Theme 1: START MODERN HISTORY OF UKRAINE (1900-1921 biennium)
Topic 1. INTRODUCTION
START OF MODERN HISTORY OF UKRAINE (1900-1921 biennium)
- Basic terms and concepts of period
Industrial society, accelerated modernization, Ukrainian
Central Council, Universal, the Ukrainian National Republic, Ukrainian
State Directory, Western People's Republic, Cathedral
1900-1903, 1905-1907, 1910-1914, 1914-1917, 1917-1921 biennium
- In the states which were Ukrainian lands in the late nineteenth century.?
- How does it impact on their development?
- What are the dates: the Industrial Revolution, the market, competition, modernization of society?
1. Objectives and course structure
- What do you know about the events of the first two decades of the twentieth century.?
- What are your expectations from the new course of the history of our motherland?
- Compare them with the goals and objectives of the course, provided the state curriculum.
The course of history of Ukraine in 10 grade is chronologically consistent
system information on the history of the twentieth century. that is an integral part
school history education. It covers the history of the 1900-1921 biennium, which
were in many ways a turning point for humanity and our country.
The aim of the course, by definition, the state program is not only familiarity with
events and processes that unfolded not only understanding the history and
culture of our country in the context of world historical process,
develops in time and space, but also further understanding of your own
supplies to Ukraine and its people, the development of citizenship,
responsibility for preserving the traditions and future prosperity
The course consists of introduction and five chapters: 1.Ukraina early
Twentieth century. 2. Ukraine in the First World War. Beginning
Ukrainian revolution. 3. Ukrainian statehood in 1917-1921
4. Cultural and spiritual life in Ukraine of 1917-1921 5. Our land in
1900-1921 biennium It appears that the rate structure reflects the main events
and processes of the period in chronological order.
The course should help you:
- understand and develop the values inherent spirituality of our people;
- understand nature and learn to appreciate diversity and multicultural Ukrainian society;
- develop the ability to perform historical analysis, historical
criticism, and reconstruction of historical events, phenomena, processes, historical
prediction and interpretation of historical events, guided in
- improve your general culture by engaging
spiritual and cultural heritage of the Ukrainian and other peoples to
historical and cultural traditions of human civilization.
We hope that this tutorial will help you.
work with the textbook to facilitate orientation tutorial redistributed
into sections and topics. After the names of each topic contains a plan whereby it
taught. Early presentation of each topic under the heading "The main terms and concepts. Key dates " contains the basic concepts and terms, an important theme for this. In the body of their separated bold.
They must pay attention and try to learn not only
remembering them, but also explaining and operating on them. At the beginning of the theme also
Pomeschen questions that will help you to link prior knowledge and
understanding the material being studied.
The text contains questions and topics the task placed before
each point to help you peredilyaty text for meaning
part, differentiate them in the main, to follow the logic presented in
understand the meaning of the text and enter into dialogue with the authors about the evaluation
whether the fact.
Under the heading "Let us turn to the sources" published
historical documents, testimonies and memoirs of contemporaries events, assessment and
historians interpret events. Each rub Rica has also
questions that need answer working out a source. It will
developing your critical and historical thinking skills
navigate the information flows that are typical for the modern stage
development of mankind, it is often called information *.
In the main text, which describes the events and processes that occur, you will find in the text column "Meet the closer. It –Biographical information on prominent figures of the era that significantly influenced
developments. Such information will help you understand the views or
positions of people, their behavior in specific situations and so on. Almost every
topic you will find a heading "How to work", which will include advice
on how activities in which you acquire desirable to study
easily and effectively.
At the end of each topic heading are working with which you
can evaluate how you learned the material. The purpose of this
sections targeted at medium and sufficient (the first group of tasks) and
high (the second group, presented in italics) levels of educational achievement and
require both an understanding and reasonable reproduction of events and facts and
their comparative analysis, classification, summarization, and explanation
relationships of historical events and processes. At the end of each section
tests and tasks for generalization of learned. You can use them
for self-control and self-examination in preparation for the respective classes.
Pay attention to the definitions in the text itself, as well as
words with an asterisk (*). This means that the term is explained in
dictionary in the annexes to the manual.
2. Beginning of the century: the turbulent era of transformations
- What were the main trends of development of Ukrainian lands in the early twentieth century.?
- Describe each of them in their own words.
