Entrepreneurship, cooperation, gang, philanthropy, philanthropic activities.
Significant industrial capacity is not left Dnieper Ukraine
the attention of foreign capital. Western bourgeoisie attracted
vast natural resources, cheap labor, high standard
income markets. For example, only British businessman J.
Hughes, received a concession from the Russian government to build *
steelworks and coal, for 25 years of
business in the mines of Donbass moved to England 25 million rubles.
French, Belgian, British and German capital took lead position in coal, iron ore and steel industry. In 1900 in coal belonged to foreigners 63% of capital, and in metallurgy? 90%. A powerful syndicate "Produhol" virtually entirely controlled by French investors. The leading role played by foreign capital and in the agricultural, from 170 since the founding of agricultural machinery factories in Ukraine were: 35,0% - foreigners, 22,3% - Russians, 20.5% - Jews, 10,0% - Poles, 4.0% - Ukrainian.
Plant and Hretera Kryvaneka
In Western Ukraine observed the same processes
primarily in the oil. In the nineteenth century. here the household
Austrian businessmen in the early twentieth century. began active
penetration in the area of German and later American and
English capital. On the eve of World War I invested in
Carpathian oil industry capital estimated at 310 million
Austrian crowns, of which almost 1 / 3 were from Austria, 1 / 5 - to
English, by 12-15% - in German, French and local
Galician, and 2% - of American and Belgian capitals.
The Austrian capital occupied a leading position in timber and
wood processing industries. Foreign businesses bought
at Western thousand hectares of forest. Predatory development
forests led to a decrease in their areas. Only 1912 p.
they declined by more than 1100 hectares.
This situation is braked and deformed economic development not only Ukrainian lands, but both states, as local producer of vytisnyavsya market, and most of the profits derived from monopoly prices and government military orders, exported abroad.
"Thin" question - a question that need specificresponse from one of two words often begin with: what, where,
time. "Thick" questions - a question that requires reflection,
attract additional knowledge, skills to analyze, compare and more. They
begin with the words: why, for what purpose, why, for what reason.
In the early twentieth century. in Ukrainian lands actively developed entrepreneurship. According to Census 1897, over 100 thousand people recorded their native language Ukrainian and lived through revenue capital and real estate. Been involved in the business of landowners who built on their lands commodity economy, provided with modern equipment and specialists according to the chosen specialization (agriculture, food industry etc.). Some of them, concentrating large capital, become successful industrialists and bankers, as families Bobrinsky, fold-Fein et al.
Successfully strengthened their position in business and representatives of other social classes: merchants, peasants, craftsmen, etc. Korchmar. People hardworking, intelligent, with a flexible mind, they Along money put them in a profitable business, to boost their capital. In particular, farmers came from well-known businessmen: Kharitonenko Yahnenko, Symyrenka, Tereshchenko et al.
Michael Yahnenko was serf, chobotaryuvav, sewed shrouds, which traded at fairs. Rozbahativshy, vykupyvsya with his family at will and with the children Kindrat, Terentiiv, and son in law Stephen Fedor Simirenko founded an grain trade, cattle, and leases and construction of mill Cherkasy region. In 1843, after his father's death, the company was headed Kindrat Yahnenko, giving him the trade and industrial nature: to they leased the mill processed grain. Later became Yahnenko first guild merchants in Odessa, won the title of honorary citizens city. Their brother Simon had had higher education and for 1860-1863 biennium Odessa was a city mayor.
Senior son in the family and Anastasia Theodore Symyrenka Yahnenko Plato Simirenko initiate a tsiyuvav
firms to shift production of sugar. After 1843 Parisian
Polytechnic Institute, he became the first graduate in Ukraine
engineer of the sugar industry, the technical leader
family business. At his initiative was introduced steam engines
led to a revolution in sugar refining, the production of
agricultural equipment on Gorodyshchens'ka machine tool factory,
started shipping in contemporary Ukraine. Through his
entrepreneurial talent, creative energy and deep knowledge was
build up a true commercial-industrial empire Yahnenko-Symyrenko.
His younger brother Basil started his business. Buy dilapidated sugar mill in the village. Sydorivka Kanev County and 500 acres of land, he created the most powerful in the sugar industry enterprise. With education the Paris Polytechnic Institute, he is his own project drawings and resumed Sydorivsku refineries improved production process, sproektuvavshy new type of machinery for sugar refining, started production of marmalade and paste that supplied by domestic and foreign markets. While in the early 80's factory produced production on 193 thousand rubles., then in 1910 - 500 thousand rubles. At the end of his life estate was estimated at 10 million rubles.
The founder of Laughter Kharytonenkos Ivan G.(1820-1891) chumakuvav first, then engaged in grocery,
crafts, rented land. After the reform of 1861 started
landlords buy up land and build on them, industrial
enterprise. In 1863 was now the first guild merchant. Main
land Kharytonenkos concentrated in Kharkiv and
Chernihiv provinces. In the early twentieth century. his son Paul had
90 thousand acres of land.
