In the early twentieth century. Ukrainian people have had their state. His
land with total area of 700 thousand Q2 was redistributed between Russia and
Austria-Hungary. Results of Ukrainian lands inhabited by 48 million people
including 33 million Ukrainian people.
Ukrainian land which belonged to Russia, were merged into three regions - governor-general to 3 in each province *: Little Russian (Chernihiv, Poltava and Kharkiv province) Kiev (Volyn, Podolsky and Kiev Province) and New Russia (Yecaterinoslav, Taurian and Kherson province). Each province divided into 10-12 districts *, and they, in turn, on the district * s several villages each.
Regional and district centers of the cities, parishes - town. Gubernias ruled provinces are appointed by the king from among the higher famous military and nobility. Counties led by Captain spravnyky that elected from their environment nobles county. Led by district was East elected parish officers. Subject to his village age, which elected village communities. In addition to these executive power in provinces and districts created self-governing electoral institutions - Zemskov collection (regulatory bodies) and Zemskov Board (executive Authorities). However, their function was limited to questions of construction and maintenance of local roads, development of agriculture, industry, trade, public health services, education, communication, fire protection. Activities zemstva controlled governors and interior.
The composition of Austria-Hungary included three different historical Ukrainian regions: Eastern Galicia, northern Bukovina and Transcarpathia. Eastern Galicia with administrative center in Lviv peredilyalasya 50 counties, North Bukovina to the center of Euro - 10 counties, with the center of Transcarpathia Uzhgorod - 4 comitates.
In Bukovina was the highest official of the regional president, and in Galicia - the governor. They meant the emperor and had wide powers. They are subordinate to county headman, who was appointed Minister of Internal Affairs. County headman appointed log that headed by rural communities. In Lviv and Chernivtsi acted boundary Diet which served as the local authorities. They care of trade issues, education, sanitary conditions in settlements items and more.
The demographic situation of the Ukrainian lands in the early twentieth century.
The vast majority of Ukrainian lands constituted the peasantry.
In the Dnieper Ukraine in rural areas inhabited by 84%
population in Western states - 85%.
However, against the processes of modernization constantly growing number of cities. Their population, like the population of small towns and workers' settlements, was multinational.
The beginning of the twentieth century. reflected in the deployment of Ukrainian lands industrialization process, which involved a further development of large machine industry and creating new economic structure. Most powerfully these processes unfolded in Dnieper Ukraine, where the share industry in total production of all national sector was 48,3% (on average in the Russian Empire 40%). It worked more than 8 thousand factories, mines and other industry, more than 800 thousand workers.
Plant and Hretera Kryvaneka
As a result of industrialization, gradually developed a certain specialization industrial districts: three formed the most powerful in terms of industrial regions: the Right Bank, which gave 46.5% of total volume, Left Bank - 30,5%, South - 23%.
Metallurgical Plant in Yuzivtsi late XIX - early XX century.
South became a center of basic industries: coal,
iron ore, metallurgical, machine-building. At the beginning of the century
steel industry arose in the form of large mechanized
enterprises - combined type plants - with, OHF
ranges and rental shops, with its own system of coal mines and
iron ore mines.
Right Bank remained a strong center of light industry, food pro-industry. Left-bank Ukraine was the center of the food and machinery industries. Over time, these centers and industrial production became all-important.
Actively developed at the time transport system. In particular, the total length of railway reached 8,5 thousand km and was the fifth part entire network in Russia. They link up with marine industrial centers ports. Railroads provide locomotive-building plant in Kharkiv and Luhansk. In Nicholas Shipyard built ships, carrying cargo on the river and maritime communications Empire. The Azov-Black Sea ports accounted for almost one-third of products exported through European ports of Russia.
Within subject to general economic Ukraine acted as the main coal and steel base, the most powerful sugar producer and a leading Region commodity grain. Before World War Ukrainian industry accounted for 24,3% to general, giving more than 70% production of all mining industry of Russia in general.
But the Ukrainian share in manufacturing Russian Empire was only 15%. Poorly developed textile chemical, printing and others. light industry. Metal companies located in Ukrainian territory, did not provide elementary needs. Even in the wire and nails Naddniprianshchyna imported from Russia.
In Western lands the industry developed slowly. On early twentieth century. Eastern Galicia there were 700 industrial enterprises with 300 thousand workers employed. The most powerful here developed oil. In 1900 mined here over 325 tons of oil, and three years of its production has increased 6 times that 5% of world production. But the Imperial authorities did not encourage recycling of oil on the ground. Export duty on unprocessed Oil was lower than for oil. Therefore, local production pereroblyalasya only a third of the total crude oil and the remaining vidpravlyalas for processing to other provinces and the Austrian monarchy.