In the early twentieth century. Ukrainian people have had their state. His
land was redistributed between the Russian Empire and Austria-Hungary
monarchy. Economic, political and cultural processes in each
regions largely determined by the peculiarities of the state of the
which they belonged. The limit for centuries been a characteristic of the Ukrainian lands
completion of the industrial revolution and the transition to industrialization *
essence of which was to build large-scale machine industry, quality
changes in economic structure (primarily industry had
prevail over agriculture, heavy industry and over
sweeping, dramatic changes took place in extremely difficult
conditions, since both states, like most countries,
1900-1903 biennium survived the economic crisis, 1904-1908 biennium
depression had an effect, and only in 1910-1914 biennium - Economic
Movement to industrial society accompanied by contradictory processes modernization social and daily life.
If a feature of economic life of the leading European
countries at the beginning of the century was the completion of the modernization of society, then
The Russian Empire and Austro-Hungarian monarchy were still at the stage
beginning of reforms. It gave modernization in these countries accelerated overtaking nature and
indication to some disparities in economic and social
development: the lag of industrial agriculture, the sharp
population stratification, social tension and more.
Despite the rapid pace of industrial development, the Ukrainian lands, as
state to which they belonged, remained relatively underdeveloped in
technical-economic aspect. While industrial development in
Ukrainian lands in the early XX century. was accelerated, and if
leave the opportunities opened by the then level of science, engineering,
culture, we must admit that the Ukrainian economy has not happened
sufficient qualitative changes. Industrialization has not been completed, the vacation
The First World War.
Economic development of Ukrainian lands in the early twentieth century.
Modernization process in the Dnieper and Western Ukraine
began almost simultaneously, but his progress in these areas had
its own characteristics and dynamics.
In the early twentieth century. Ukraine became a dissertation on
primary coal and metallurgical region of the Russian Empire with large
industrial centers: Donetsk metallurgical coal, Rig
Nikopol and iron and manganese pools, Southwest
sugar region. The economy is increasingly integrated into
the all, expanding ties with other regions of the country.
However, their economic development was controversial, because their share
accounted for 70% of raw materials extraction and only 15% of finished products of the Russian
Empire. And because the cost of finished goods is much higher than
prices for raw materials, the Russian economy received from this great
economic benefits. Moreover, most people lived in the village, so
agricultural products industry prevailed over
goods. It is influenced by social and community development.
West-land belonged to the economic aspect
the poorest in Europe. The most developed industries are:
oil, wood, beverage, brown coal,
rock salt, mineral wax, developed metal processing and
engineering. Continued to develop traditional sector
Industry: textile, leather, tobacco, paper, glass,
ceramic, and the production of paints, soap, soda, dominated shallow
craft type businesses. The most common industry remained
huralnytstvo. However, application of advanced technology in these areas
was extremely slow. Similarly, much slower and occurred
changes in the social sphere.
More developed in the industrial aspect of Dnieper, like most
industrial areas of the world in 1900-1903 biennium appeared in
economic crisis, which manifested in layoffs, reducing
jobs, lowering wages, increasing working hours, increasing
unemployment etc.. Economic growth was again only
1910-1914 biennium Then significantly increased coal production,
production of pig iron and steel. At the time, Dnepr Ukraine produced
almost 70% of heavy industry and 80-85% sugar all over Russia.
In agriculture, the Ukrainian lands remained landowner
Zemo-levolodinnya. However, in terms of development of capitalism constantly
there was a process of social decomposition peasants: some rich, others
bidnily. Since 1906, with agrarian reform in the guise of
Ukraine, briefly zmitsnyuvalas peasant private land ownership and
develop, market relations. In the Dnieper wealthy farmers
amounted to about a quarter of the rural population in West
Land 2 / 5 of all farms were considered wealthy. Simultaneously
almost half of all farms in Ukraine were considered
bidnyatskymy: their land does not exceed 3 acres * of
Western lands and 5 acres in the guise of.
As in the Dnieper, and at Western domination
semi-feudal forms of economic and obezzemelyuvannya most
peasantry created more cheap labor, which is not found
demand. The result was the emigration of rural population in the Caucasus
Far East, Siberia and the United States, Canada, Brazil, Argentina and
- Identify key events and processes of political life and liberation movement in the Ukrainian lands in the 1900-1914 biennium
In the early twentieth century. increasing politicization of Ukrainian society,
there are many political parties and public organizations and movements,
presenting a variety of purposes: from cultural, national and political
autonomy to the independence of Ukraine.
For most parties and organizations was the slogan of the struggle for
democratic freedoms, some have tried to combine
national-democratic views with the ideas of Marxism.
