, oxen), typically a few head of cattle. They were  economy based largely on the strength of their family. Most of the crop was in their own needs and sell the rest and bought  implements and other goods necessary for life.


Ukrainian village. The beginning of the twentieth century.

Much of the rural population were poor peasants - those who have plots of land up to 5 hectares or do not have them. Predicament forced to lease their land to wealthy farmers or landlords or employed in seasonal employment in wealthy households. However, rents often reached up to 60% of the harvest. Together with to note that the reasons predicament of rural poor were  not only the shortage of arable land and bezzemellya and sometimes inability to farm,  health problems or laziness.

 

Let us turn to sources

With memories of a peasant from Galicia D. Kuplyala
"My  parents were malozemelnymy. We have enough bread, but on shoes or dress had to make, wherever. My family always ... traveled to seasonal work in Germany. With enthusiasm, I listened story about the life of another people ... on the exemplary manner, in German   owners. His father had been using very little alcohol ... It was faith. From our children demanded discipline and order. "

Notes From a French vice-consul, 1910
"? Farmers of the South (which was considered an important commodity agricultural production) produce only 1 / 10 products French peasants and much inferior in quality German colonists. Farmers of the South, "sure its black soil fertility refuse - witness the French vice-consul, - use     little fertilizer and allow the land gradually wear out. Too subject to routine, they never had the desire to use imported  implements, and being lazy by nature, operate on a minimum for loaf of bread during the many festivals that peremezheno Orthodox calendar. "
Analyze and compare the content of both documents. As characterized by their farmers? What can be seen as an inconsistent nature of modernization in the countryside?

In a further development of market relations utverdzhuvalasya new population - industrial workers. Since excess workforce in rural Dnieper area was over 9 million inhabitants, about 1 million of them to swell the number of workers. Early Twentieth century. in the Dnieper they were 7% of the existing work force.
By its composition, industrial workers were also not uniform groups. Some of them worked in the business permanently. For them become the only source of wages. A significant share were seasonal workers from the rural poor, who upon completion of agricultural activities were undermining of the industrial companies and, on the field works returned to the village. Their reluctance to break away from the village explained that having land put, they hoped by jobs and land prykupyty improve their social position. In addition, their character vidlyakuvav work in mines, mines and other industrial enterprises. Without own homes, they lived in a working barracks or rented accommodation, paying him much of his earnings. Heavy residential and living conditions, antysanitariya in which villages were working, often were the cause of disease with which few health workers may not could cope.


Accommodation miners in the early twentieth century.

  • Why do people agree to live in such conditions?
  • How does it impact on their lifestyles and thinking?

 

Wages of permanent workers was different depending on qualifications and character of work, but compared to paying farmers work, it was much bigger. For example, Lugansk cartridge plant it varied from 8 to 125 rubles a month, and workers on oil production in Galicia earned per month on average 100 kroons, which amounted to two-year income for farmers.
In 1900 average daily earnings of miners Golubovska Mine was 1 ruble 42 kopecks. and worker rolling Plant Lugansk Locomotive Plant 1 ruble 47 kopecks. If the worker's earnings compare with the prices of food, the picture was as follows: 1 kg rye bread cost 5 kopecks., Wheat - 7 cop., beef 40-80 cop., pork 30-50 cop., Sugar - 38 kopecks., Salmon - 1 ruble, Potatoes - 3-5 cop. However, prices for clothing, footwear, housing was high, absorbing 60% of wages and work in enterprises and mines, exhausting and dangerous.

Old way vidkatky coal. Donbass, 1911

  1. What were the working conditions of miners?
  2. How do you understand common at that time in Donbass expression "miners know not old age?

