Industrial society, accelerated modernization, Ukrainian Central Council, Universal, the Ukrainian National Republic, Ukrainian State Directory, Western People's Republic, Cathedral Ukraine.
1900-1903, 1905-1907, 1910-1914, 1914-1917, 1917-1921 biennium
The course of history of Ukraine in 10 grade is chronologically consistent
system information on the history of the twentieth century. that is an integral part
school history education. It covers the history of the 1900-1921 biennium, which
were in many ways a turning point for humanity and our country.
The aim of the course, by definition, the state program is not only familiarity with
events and processes that unfolded not only understanding the history and
culture of our country in the context of world historical process,
develops in time and space, but also further understanding of your own
supplies to Ukraine and its people, the development of citizenship,
responsibility for preserving the traditions and future prosperity
The course consists of introduction and five chapters: 1.Ukraina early Twentieth century. 2. Ukraine in the First World War. Beginning Ukrainian revolution. 3. Ukrainian statehood in 1917-1921 4. Cultural and spiritual life in Ukraine of 1917-1921 5. Our land in 1900-1921 biennium It appears that the rate structure reflects the main events and processes of the period in chronological order.
The course should help you:
We hope that this tutorial will help you.
work with the textbook to facilitate orientation tutorial redistributed
into sections and topics. After the names of each topic contains a plan whereby it
taught. Early presentation of each topic under the heading "The main terms and concepts. Key dates " contains the basic concepts and terms, an important theme for this. In the body of their separated bold.
They must pay attention and try to learn not only
remembering them, but also explaining and operating on them. At the beginning of the theme also
Pomeschen questions that will help you to link prior knowledge and
understanding the material being studied.
The text contains questions and topics the task placed before each point to help you peredilyaty text for meaning part, differentiate them in the main, to follow the logic presented in understand the meaning of the text and enter into dialogue with the authors about the evaluation whether the fact.
Under the heading "Let us turn to the sources" published historical documents, testimonies and memoirs of contemporaries events, assessment and historians interpret events. Each rub Rica has also questions that need answer working out a source. It will developing your critical and historical thinking skills navigate the information flows that are typical for the modern stage development of mankind, it is often called information *.
In the main text, which describes the events and processes that occur, you will find in the text column "Meet the closer. It –Biographical information on prominent figures of the era that significantly influenced developments. Such information will help you understand the views or positions of people, their behavior in specific situations and so on. Almost every topic you will find a heading "How to work", which will include advice on how activities in which you acquire desirable to study easily and effectively.
At the end of each topic heading are working with which you can evaluate how you learned the material. The purpose of this sections targeted at medium and sufficient (the first group of tasks) and high (the second group, presented in italics) levels of educational achievement and require both an understanding and reasonable reproduction of events and facts and their comparative analysis, classification, summarization, and explanation relationships of historical events and processes. At the end of each section tests and tasks for generalization of learned. You can use them for self-control and self-examination in preparation for the respective classes.
Pay attention to the definitions in the text itself, as well as words with an asterisk (*). This means that the term is explained in dictionary in the annexes to the manual.
In the early twentieth century. Ukrainian people have had their state. His
land was redistributed between the Russian Empire and Austria-Hungary
monarchy. Economic, political and cultural processes in each
regions largely determined by the peculiarities of the state of the
which they belonged. The limit for centuries been a characteristic of the Ukrainian lands
completion of the industrial revolution and the transition to industrialization *
essence of which was to build large-scale machine industry, quality
changes in economic structure (primarily industry had
prevail over agriculture, heavy industry and over
These sweeping, dramatic changes took place in extremely difficult conditions, since both states, like most countries, 1900-1903 biennium survived the economic crisis, 1904-1908 biennium depression had an effect, and only in 1910-1914 biennium - Economic inspiration.
Movement to industrial society accompanied by contradictory processes modernization social and daily life.