During 1860-1880-ies it was built six sugar mill and refinery - the most powerful in Ukraine and Russia each of which annually produce up to 900 thousand pounds of sugar. To factory complexes were brick companies, repair shops, steam mills. Haritonenko invested not only in land and tsukropromyslovist, but also participated in many joint companies, particularly in Sumy machine-building, were co-founders Society Belgorod-Sumy railway.
The main features of Ukrainian modernizers have an entrepreneurial spirit,
life energy, determination, attraction to risk, which combined with
sober calculation, high household culture, education,
openness to new in technology, science, spiritual sphere, active
citizenship. Representatives of the Ukrainian elite modernizatorskoyi
there were not many legal interpretations in the business, including the large
percentage of Russians, Greeks, Germans, Poles, Frenchmen, Jews. Features
new business - Yahnenko, Symyrenko, Tereshchenko, Kharytonenkos
consisted in the fact that they came from the depths of the Ukrainian people and
kept the spiritual connection with folk traditions, ideals and culture.
Most numerous and most productive group of Ukrainian businessmen in structure of the peasant population of Ukraine amounted to wealthy farmers - independent owners, owners of commercial and industrial establishments, but especially farmers. They were a group of farmers, entrepreneurs, farmers who owned 40% of allotment and private peasant lands, and 50% of all productive working cattle, which played a major role in the economy of the village. Major activities this group of farmers, entrepreneurs were commodity production crops, crafts, trade and usury.
In Western Ukraine in 1904 national bourgeoisie belonged to dozens of credit unions, 9 industrial and several other companies. Overall, it was quantitatively and qualitatively weak.
Wing charitable entrepreneurs in Ukraine fell at the end XIX - early XX century. They often addressing social klopotalysya problems for their workers, in lean years, fed thousands of peasants, solved the problem of local life. For example, in Mliyevi near sugar refineries, entrepreneurs Yahnenko, Simirenko built place for workers and employees in 150 buildings, dormitories for men and women. The town was a 6-classroom school, where 85 to vchylosya 110 children, a hospital with 150 beds. This town had a church library Amateur Theatre.
Ukrainian entrepreneurspatrons played an important role in the development of Ukrainian culture.
For example, V. Simirenko own funds kept almost all Ukrainian newspapers and magazines that were published in the Russian Empire funded a historical and ethnographic expeditions, theater companies, scholarships to pay the famous Ukrainian writers, scholars, activists art, bequeathed a fortune on development of Ukrainian science and culture
tours. Bogdan and Varvara Khanenko 3145 gave valuable exhibits Kiev Art and Industrial Museum (now Museum of Art). Theodore and Hope Tereschenky created art gallery in Kiev, Elizabeth Tereshchenko allocated 200 thousand rubles. Drawing on the school, and 30 thousand - even two educational institutions, 100 thousand - to help the poor more. Crowned Charity Family Tereschenkos selection can be considered and Nicholas Fedor 425 thousand rubles. - A huge sum in those days - on construction and equipping of two schools.
Outstanding Worker Galicia early XX century. Metropolitan Galician Andrew, Count Sheptytsky cared about school, founded the Institute for Scientific Studies connected with the Theological Academy, and "academic home" in Lviv, helped private schools at their own expense celebrated young Studies for the priests to Rome and Vienna, and gave scholarships to the secular young people to study abroad, helped kindergartens and orphanages, founded the Ukrainian hospital - "the People's hospital in Lviv, supported publishers. Deep connoisseur of art, he supported artists engraver and helped A. Nowakowski (born in Naddniprianshchyna) open his own art school. In 1913 founded in Lviv the largest in Ukraine, the Ukrainian National Museum, which has a rare Attractions Ukrainian art.
On the Edge of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. with the completion of the industrial revolution in
leading branches of Ukrainian industry have
logistical and social preconditions for further development
economy and industrialization. Thus, at the beginning of XX century. in
Dnieper Ukraine steel plant operated in 1917. Most
strongly developed in the steel industry and Katerinoslav
In 1900 compared with the previous decade in production of iron and steel increased by 27 times. Enerhoosnaschenist steel enterprises in Ukraine at 42 times the analogues of the Urals, and worker productivity steelworks was 6 times higher. In metallurgical plants are widely implemented, electrical engines. South metallurgical plants were sufficiently large. For example, the factory employed Uzovskij 6.5 thousand, Alexander - 4 thousand Kamyansko - about 3 million people
Metallurgical Plant in Yuzivtsi late XIX - early XX century.
Transition metals in mineral oil caused high rates of
new field of heavy industry - production of coke. Unlike
coal mines, once it arose in a large
enterprises. Productivity installations coke mills
amounted to 3,5-4,5 million pounds per year, while mines - 0,3-1,8 million
South also became a center of agricultural machinery. In Ekaterinoslavskoy province there were 33, Taurian - 19, Kherson - 16 enterprises for the production of agricultural machinery and tools. Plants Odessa Kharkov Yelyzavethrada, White Church, Kyiv played an important role in production of agricultural machines and vehicles, pumps sugar, distillery, sawmill and other industries. However, the machines made by Ukrainian enterprises, in their cost and inferior quality foreign. Few machines produced for of the industry, particularly engineering.