 

In addition, companies would normally have been co-owners Foreigners were placed strict orders. Thus, Uzovskij Steel Plant for the worker to neglect their duties were punished by a fine - 3 rubles for smoking while working - 2 Ruble, for being late by 15 minutes daily income deprived.
A higher standard of living had families of skilled workers. They ate better, buying expensive clothes, their homes oblashtovuvaly  quality furniture. Highly skilled workers wrote out magazines have books in libraries. On the weekend visiting with family cinema, popular culture houses, Sunday schools.
In general standard of living of Ukrainian lands, which belonged to Russia was in 2 times lower than in Germany, four times - than in England.
The situation of workers in Western Ukraine was determined weave in the economy and capitalist forms of economic  retardation. At the beginning of XX century. working hours on enterprises in Galicia was much longer than in other provinces Austria-Hungary, and ranged from 11 to 16 hours. Permanent disaster was injuries of workers. Only during the 1902-1904 biennium on Galicia enterprises was about 8,5 thousand accidents. And the owners of factories and mines shied away from paying any compensation to victims. Wages of Workers of Western was the lowest in Austria-Hungary and did not provide a living  minimum. They lived mainly in shacks, huts and so on.
Was extremely unsatisfactory situation of such groups as the workers farm. Despite the departure of the peasantry to earnings, the bulk of it on the Right Bank and Left Bank to naymalasya  local landlords and rich peasants on usurious terms. Among main forms of employment of labor (by day, month, and fixed years) dominated by char and annual shape. Resorted to hiring mainly and landless peasants malozemelni at very low wages. For example, on the Right Bank in 1910 it ranged from 62 to 86 kopecks. a day. Pay for women and adolescents was 42-77% of earnings "full" worker. Working day practically was from east to west. The absence of any occupational safety often led to accidents. Use of entangled systems fines opened wide scope for abuses by the administration estates.
The structure of Ukrainian society, but these groups were also social groups such as military, government officials, clergy, traders and others.

2. The process of modernization of everyday life

  • Make a chain of questions to the text (one for each paragraph), since each of them with "why".
  • Exchange questions in pairs and try to answer them.

In the early twentieth century. as a result of modernization, which included transition to higher levels of economic life with the relevant structural changes in society, and a significant change in everyday life of people of Ukrainian lands.
One of the important aspects of this process was the displacement of old noble elite, the bourgeoisie, which utverdzhuvalas as the new dominant stratum. For the old elite was characterized by preservation of noble Honour, high education, excellent education and aristocratic style behavior that revealed in the external elegance, sophistication and arrogance. She liked to receptions and splendid balls.
Bourgeois were people with entrepreneurial vein, not all of them had university education, with preference for the acquisition of knowledge related to practical business, commerce. Other and have fun. Merchants, such as liked to gather in their clubs and arrange for banquets celebration of events and festivities with a lush meal.
The old elite treated with contempt the bourgeoisie, but losing its position in society was forced to reckon with the new classes, which nourish their capital in the economy and claimed political power.
The result was the modernization of property * polarization among the population. However, in a life rich peasants, middle and poor hardly differed  among themselves. All were of approximately the same clothes, did not significantly differed  and household decoration. The villagers went to church together, the village assembly. Among them were polite, greeted each other, despite level of wealth.
Polarization property in the town was more contrast from the outside. Wealthy residents (bankers, businessmen, merchants) have spared no money for construction own luxury housing. It was built in exquisite architectural styles oblashtovuvalos household amenities (electric lighting, telephone, water, sewerage), luxuriously meblyuvalosya.


Former Villa r.Kovshevycha, Lviv

  1. What causes the feeling you have about this building?
  2. What are the processes of modernization and reflects everyday life?

 

However, in urban backyards, ravines crowded house urban masses. Often the owners of such housing might give part of the families of workers thus trying to improve their financial situation. Family  Workers looking for cheaper housing and often settled in the so-called apartments bed capacity komirchanoho-type. All arrangement consisted of beds, chests, a small table and a couple of chairs. Lived in such families from wages in pay, were often in debt, eating poorly. Clothes worn by cheap sometimes homemade.
Relations between the rich burghers and urban poor were not friendly and often hostile.
The modernization process has strengthened urbanization. Growth urban population is mainly happening with the advent of large number of farmers who lost their livelihoods in the countryside, seeking work in   city.

Urbanizationquantitative increase and development of cities, increasing urban population, displacement of rural population in the city and its annexation to the values of urban life, urban life.