If a feature of economic life of the leading European countries at the beginning of the century was the completion of the modernization of society, then The Russian Empire and Austro-Hungarian monarchy were still at the stage beginning of reforms. It gave modernization in these countries accelerated overtaking nature and indication to some disparities in economic and social development: the lag of industrial agriculture, the sharp population stratification, social tension and more.
Despite the rapid pace of industrial development, the Ukrainian lands, as state to which they belonged, remained relatively underdeveloped in technical-economic aspect. While industrial development in Ukrainian lands in the early XX century. was accelerated, and if leave the opportunities opened by the then level of science, engineering, culture, we must admit that the Ukrainian economy has not happened sufficient qualitative changes. Industrialization has not been completed, the vacation The First World War.
Economic development of Ukrainian lands in the early twentieth century.
Compare Naddniprianshchyna and economic development of Western Ukraine in the early twentieth century.
Modernization process in the Dnieper and Western Ukraine
began almost simultaneously, but his progress in these areas had
its own characteristics and dynamics.
In the early twentieth century. Ukraine became a dissertation on primary coal and metallurgical region of the Russian Empire with large industrial centers: Donetsk metallurgical coal, Rig Nikopol and iron and manganese pools, Southwest sugar region. The economy is increasingly integrated into the all, expanding ties with other regions of the country. However, their economic development was controversial, because their share accounted for 70% of raw materials extraction and only 15% of finished products of the Russian Empire. And because the cost of finished goods is much higher than prices for raw materials, the Russian economy received from this great economic benefits. Moreover, most people lived in the village, so agricultural products industry prevailed over goods. It is influenced by social and community development.
West-land belonged to the economic aspect
the poorest in Europe. The most developed industries are:
oil, wood, beverage, brown coal,
rock salt, mineral wax, developed metal processing and
engineering. Continued to develop traditional sector
Industry: textile, leather, tobacco, paper, glass,
ceramic, and the production of paints, soap, soda, dominated shallow
craft type businesses. The most common industry remained
huralnytstvo. However, application of advanced technology in these areas
was extremely slow. Similarly, much slower and occurred
changes in the social sphere.
More developed in the industrial aspect of Dnieper, like most industrial areas of the world in 1900-1903 biennium appeared in economic crisis, which manifested in layoffs, reducing jobs, lowering wages, increasing working hours, increasing unemployment etc.. Economic growth was again only 1910-1914 biennium Then significantly increased coal production, production of pig iron and steel. At the time, Dnepr Ukraine produced almost 70% of heavy industry and 80-85% sugar all over Russia.
In agriculture, the Ukrainian lands remained landowner Zemo-levolodinnya. However, in terms of development of capitalism constantly there was a process of social decomposition peasants: some rich, others bidnily. Since 1906, with agrarian reform in the guise of Ukraine, briefly zmitsnyuvalas peasant private land ownership and develop, market relations. In the Dnieper wealthy farmers amounted to about a quarter of the rural population in West Land 2 / 5 of all farms were considered wealthy. Simultaneously almost half of all farms in Ukraine were considered bidnyatskymy: their land does not exceed 3 acres * of Western lands and 5 acres in the guise of.
As in the Dnieper, and at Western domination semi-feudal forms of economic and obezzemelyuvannya most peasantry created more cheap labor, which is not found demand. The result was the emigration of rural population in the Caucasus Far East, Siberia and the United States, Canada, Brazil, Argentina and other countries.
In the early twentieth century. increasing politicization of Ukrainian society,
there are many political parties and public organizations and movements,
presenting a variety of purposes: from cultural, national and political
autonomy to the independence of Ukraine.
For most parties and organizations was the slogan of the struggle for democratic freedoms, some have tried to combine national-democratic views with the ideas of Marxism.
Shooting a peaceful demonstration in St. Petersburg in early 1905 launched a bourgeois-democratic revolution that swept the Russian empire. Dnepr Ukraine immediately joined those events. However, along with an all slogans: the elimination of autocracy, landlordism, redemption payments, establishment democratic freedoms, the eight-hour day - Ukrainian people sought to resolve the national question. Its requirements were: the abolition of any national privileges and Installation equality of all peoples, free development of Ukrainian language and culture. These guidelines were largely implemented during the revolution. Actively worked on projects of Ukraine Ukrainian autonomy Deputies set up during the revolution representative body - State Duma of Russia.