Shooting a peaceful demonstration in St. Petersburg in early 1905
launched a bourgeois-democratic revolution that swept the Russian
empire. Dnepr Ukraine immediately joined those events. However,
along with an all slogans: the elimination of autocracy,
landlordism, redemption payments, establishment
democratic freedoms, the eight-hour day - Ukrainian
people sought to resolve the national question. Its requirements
were: the abolition of any national privileges and Installation
equality of all peoples, free development of Ukrainian language and
culture. These guidelines were largely implemented during the revolution.
Actively worked on projects of Ukraine Ukrainian autonomy
Deputies set up during the revolution representative body -
State Duma of Russia.
Ukraine in the First Russian Revolution of 1905-1907
However, in summer 1907 revolution was defeated. Started
political repression. Numerous parties, acting in Ukraine in
Revolution of 1905-1907, after its defeat declined or found themselves in
underground. Have been banned "Enlightenment", the Ukrainian press, Ukrainian
language as language training, use of words "Ukraine," Ukrainian people ", and
1914 - Even celebrate the 100 anniversary of birthday of Taras
The new rise of the liberation movement was halted by the war.
Ukraine in 1907-1914 biennium
Autonomy(From the Greek. Auto - and himself uomo - law) - the right of self-
government or administration, given some of the state,
carried out within the limits provided by law or a national
Cultural-national autonomy -
of an ethnic community that is a minority in the country, a
autonomy in matters of education, information forms
cultural life (right of establishment of national schools, libraries,
theaters, etc.), realized through such organizational forms as
national cultural centers, community councils, associations, friendly association.
3. Ukraine in the First World War and during the revolution
- What was the position of Ukrainian lands in the First World War?
In the late nineteenth century. - In the early twentieth century. in the world are formed
two military-political blocs: the Triple Entente and the union. After a series of
local armed conflicts 38 states involved in the First World
war, which killed 10 million people and more than 20 million were hurt.
The war led to the disintegration of large states such as Austria-Hungary and
Russia. The map of Europe, new independent country.
Do not bypass these processes and Ukraine, which during World War II
became the focus of geopolitical interests of three countries (Germany,
Austria-Hungary, Russia) and the theater of military operations. The burden of the war sharply
felt the Ukrainian people, in the absence of their own country,
which would protect his specific interests, appeared in two opposing
camps. About 3.5 million Ukrainian in the Russian army and 250-300 thousand in
Austrian troops fought and died for foreign interest to them. But
the worst was that the children of the same people, two redistributed
States were forced to kill one another.
Much of the territory of Ukraine found itself at pryfrontoviy area, in
Galicia, Bukovina, Transcarpathia, the tail there were fierce battles.
The war had a devastating impact on the economy of the warring countries
are on the verge of exhaustion. Suffered the worst losses Russian
Empire and subsequently the Ukrainian lands in its stock. Ceased
foreign trade, stood vast Black Sea ports. War
severed from the productive labor of millions of Ukrainian peasants and
workers. Plants and factories kept increasing military
orders and reduced production of Consumer Goods. Grim
and its aftermath led to sharp resentment among many
strata of the Ukrainian people, the growth of revolutionary liberation movement.
In late 1916 - early 1917 overdue deep economic
and political crisis. Ukrainian people, to withstand the early
XX century. significant tests, quickly came to the new social
Terms of war led not to collapse the Ukrainian
national liberation movement, but rather to strengthen it and
exaltation. As he wrote Hrushevsky,? The general background
All-Russian reaction and the revolutionary wave decline, compared with
reduction of civil power, which gave itself felt in these years in
citizenship of the Russian, Ukrainian movement with his unrelenting will to
development and the fight became a phenomenon all the more vivid and politically. "
- What were the most important events which determined the periods of the Ukrainian revolution of 1917-1921?
Analyzing the situation in Ukraine in early 1917, scientists historians
rightly claim that the Ukrainian revolution of 1917-1921
was a logical result of the liberation movement in Ukraine and
due to a complex situation of the population in the Ukrainian lands
exacerbated with the war and the general crisis in political systems
Russian Empire and Austro-Hungarian monarchy.
In February, 1917 as a result of the victory of bourgeois-democratic
Revolution in the Russian Empire was overthrown autocracy. Already the first
notification caused democratic change in Ukrainian
society striving to bring speedy resolution of urgent
problems of national development. As historian wrote Hunczak, changes in
Ukrainian public life reflected the dynamics of the first
political development of the Ukrainian community ... the idea of identity
Ukrainian people, the concept of the Ukrainian state, and finally
was such a practical form of the Ukrainian People
republic, and later - the state of Hetman Pavlo Skoropadsky.