Urban population in the Ukrainian lands was part of Russia (1910 - 1913's)

Russia

Ukrainian land

U.S.

France

Germany

England

13%

15%

42%

47%

57%

78%


On that particular modernization processes are evidenced in the table data?

 

Increased demand for cheap housing has led to cities in lodging houses, barracks, inhabited by newly commoners, not yet time to adapt to the urban environment. They departed from peasant culture building and not included in the rhythm of city life. The situation of these people was shaky, as a result of low skill   fluctuations in demand happened in their work and share some of them to swell the urban gang of criminals, vagrants, beggars. All this intensified tensions in society, as quantified growing city bottoms "tyrazhuvaly" among a certain segment of urban population requirements egalitarianism and consumerism.
Considerable controversy generated and national composition of cities, because popovnyuvalos urban population, mostly, not only in Ukrainian rural poor, but also immigrants from the Russian provinces. They came to town with his Ukrainian mentality, culture, language. In  Russian-speaking cities Naddniprianshchyna utverdzhuvalos environment. This trend and strengthened the imperial policy of Russification. Considerable percentage of the population of Ukraine's cities were Jews, as well as foreigners (British, Germans, Frenchmen, Belgians and others.) that were involved business, working engineers, craftsmen at industry, taught in universities, not know the Ukrainian language and means of communication with local people to they became Russian. As a result, Ukrainian culture and language lost its position in the Ukrainian cities. Specifically, in Kiev in early Twentieth century. Ukrainian language was considered only 16% of their native townsmen.
Changing infrastructure of the city. The central streets zabrukovuvalysya, sidewalks mostyly brick, granite, slabs, later - the asphalt. In Odessa, downtown streets were paved with granite. Local authorities paid much attention to greening cities for example, decorated the streets of Kyiv alley Jul, chestnuts, poplars. In Southern cities - Yekaterynoslav, Odessa, Mariupol, Berdyansk planted acacia. Particular attention was given to parks, squares -  "Lungs of the city. Urban parks have become a favorite place of rest and Entertainment citizens. In summer, bands played, the Pavilion could tasting ice cream, milk. In the summer of the park turned into a kafeshantan, winter skating rink.
Also in the second half of 60's Nineteenth century. in cities appears gas lighting, and in late 80's electric. However, only lit downtown streets and are usually in large administrative or industrial cities, small towns and the outskirts large when the sun found themselves in the dark.
An important area of municipal infrastructure was the construction of water supply *,  have appeared in Kiev, Odessa, Kharkiv, Zhytomyr, Alexander. However, the waterway water provided by a small privileged part  urban population, most used rivers and water wells.
Being improved in the cities and vehicles, for example Mayor horse railways (specific). At the turn of the century in many cities competing for passengers with existing awnings with new types transport: electric tram cars, which speeded up the pace rhythm urban life. The main means of communication was in Lviv tram from early horse and later electric. The first tramway in Russia and Dnieper Ukraine 1,5 km. was built in Kiev. In the late nineteenth century. tramway traffic was opened in Odessa, Yekaterinoslav   Zhytomyr Yelyzavethradi, in the early twentieth century. - In Poltava and Kherson and other cities.
In the early twentieth century. manifested generated by industrialization environmental problems. Gone are the days when the Seversky Donets, Oril vodylasya big fish - Kutum, in the southern plains can wild horses were found in the woods was a lot of bears, ermine, wild goats. Ridshaly forests - trees cut down not only on housing, but to pass on a lot of wood distillation.

3. The fate of women

How to change the status and life of women during the modernization of society?

 

Modernizing impact on the fate of women. They became more more active participants in economic life. Growing in number women who worked. Thus, in Odessa rosiyanok among workers was  33%, Jewish women - 19%, Ukrainians - 8%. Striving to improve standard of living for their families, women were organized out-worker, in stores, in factories. Usually, without qualification, they worked at part-time jobs. And the wages of women was 1 / 2, or at best 2 / 3 of men's salaries.  Such discrimination has caused dissatisfaction among workers and they attempting to resist it by creating partnerships to protect working women.