Ukraine in the First Russian Revolution of 1905-1907
However, in summer 1907 revolution was defeated. Started
political repression. Numerous parties, acting in Ukraine in
Revolution of 1905-1907, after its defeat declined or found themselves in
underground. Have been banned "Enlightenment", the Ukrainian press, Ukrainian
language as language training, use of words "Ukraine," Ukrainian people ", and
1914 - Even celebrate the 100 anniversary of birthday of Taras
The new rise of the liberation movement was halted by the war.
Ukraine in 1907-1914 biennium
Autonomy(From the Greek. Auto - and himself uomo - law) - the right of self-
government or administration, given some of the state,
carried out within the limits provided by law or a national
Cultural-national autonomy - of an ethnic community that is a minority in the country, a autonomy in matters of education, information forms cultural life (right of establishment of national schools, libraries, theaters, etc.), realized through such organizational forms as national cultural centers, community councils, associations, friendly association.
In the late nineteenth century. - In the early twentieth century. in the world are formed
two military-political blocs: the Triple Entente and the union. After a series of
local armed conflicts 38 states involved in the First World
war, which killed 10 million people and more than 20 million were hurt.
The war led to the disintegration of large states such as Austria-Hungary and
Russia. The map of Europe, new independent country.
Do not bypass these processes and Ukraine, which during World War II became the focus of geopolitical interests of three countries (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia) and the theater of military operations. The burden of the war sharply felt the Ukrainian people, in the absence of their own country, which would protect his specific interests, appeared in two opposing camps. About 3.5 million Ukrainian in the Russian army and 250-300 thousand in Austrian troops fought and died for foreign interest to them. But the worst was that the children of the same people, two redistributed States were forced to kill one another.
Much of the territory of Ukraine found itself at pryfrontoviy area, in Galicia, Bukovina, Transcarpathia, the tail there were fierce battles.
The war had a devastating impact on the economy of the warring countries are on the verge of exhaustion. Suffered the worst losses Russian Empire and subsequently the Ukrainian lands in its stock. Ceased foreign trade, stood vast Black Sea ports. War severed from the productive labor of millions of Ukrainian peasants and workers. Plants and factories kept increasing military orders and reduced production of Consumer Goods. Grim and its aftermath led to sharp resentment among many strata of the Ukrainian people, the growth of revolutionary liberation movement. In late 1916 - early 1917 overdue deep economic and political crisis. Ukrainian people, to withstand the early XX century. significant tests, quickly came to the new social shocks.
Terms of war led not to collapse the Ukrainian national liberation movement, but rather to strengthen it and exaltation. As he wrote Hrushevsky,? The general background All-Russian reaction and the revolutionary wave decline, compared with reduction of civil power, which gave itself felt in these years in citizenship of the Russian, Ukrainian movement with his unrelenting will to development and the fight became a phenomenon all the more vivid and politically. "
Analyzing the situation in Ukraine in early 1917, scientists historians
rightly claim that the Ukrainian revolution of 1917-1921
was a logical result of the liberation movement in Ukraine and
due to a complex situation of the population in the Ukrainian lands
exacerbated with the war and the general crisis in political systems
Russian Empire and Austro-Hungarian monarchy.
In February, 1917 as a result of the victory of bourgeois-democratic Revolution in the Russian Empire was overthrown autocracy. Already the first notification caused democratic change in Ukrainian society striving to bring speedy resolution of urgent problems of national development. As historian wrote Hunczak, changes in Ukrainian public life reflected the dynamics of the first political development of the Ukrainian community ... the idea of identity Ukrainian people, the concept of the Ukrainian state, and finally was such a practical form of the Ukrainian People republic, and later - the state of Hetman Pavlo Skoropadsky.
