ARC

Established February 12, 1991

Area - 26,1 thousand square meters. km, 4,3% of Ukraine, 13 among its regions

capital of the ARC - Simferopol

Territory - 104,0 square kilometers. km

population of the city - 360,5 thousand people

Number Administrative areas - 14

Bridge - 16, including the cities of republican subordination - 11

largest city of the republic: Simferopol, Kerch, Evpatoria, Yalta, Feodosiya, Djankov, Alushta

Urban-type - 56

villages - 950

Population - 1 966.2 thousand people (on 01/08/2009 was)

Population density - 75 inhabitants per 1 square. km

City: 1 236.2 thousand people

Agriculture: 730,0 thousand people

Ethnic composition: Ukrainian - 24,3%, Russians - 58,3%, Crimean Tartars - 12,0% -1,4% Belarusians, Tatars - 0 5%

Introduction

Republic of the Crimean Peninsula, which by the Black Sea and the East - Sea of Azov. The surface of northern and central parts - low-lying flat plain Lesova, in the West increased flat oval Tarkhankout high, and in the east and enters the annular horbohir'ya limestone ridges and mud hills of the Kerch Peninsula. In the south stretches the arc of the Crimean mountains with steep southern and northern slopes relatively flat (the greatest height 1 545 m, G. Roman-Cosh). At the top-platopodibnyh jajlah widespread karst landforms (funnel, caves, mines). The slopes are deeply dissected gorges, canyons (Grand Canyon of Crimea, depth 320 m). Black Sea slope of the Main Ridge forms a dissected coastal strip known as the Southern coast of Crimea. Crimea is rich in mineral resources: iron ore (Kerch iron pool), saline and salt lakes Sivash, natural gas, flux limestone. Significant deposits of: cement marl, as welleach variety of clay, gravel, sand, plaster. Climate is temperate plains with relatively mild winter (-0,1 °, -2,4 ° in January) and moderately hot dry summers (22,1 °, 23,8 ° in July). Precipitation - 316-466 mm a year. The climate is transitional mountains to the Mediterranean. Winter in the foothills of the soft (-0,5 ° in January), summers are moderately hot (21,2 ° in July), on the main ridge - winter is very cold (-3,8 °), relatively warm summers (15 6 °). Precipitation in the foothills - 500 mm in the mountains - 1 100 mm per year. On the southern coast of the Mediterranean climate has features of mild winters (1,8 °, 4,8 ° in the west) and moderately hot dry summer (August 23,2 °, 24,4 °). Bathing season lasts from May to October. The rivers of Crimea is still limited. All Rivers 256 (over 5 km long) and they are shallow. Major rivers - Salgyr, Wet indoles, Biyuk-Karasu - belong to the basin of the Azov Sea, Black, Belbek, Kacha, Alma - to the Black Sea. In the mountains, rivers form waterfalls (Uchansu, Jura-Jura). In Crimea MonAl 50 salt lakes. Created about 708 ponds and more than 20 reservoirs. Important role in water supply channels play the biggest - the North-Crimean - nourishes consumers Dnieper water. Soils in the northeast of chestnut and meadow chestnut saline, in central - southern black malohumusni humusovani and weakly, in the foothills - ordinary black and sod-carbonate soils in the mountains - brownsoil, gray mountain-steppe and brown earth. In river valleys - meadow chernozem; common salt marshes. On the slopes of the mountains dominate the oak groves, beech, hornbeam and pine forests. The wildlife includes 407 species including: mammals - 57, amphibians - 6, reptiles - 14 birds - 300 of freshwater fish - 30. Adverse natural processes: the plain - plane wash, soil salinization, and in the mountains - the village, landslides, karst, attrition of the Black Sea coast. Reclamation: coastal protection, protyselevi measures planting artificial forest. In Crimea and 157 territories protected fund are of national importance: 6 reserves, 17 sanctuaries, 13 natural monuments, botanical garden, 9 parks, monuments of landscape architecture, 2 regional landscape parks, 10 natural reserves.

In the RSFSR: from 18.10.1921, the - Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, on 30/06/1945, the - The Crimean region. In the USSR of 02.19.1954, the

Background

first remains of ancient people were found near Simferopol in the grotto Kyyik-Koba. In the XV-VII centuries. BC Cimmerians lived on the peninsula. In the mountains lived Taurus. They went to the ancient name of Crimea - Tavrika. In IV. BC Crimea was formed Scythian kingdom. On the coast there were Greek colonies. In the V century. BC on the Kerch peninsula formed Bosporus. Near Sevastopol Large modern Greek city of Chersonese, which in the I century. became part of the Roman Empire. At the beginning of a new era Scythian kingdom conquered by the Goths (Germanic tribes), and in IV. most of the Huns destroyed the population of Crimea. Later, the Khazars lived here, Pechenegs Kuman. Played a special role of Christianity in the penetration of the peninsula. Hence Kyiv prince Vladimir, completing a march on Chersonese, Christianity expanded to Kievan Rus. In the XIII century. Mongols conquered Tavrika, which for two centuries was the Golden Horde ulus called Kyrym (Crimea). From the XV century. The Crimean Khanate was formed, which abiliysnyuvalo raids on neighboring states and engaged in the slave trade. Russia, getting the victory in the war against the Turks 1768 -1774 biennium, included Crimea to its members. It began to settle Ukrainian, Russians, Bulgarians and Germans. In 1854 - 1855 рр. Crimea was the fulcrum of war between Russia on the one hand, France and Britain - the other. During the Second World War, the Crimean lands were a place of fierce battles with the Germans. Today in the ARC are the best resorts of Ukraine, places of tourism, recreation and rehabilitation.