Against the background of general growth and establishment of community committees, councils
Workers, soldiers and peasants deputies, as the then wrote
newspapers: "Representatives of all Ukrainian groups, societies and clubs
select and designate the Ukrainian Central Rada in Kyiv to it
oruduvala our affairs. " So there is an organization which was to
play an important role in Ukraine's history. Its leading figures were V.
Vinnichenko, S. Wilkens, B. Martos, S. Petliura D. Antonovich, DA
Doroshenko, Hrushevsky et al.
Breakthrough in 1917 Ukraine's destiny was. Formed in March Ukrainian Central Rada (UCR) and in June, after declaring its First Universal*
autonomy of Ukraine was part of Russia, our people stood in the way of creating
ever lost their statehood. The future looked bright and
cloudless, the colors of the global social justice and
international brotherhood. But very soon began iridescent hues
rozviyuvatysya realities of life - both political and
financial and economic. October Revolution in Petrograd and usurpation
authorities destroyed the idea of the Bolshevik Party leaders
Ukrainian national revival of the socialist revolutionary
Democracy in Russia and Ukraine was forced to distance themselves from the northern
federal capital on the distance. In November, 1917 Third
Universal UCR declared that "Ukraine is the Ukrainian National
Republic "and further declares its policy objective," to all
The Russian Federation became a republic of free and equal nations. " However,
Bolshevik party leadership considered the self-determination
tsarist enslaved peoples in perspective.
The beginning of the liberation of the Ukrainian people. Formation
Ukrainian National Republic (March 1917 - March
In early January 1918 began a general offensive of the Soviet
troops in Kyiv. Under these conditions approved UCR fourth estate,
proclaiming Ukrainian National Republic (UPR), an independent state, but was forced to leave Kyiv.
Trying to find support in the fight against the Bolsheviks, the delegation of the UPR
Brest has signed an agreement with the Quadruple Alliance. It
undertook to sell Austria-Hungary and Germany of his
food, and those - to help push the UPR Soviet troops from
Ukraine. With the arrival of German and Austrian troops Ukraine
was liberated from the Bolsheviks.
However, local people regarded with hostility to the presence of these troops in
Ukraine, because they were perceived as occupiers. General dissatisfaction
UCR policy led to her downfall. In late April 1918 UNR
was eliminated. In Ukraine emerged Ukrainian StateSkoropadsky that existed with the support of German and Austrian
Troops from the end of April to mid-December 1918
Ukrainian State. The establishment of the Directory and to restore the UPR (May - November 1918)
After the revolution in Germany and the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy
Hetman has lost the support of German and Austrian troops. Party,
were former supporters of the Central Council, formed a united bloc -
Directory and initiated a rebellion against the hetman povalyvshy his regime. Host Directory came to Kyiv to restore the UPR.
However, in November 1918 the wreckage of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy in Lviv was proclaimed a West Ukrainian National Republic(ZUNR) that lasted almost a year. Outstanding event this year, an important
for both parts of Ukraine, was signed in early 1919
representatives of the Directorate and WUPR Unification ActBy which ZUNR and UNR merged into a single unified state *.
However, at the beginning of February 1919 Directory UNR had
leave Kyiv the Bolsheviks. Part UNR troops moved to their side. In
Kiev was established Soviet power.
During 1919 and early in 1920 to on the territory of Dnieper
Ukraine unfolding struggle between Soviet and White Guard
armies, and in 1920 - between Poland, which turned for help
representatives of the UPR, and Soviet Russia. Implications for these severe
Ukraine's population events were tragic. In most parts of
People's Republic was established the Soviet regime. Eastern Galicia and Volhynia
crossed into Poland. Other western lands as a result
collapse of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy was redistributed neighboring states:
Northern Bukovina and the Danube riparian land occupied Romania, Transcarpathia
(Subcarpathian Rus') was annexed to Czechoslovakia.
Thus, the Ukrainian revolution and the Ukrainian liberation movement of 1917-1921 failed.
Highlights in the modern history of Ukraine in 1900-1921 biennium
- Identify the main stages of development of Ukrainian lands in the early XX century.
- Point to map the territory of the Ukrainian lands covered by the process
industrialization, and determine their economic specialization.
- Describe the position of Ukrainian lands during the First World War.
- What were the main events of the liberation movement of 1917-1921?
- What was the fate of the Ukrainian lands in the early 20 th century.?
- Identify and explain the chronological limits of the process of industrialization of the Ukrainian lands.
- Describe the types of economic development of Ukrainian lands in the 1900-1913 biennium
- Name and describe the main features of the modernization of society and everyday life.
- Determine the impact of the events of World War I on people's lives.
- Describe the conditions of the Ukrainian revolution.
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