Bucket dumping coke from the steel factory in m.Yuzivka. 1914

  • What is the participation of women in these works?
  • Do they work equally with men?
  • What the consequences in the lives of women is the result?

However, extending the women's movement in the Ukrainian lands not restricted only to the economic protection of women workers. Early Twentieth century. A movement started to gain emancipation (Or feminism) *. Participants of this movement stood for equal rights with men in  political, social and professional spheres. The first orhanizatorkamy This movement began in the Dnieper - public character A. Dobrohrayeva, and in Galicia - N. Kobrin.
In the political life of Ukrainian society appeared national-patriotic public character as H. Alchevsk N. Grinchenko A. Korolev, K. Lozenko et al.
Women actively fought for equal rights with men to education. In the late nineteenth century. Ukrainian lands in the literate women (in age 9-49 years) were 14%, while 40% of men. Efforts of women and progressive society the situation was change for the better, including winning the right to open schools for girls. Daughters of winning the title of spiritual education in the seven-year diocesan schools. Already in 1910 school in Kiev County 60% of the number of students were girls.

 

Let us turn to sources

A T E S T A T
Pred'yavnytsya  this, a student of class 7-Odessa Women's Mariinsky friendly Eugene Sofronova Gymnasium, as the documents, the daughter Starodub burgher, Orthodox confession, born 1921 February 1880, entered on the certificate Voznesensk female preschools for 4-class Odessa Mariinsky friendly Women's Gymnasium  September 1892 and, being in it for the full course education throughout that time behaved perfectly and perevodylasya, in tests in the higher classes, namely: in 1893 in  V cells., 1894 - VI cells., 1895 - VII cells.
This year, pupils in final test VII cells. It showed in mandatory subjects high-school course of the following knowledge:

  • The law of God - excellent (5)
  • In the Russian language of Church Slavonic and literature - good (4) and works written in Russian language well.
  • In mathematics - Satisfactory (3)
  • In Geography General and Russian - good (4)
  • In Natural history - excellent (5)
  • In the history of Universal and Russian - good (4)
  • In physics, mathematical and physical geography - good (4)

Of all these subjects received in total and average report mark of 4.1.
Then she studied calligraphy and handicraft well.
Over the plan, with optional high-school course subjects she studied pedagogy, good (4) and drawing Satisfactory (3).
Therefore, under the rules, she Eugene Sofronova  awarded the title of a pupil, who completed a full course of study in Women's gymnasium, the proliferation of eligible benefits provided century. 45 Regulation of Female High School preschools and the Ministry of Education, approved by the High 24 May / June 8, 1870, and Art. 12 opinion of the State Council  on special tests for the Ministry of National Education approved 22 th April 1868
In witness whereof, and now she, Jane Sofronova this certificate, as defined by the Pedagogical Council of Odessa Mariinsky Friendly women's gymnasium, which was held 1 June 1896
Odessa, June 1 1896
Head
Pedagogical Pedagogical Council Secretary ___________________________
Head Gymnasium ______________________________________________
Council members ____________________________________________________
Council
What taught in female high school? Is especially emphasized on women and their future life? Argues response

Significant achievements reached and womenfolk in high school. For them it was Higher rates for women opened in Kyiv and Kharkiv offices of: physical and mathematical, historical and philological, Legal, Medical, economic, Women's Medical Institute in Kiev, Kharkov and Odessa, Women Polytechnic Institute in Kharkov, Pedagogical Frebelivski courses in Kharkov. Subsequently, women won the right to come to study universities.
In Western Ukraine womenfolk also had significant achievements in education, including higher. In Austria-Hungary already in 1900 was law on admission of women to university studies. However, obtain secondary and higher education could not all women who had desire to learn because education was not free. Gradually began occurred here and women's organizations.


Funduklei gymnasium (high school female)


Institute of noble maidens


N.Polonska-Vasilenko - himnazystka

4. Increased migration and labor migration by the Ukrainian population

Identify and briefly write down the causes and consequences of migration and emigration of Ukrainian people.