In the early twentieth century. revival seen the development of most sectors of the food industry, especially sugar, flour, Alcohol etc.. Worked five linen factories, driven by the needs domestic market.
Every year in the Carpathians cut down 10 million cubic meters. m of timber. Two-thirds it as a raw material or semi were removed for further processing in the industrialized regions of Austria-Hungary and the rest processed into 100 local small timber plants (average 20 workers).
In 64% of the land mined salt Austro-Hungarian monarchy. However, it entered the state monopoly and high prices. As a result of this policy Western population suffered from "salt hunger", and salt exported for sale abroad. In countries that are also mined ozokerite (Mountain wax) for the manufacture of lubricants, church candles, insulation in electrical materials, brown coal, which is the main consumer was the local railway. In Transcarpathia, mined granite, marble, limestone, ceramic refractory white clay that was used to manufacture of porcelain and faience ware.
In the western province of Austria-Hungary, taken out of the Ukrainian lands many animal products, poultry, hides, oils, fats, etc.. A significant share of exports accounted for cattle. For land border annually exported 50 thousand heads of cattle cattle, 300 thousand heads of pigs, a large number of sheep production.
Total exports in Western lands raw was 90%. However, western land sales market were goods produced abroad. Western provinces Austro-Hungarian Monarchy to Galicia, Bukovina, Transcarpathia zavozylasya cheap-scale factory production, which ousted from the local market products.
This was oriented development and transportation. In the early twentieth century. length of tracks in the land were more than 4 thousand km. But railway construction did not cause large-scale development of heavy industry (as in Russia), but only Stimulated Production industrial products, mainly wood-working and construction. Simultaneously railroad expanded the Austro-Hungarian export of Western Ukraine in the importation of raw materials and goods from the region western provinces.
At the beginning of XX century. crucial for agriculture
Dnieper Ukraine was the growth of trade, business
production. The fastest developing agriculture in the South, where
landowner economy shifted to improved technology and mechanization
encompass more and more production processes in agriculture. This
promoted the development of domestic agricultural production. Gradually
increasing number of steam threshing, reapers, sowing machines, viyalok,
cultivators, steam engines. Expanding arable land and crops.
Progress in plant characterized by the transition to bahatopilnoyi
Farming systems, expansion of areas of winter, the use of crop rotation
crops and fodder crops foddegrass cultivation, use of mineral
fertilizers. But such innovations have not acquired a mass character. The main
Farming system left Tripoli, and in the steppe zone
In general, rationally and intensively developed only a small part enterprises - business and rural landowners (about 39,4% of total households).
On the Right Bank and Left Bank Ukraine changes occurred with expansion of sugar beet. Using the time agricultural machinery is a small amount of the household farms. For example, 40% of the Left were still plows wooden.
Leading way in the development of agriculture was growing grains, which are assigned by over 90% of all cultivated areas. Ukraine was the major regions of the Russian Empire, which grew wheat, barley, rye, oats, buckwheat. In the early twentieth century. it provide 22% duty food empire. Under the technical culture assigned only 3,8% of sown areas under vegetables and potatoes - 3,8%, the rest was under feed and other crops. Among the first commercial crops occupied sugar beet. In 1900 78% of land use for this culture, were in the Dnieper and gave 82% of the gross harvest culture in Russia. Important commercial crops were Naddniprianshchyna flax and tobacco. Many cultivated potato, which has won an important place in diet, became the raw material for industrial huralnytstva, production starch. From 1870 to 1900 crops of potatoes increased almost threefold.
In general marketability of agricultural land guise remained low and was only a third of gross output Naddniprianshchyna. The reasons were extensive rural sector, low technical level, the advantage over crops others, that vysnazhuvalo Ukrainian soil. In addition, most landlord's farms do not have funds, facilities, experience, led refining sector in the form * (work for money with their implements, for debt or interest on debt for land and housing, the right to pasture the margins of the landlord, etc.) or have the land on lease. If the mind that peasant paid a redemption payments, taxes, and many served natural duties, it is clear that in the early twentieth century. in agricultural sector dominated the poorest peasants, unable to introduction of qualitative changes in farming.
In Western lands agriculture dominated economy of land (more than 2 / 3 of gross output). Diversified agriculture farm was focused on domestic and foreign markets. On early twentieth century. increased its marketability. In the trade balance farms in the leading role assigned Plant cultivation along with him successfully developed and livestock.