Against the background of general growth and establishment of community committees, councils Workers, soldiers and peasants deputies, as the then wrote newspapers: "Representatives of all Ukrainian groups, societies and clubs select and designate the Ukrainian Central Rada in Kyiv to it oruduvala our affairs. " So there is an organization which was to play an important role in Ukraine's history. Its leading figures were V. Vinnichenko, S. Wilkens, B. Martos, S. Petliura D. Antonovich, DA Doroshenko, Hrushevsky et al.
Breakthrough in 1917 Ukraine's destiny was. Formed in March Ukrainian Central Rada (UCR) and in June, after declaring its First Universal* autonomy of Ukraine was part of Russia, our people stood in the way of creating ever lost their statehood. The future looked bright and cloudless, the colors of the global social justice and international brotherhood. But very soon began iridescent hues rozviyuvatysya realities of life - both political and financial and economic. October Revolution in Petrograd and usurpation authorities destroyed the idea of the Bolshevik Party leaders Ukrainian national revival of the socialist revolutionary Democracy in Russia and Ukraine was forced to distance themselves from the northern federal capital on the distance. In November, 1917 Third Universal UCR declared that "Ukraine is the Ukrainian National Republic "and further declares its policy objective," to all The Russian Federation became a republic of free and equal nations. " However, Bolshevik party leadership considered the self-determination tsarist enslaved peoples in perspective.
The beginning of the liberation of the Ukrainian people. Formation Ukrainian National Republic (March 1917 - March 1918)
In early January 1918 began a general offensive of the Soviet
troops in Kyiv. Under these conditions approved UCR fourth estate,
proclaiming Ukrainian National Republic (UPR), an independent state, but was forced to leave Kyiv.
Trying to find support in the fight against the Bolsheviks, the delegation of the UPR Brest has signed an agreement with the Quadruple Alliance. It undertook to sell Austria-Hungary and Germany of his food, and those - to help push the UPR Soviet troops from Ukraine. With the arrival of German and Austrian troops Ukraine was liberated from the Bolsheviks.
However, local people regarded with hostility to the presence of these troops in Ukraine, because they were perceived as occupiers. General dissatisfaction UCR policy led to her downfall. In late April 1918 UNR was eliminated. In Ukraine emerged Ukrainian StateSkoropadsky that existed with the support of German and Austrian Troops from the end of April to mid-December 1918
Ukrainian State. The establishment of the Directory and to restore the UPR (May - November 1918)
After the revolution in Germany and the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy
Hetman has lost the support of German and Austrian troops. Party,
were former supporters of the Central Council, formed a united bloc -
Directory and initiated a rebellion against the hetman povalyvshy his regime. Host Directory came to Kyiv to restore the UPR.
However, in November 1918 the wreckage of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy in Lviv was proclaimed a West Ukrainian National Republic(ZUNR) that lasted almost a year. Outstanding event this year, an important for both parts of Ukraine, was signed in early 1919 representatives of the Directorate and WUPR Unification ActBy which ZUNR and UNR merged into a single unified state *.
However, at the beginning of February 1919 Directory UNR had leave Kyiv the Bolsheviks. Part UNR troops moved to their side. In Kiev was established Soviet power.
During 1919 and early in 1920 to on the territory of Dnieper Ukraine unfolding struggle between Soviet and White Guard armies, and in 1920 - between Poland, which turned for help representatives of the UPR, and Soviet Russia. Implications for these severe Ukraine's population events were tragic. In most parts of People's Republic was established the Soviet regime. Eastern Galicia and Volhynia crossed into Poland. Other western lands as a result collapse of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy was redistributed neighboring states: Northern Bukovina and the Danube riparian land occupied Romania, Transcarpathia (Subcarpathian Rus') was annexed to Czechoslovakia.
Thus, the Ukrainian revolution and the Ukrainian liberation movement of 1917-1921 failed.
Highlights in the modern history of Ukraine in 1900-1921 biennium