Severe socio-economic situation of the Ukrainian population prompted him to seek a better life outside of Ukrainian territory. In the late nineteenth - early twentieth century. observed mass, mostly spontaneous, migration * Ukrainian in the Russian Empire. The total number of displaced reached about two million people. They rozselyalysya in South-Western Siberia and Northern Kazakhstan. Settlers gave this lands unofficial name - Grey Wedge. Ukrainian peasants and moved to the Far East. They were selected from the steamers here Odessa to Vladivostok and then newly-built railway Trans-Siberian Railway. In the Far East Ukrainian immigrants in mainly settled in the Primorsky region, Amur region, Khabarovsk. Mastered the territory they gave the name - Green Wedge. Peasant families got here Free 100 acres of land. However, paradise life immigrants were not. Harsh climatic conditions remoteness from centers of civilization, lack of agricultural stock, financial problems are serious for migrants test. Between 1896 and 1906, the East pereselylosya about 800 thousand people. The Jewish population of the Right Bank and Polesie emigrated to America.


Map. Resettlement and Ukrainian emigration in the early twentieth century.

Some part of Ukrainian in the Russian territory was looking for a better life in overseas emigration*.  However, the vast majority of immigrants were peasants Western Ukraine. They are mainly sent to Canada U.S., Brazil, Argentina and other countries. During the half decade before First World War from Eastern Galicia emigrated over 302 thousand people, almost half the population. Was said marginal Office of Bukovina in 1900, immigration is "a symptom of morbid state? broad social strata of the population in terms of their dwarf  farms can not ensure its existence. According researcher of Ukrainian emigration to America, Dr. George C. Vudsvorta, 50% of immigrants had no capital, 42% had less than 500 dollars. And only 8% had more than $ 500.
For many immigrants the way across the ocean turned into a heavy test because their homes were provided mainly slow ships, which brought goods to Europe and cattle. On such ships  Emigrants waiting overcrowding, antysanitariya, poor nutrition. Many tormented settlers seasickness, and given that travel by Ocean lasted two to three weeks, people were coming down to the shore exhausted. However, this test is not closed by.

 

Let us turn to sources

From the records of Transcarpathian Yu Galatea farmer about his impressions of America
When I pidplyvav to the mainland and looked at the statue of Liberty I felt: that he is an earthly paradise. A paradise begins like this: We drove the large square arrays with a large fenced with barbed wire. Area  called: "parade for emigrants. There have been thousands of different nationalities, mostly Slavs. Some months we littered "Platz", waiting for whoever bought us
Who is the author of the document? As immigration officers treated  with the settlers? Conditions in which immigrants were held for distribution   Settlements?

 


Emigration from Ukraine work in the field. Canada. 1904was

  • Ages people depicted in the photo?
  • As they dressed and who have social status?
  • Why are these people coming to Canada?

Later, having received directions to the place of residence, immigrants subjected to any kind of distress due to ignorance of the language and customs to new their society. They worked hard and often become victims of local  swindlers and thieves.

 

 

Let us turn to sources

With songs of Ukrainian immigrants in Canada
There is such a day there, why beat coal shoulder
To something is not done, broke him?
Oh, Canada, Kanadochko, Oh, Canada, Kanadochko,
What do you falsehood What you falsehood
Not one man is not one man
With wife separated. The bag empty.

 

  • Whether there were changes in the social structure of society in the new Century? Which?
  • What was the position of the ruling class of the population?
  • What segments of the population accounted for labor? What was their position in the early twentieth century.?
  • What were the manifestations of the modernization of everyday living?
  • What is their inconsistency?
  • What changes have occurred at the beginning of the century in the life of women?
  • Describe the basic facts that indicate a mass migration of population in the first decades of the twentieth century.
  • Describe and compare the manifestations and processes of modernization daily living and Dnieper Ukraine Western lands among themselves and with similar pan.
  • Explain how related contradictory manifestations of modernization everyday life of the Ukrainian population with her heels nature
  • Explain how related to economic and social aspects of modernization.