The structure of the leading crops were growing grain direction cultures (about 60% of acreage). In Eastern Galicia prevailed oats, rye, and in Transcarpathia and Northern Bukovina dominated oat-maize direction. For wheat, it ranks third sown area in the province. Grain yield was higher than in Dnieper, and ~ 10 kg / ha. Meanwhile in the land shortage was felt grain. The population of Western Ukraine ate bread twice less than in the Dnieper, and the veil of commodity shortages of bread imports. In industrial crops (hemp, flax, tobacco, sugar beets, hops) assigned only 1% of all cultivated areas.
However, farmers in this region experienced an acute shortage of arable land persisted because of landlordism (40% of all arable land land).
Mightily developed in land farming. Private farmers exposed to sale to hundreds of cattle, horses, sheep, pigs.
Economic development of Ukrainian lands in the early twentieth century.
The beginning of XX century. marked by a deep global economic crisis (1900-1903 biennium), which influenced the Ukrainian lands. Largest acute crisis has in heavy industry, particularly in iron ore and steel. In Kryvorizhia in 1902 Ruden of 79 operated only 41. In 1903 Dnipro region in the south from 56 blast furnaces operated only 23. Issue locomotives in Luhansk and Kharkiv reduced by one third. The crisis touched by light and food industries. Players sugar factories were filled with salvage.
Accommodation miners in the early twentieth century.
A significant number of companies curtailed their activities, and thus began
rapidly increasing unemployment. In particular, 1903 in Mines
Industry was released one third of the workers. A total of
Dnieper unemployed was 100 thousand workers. In Kharkov
syahala16 thousand unemployed in Yekaterynoslav - 15 thousand, in
Donbass released one out of five. Size wages fell by 15-20%
working hours had increased to 12-16 hours.
However, the economic crisis became the catalyst of potential opportunities of the region that zahostryvshy competition and increasing polarization enterprises forced the bourgeoisie and the most concentrated join forces. She was accompanied by absorption of weaker firms stronger, decreasing the number of small factories and refineries large increase, ie, significantly increased the concentration of production, reaching large, even compared to European countries sizes. The level of concentration of industrial production in major areas of Ukraine has reached a dissertation on early twentieth century. one of first places in the world.
The largest concentration of industrial production reached in such industrial centers of Ukraine, as Ekaterinoslav, Luhansk, Kharkiv, Kyiv, Mykolaiv, Uzivka, Odessa.
Large companies usually do not belong to one individual but were * joint-stock companies, where capital peredilyavsya of shares (shares) and owners of shares (shareholders) in charge of the case company and received a share of the profit according to their interest. Only 1905 Ukraine has established 285 joint stock companies was not no big steelworks, which was gone in like a stock company.
As a result of increased concentration of industry in some areas there are companies (large companies), company or association (union) a monopoly position, controlling a significant portion production and marketing of certain types of products. Ability to significantly influence to market prices and volumes of supply of goods provided such companies high profits.
The first monopolyThat occurred in another bank Ukraine in 1893, was syndicatesugar industry. It brought together 203 of the 224 sugar factories belonged to families Bobrinsky, Branytskys, Brodsky, Potocki Tereshchenko, Kharytonenkos, Yaroshynskyh and produced 1.2 million tons of sugar year (second place in the world after Germany).
The process of monopolization of the scale came in the early twentieth century. When
have such powerful syndicates as "Prodamet" (1902)
"Prodvahon" (1904), "Prodvuhillya" (1904) and others. These were
very powerful union. For example, the syndicate "Prodvuhillya" which
consisted of 18 separate joint stock companies controlled 75% of production
coal in the Donetsk basin. In Ukraine, there were 30
syndicates, which had 60? 80% of industry sales of products.
On Western states emerging financial and credit monopolies: "Chee-Carpathian Society", "Galicia", "Mundus", "SOLV" which invested in the development of petroleum, chemical, woodworking industry.
The emergence of monopolies in general ambiguous influence on production and social situation in society. On the one hand, monopoly, if not eliminated cyclical industrial management, it still significantly mitigate their destructiveness. On the other hand, their owners, controlling a significant portion production in this or that field in order to raise prices for their products often artificially maintained in the country lack factory products, coal, etc.. Bringing the bourgeoisie profits even during the crisis, while monopolies retarded economic development, preventing technical progress, dilute the scope regulatory actions of market relations.