At the turn of the century is much faster than in other industrial areas Russian Empire, and Ore mining industry developed in Dnieper Ukraine. Here over 75% of total output accounted for a large machine production.
Technically advanced large coal enterprises gradually grew to form the vast production of coal industrial Donbass. In the first decade of the twentieth century. power mechanical power in Donbass increased 10 times. It first started experimental use coal-cutter. But technical progress in this not gained wide industry development because it had large reserves cheap labor.
Big industry sectors nationwide significance were sugar, flour, distillery. In industries that processed animal products, has successfully developed leather.
In Western lands the processes of industrial modernization covered the oil industry. Significant changes have occurred with the use of deep drilling. Increasing number of steam engines. Several decades of work in technical equipment naftodobuvanni much increased. If the mid-nineteenth century. in the industry had 5 steam engines, the 1904 p. them there were already 347. Early XX century. oil industry suffered a technical reconstruction: closed small wells, pits, began drilling wells depth of 1000 m. As a result of implementation of the new drill technology increased annual oil production: from 40-70 tons in the last decade Nineteenth century. to 325 tons in 1900 p.
Step forward made a wood-working and chemical industries, where early twentieth century. worked on three major time activities (in Big bull in Transcarpathia in Turyi-Bystre in Perechin), each which counted for 300-600 workers. Overall industrial modernization in the Western lands occurred more slowly than Russian Ukraine.
Industrial relations in agriculture spread in mainly in Katerinoslav, Kherson, Taurian, Kiev, Podolski, Volyn provinces. In Chernihiv province dominated vidrobitkova system, a mixed economic system dominated Poltava and Kharkov provinces. In Eastern Galicia almost 47% * manors were leased to entrepreneurs-farmers. Simultaneously, in 35 of 50 counties were distributed refining.
In the early twentieth century. Ukrainian lands in developing various forms of economic associations of the population. The most important of these is cooperative as self-defense movement economically weak and socially downtrodden sections population. Keeping the economy from a peasant demanded not only heavy daily work, and economic and quickness. It was not something to grow or feed. It was necessary also to sell to buy then agricultural implements and very much needed for Life in the village. Often such services offered to local landowner or prosperous farmer or dealer. But in almost all cases these were predatory operations that undermined the already weak peasant economy.
Renewal of cooperatives on the edge of centuries was associated with activity of the Ukrainian Cooperatives - "Artil'ne father" Nicholas Levitskiy.
Cooperation (From Lat. Cooperatio - co) - a voluntary association of people for mutual business.
Since 1903 "Artil'ne father" has focused attention on
organizing craft artels in cities, particularly in Yelyzavethradi, Kiev
et al. After the 1902 tsarist government law
Artel production in Ukrainian cities have industrial unions
workers, longshoreman, office workers, engineers. In
1906 Kiev was founded gang printers. In 1912,
Naddnepryanschine there were 2500 consumer cooperatives. Under the direction of
M. Levitskiy stormy cooperative activities launched
Company "Enlightenment". At the beginning of XX century. it created hundreds of
savings and loan banks, shops, community pantries.
Significant development and acquired credit unions. Equity of such companies were borrowed or donated amount. They mainly received on a loan with a fixed capital of a state bank under responsibility of their members. Loans from credit societies were long and released only on production needs. In 1914 in Ukraine has already acted in 2181 and 911 loan savings and loan company that united and served over 1.7 million members.
In 1907 credit cooperatives Kyiv, Volyn and Podolia provinces joined the Union in South-West (later Kyiv Credit Bank - Soyuzbank), which quickly became an important organizational and financial center not only Kyiv and the whole Dnieper Ukraine. He began to make commercial and intermediary operations, organized industrial enterprises, was publishing activity, called a cooperative meeting, and since 1913 even issued a bilingual journal Muraveinyk - Company. Such association gradually evolved in other provinces.
Significant spread of acquired Ukrainian national cooperative movement in Eastern Galicia. Under the guidance of nationally conscious young Lawyers, priests, teachers of the population of cities and villages organized credit and loan and consumer cooperatives, people built houses public benches, pantry, office, reading. At the turn of the century in Galicia face numerous cooperative alliances: Countryside Alliance "Boss" (1898), National Credit Union (1898), Union molocharskyh Unions (1904), Union for the marketing of cattle (1904) et al. Been active cooperative organization "People's Trade".
The contribution to the development of cooperative business done A. Metropolitan Sheptytsky,
who in his letter (1904) ordered the priests to lead
cooperative organizations and agencies on the ground. He wrote: "Strongly
is false direction zanedbuvannya parties socioeconomic. Church
those things are not permanent and material neglect ... The priest that even
parishioners to petition does not want to create a reading, sklepyku, shpyhlira
Commercial ... is obnoxious, does not meet your situation? ".
There is not only to increase the quantity but also the consolidation of various cooperative unions. In 1911 based on 1930 trade agricultural unions set a great Farm provincial trade union associations, which in 1914 united 609 societies. In Bukovina the same functions were performed in 1903 "Peasant Qassams, which were run by dozens of industrial, credit and consumer cooperatives. Supervised "Rural desk" Chernivtsi University Professor S.-Smal Stotsky.