Donetsk region

Established July 17, 1932

Area - 26,5 thousand square meters. km, 4,4% of Ukraine, 12 among its regions

region center - Donetsk

Territory - 358,3 square kilometers. km

Population City - 985,9 thousand people

Number districts - 18

Bridge - 52, including the cities of regional subordination - 28

largest city area : Donetsk, Mariupol, Makiivka Gorlovka, pattern recognition Slavyansk, Enakieve Constantinovka

Urban-type - 131

Rural settlements - 1124

Number population - 4 480.1 thousand people (on 01/08/2009 was)

Population density - 169 persons per 1 sq. km. km

City : 4 053.7 thousand people

Agriculture : 426,4 thousand people

National warehouse : Ukrainian - 56,9%, Russians - 38,2%, Greeks -1.6%, Belarusians - 0 9%, Tatars - 0,4%

Introduction

lies in southeastern Ukraine, on the south by the Sea of Azov. Surface - mostly hilly plain (200 m), intensely divided by river valleys, gullies, ravines. To the northeast - the height of Donetsk, which moves in the west region in the Dnieper Lowland, and the southwest - in the Azov Upland. Solenosnyh on limestone and karst deposits common forms of relief, abyss career. The main mineral resources are rich Donets Basin coal, and deposits of rock salt, brown coal, mineral metallurgy and construction materials (dolomite, limestone flux, marl, gypsum, chalk, tripoli, sand, quartzite, granite) . There are reserves for the chemical industry and metallurgy (nefelionovi sienna, fluorite, vermiculite, iron ore - the Azov Sea, davsonit, potassium salt). Internationally known Mykytivske mercury deposit. The climate is temperate continental with relatively cold and snow oxidaseI (-7,8 ° in January), hot and dry summer (20,8 °, 22,8 ° in July). Precipitation - 375-556 mm a year. About 110 rivers belonging to the Black and Azov Seas, 47 of them full length of 25 km. The largest river - the Seversky Donets and its tributaries (GI Torets, Bakhmut). Other rivers: Wolf (Dnieper basin) Kalmius Krynka (Azov Sea basin). Many rivers dry. 20 reservoirs, ponds and 1011 channel Civerskyy Donets-Donbass somewhat compensate for the deficit water supply area. Balneological do the salt lakes and therapeutic mineral springs. 72% of the area occupied by ordinary black. In river valleys - meadow chernozem and meadow soils in higher elevations - black and greensward schebenyuvati thin soils, sometimes saline soils and salt. The natural steppe vegetation is preserved in national parks and sometimes on the sides of hills. Gullies and oak forests (oak, maple, ash, elm), pine pine trees stretch along the Seversky Donets, there are flood forests (WilHa, elm). The wildlife includes 400 species, of which 300 species of birds. Natural processes - erosion, denudation, plane washed away, accelerated technological capacity. Development of salt karst. Technogenic and ecological situation is characterized by: samozahoryannyam coal piles, air pollution, soil and water. Reclamation activities: land reclamation, forest slopes of ravines and gullies, planting heaps, the creation of shelterbelts, afforestation along rivers and other water bodies. In the region there are 106 territories and objects protected areas, including national importance: Reserve, National Park, 5 nature reserves, 10 natural monuments, botanical garden, 4 regional landscape parks, 13 natural reserves.

Background

first traces of Stone Age people in the region found in the Amvrosievka. The natural environment contributed to the development of nomadic livestock on these lands. Donetsk steppes for centuries moved numerous nomadic tribes: Cimmerians, Scythians, Sarmatians, Huns, Avars, Bulgars, Khazars, Magyars, Pechenegs Kuman. And in XIII-XVIII centuries. is dominated by Tatars. The eastern part, in XVI-XVIII centuries. was a Slobodian and its southern part - of the Crimean Khanate and land troops Zaporizhzhya. In 1734, during the existence of a new Host, part of land (at present Artemovsk) was incorporated into Samara and Kalmiuskoy palankas. In the XIX century. the Donetsk region, started building the first mines, metallurgical plants. In the Russian Empire the land belonged to Donetsk and Kharkov Katerynoslavs'ka provinces and to the Don Army region. In 1921 Donetsk province was established here in the Soviet Ukraine in the center Bakhmut (Artemivsk). City Donetsk emerged in 1869 to 1924 called Uzovka (in the 1924-1961 biennium - Stalino).