15. We - the people of! (textbook)

 

We - the people of! (Population of Kyiv).                                                                                          

 

Key issues

- What categories of population, national community living and live in London?

            - How and why the changing population of the city?

            - What it means to be kievlyanina?

 

City - his relief. City - a complete organism. City - is its history. All this, of course, yes. But the city - first of all people. Kiyani.

Fifteen hundred years is our city. It is hard to imagine how tens, hundreds of thousands of people lived here, walked its streets, breathed his air. They built housing, work, zakohuvalys, married, birth children. Who just did not see the streets, mountains, ravines.

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Here's Upper City. It saw the princes and their men, boyars, rich merchants. Later - Lithuanian and Polish magistrates haughty nobles, soldiers garrison. More later - Palatine Russian and Russian shooters.

But the Lower City - Division. From century to century and craftsmen living here traders and rich local and foreign merchants.

But Pechersk. Of course, most here could see the priests and monks, pilgrims, not only Ukraine but also from the Orthodox world. But from XVIIIArt. with the advent of Pechersk fortress, here are the most visible figures in the military - officers and soldiers of the Russian army. Here the king's residence Governor-General, so many different officials.

Always visible in the town were students - students of first Mohyliansky College (Academy), later - gymnasium. Then - University students, Polytechnic Institute, other academic institutions.

Since the end XIXArt., especially its second half, more in workers, entrepreneurs, bankers. Industrial companies are focused on the hem and the former suburbs that become part of the city. Banks, offices - in the city center: the Cave, Khreschatyk and adjacent streets.

All of these groups was relatively easy to learn - they differ not only home and way of life, but also clothing, customs and so on.

В XXArt. city becomes more democratic. Merchants, businessmen, traders, bankers, simply did not become wealthy. Kiyani either by workers or employees unless, of course, were not students or students. And the military in enough.

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Kiyani (XI-XII - XVII-XVIII - First half XIX - XX - the end of the twentieth century.)

 

Let us consider:

- Which categories of population always lived in London? Why? What they have?

- Why is the population of Kyiv more diverse at the beginning XXArt.?

- Why different categories population mostly lived in different parts of the city?

- How do you think that kept this situation now?

 

Source 1

Sotsyolohy painted portrait typychnoho Kievlyanin

"In Tacoma megalopolis as Kiev prozhyvayut very Miscellaneous people. Their only by the same According to an official nearly three million. How to identify someone of them kievlyanin? Who can olytsetvoryat typychnoho obytatelya capital?

Sotsyolohy yesterday at a roundtable posvyaschennoho patents "portrait Kievlyanin" ohlasyly svoyh results of research. They believe the that this is A pretty woman zamuzhnyaya 40 years, one ymeyuschaya 10-15-year-old child, who writes "Today".

"Shablonnaya" barыshnya udelyaet own way vneshnosty Total polchasa TIME (15 minutes to work and so many after the same). In sport TIME virtually not enough. But in doing so, lady umudryaetsya vыhlyadet well, fired on their sledyt by weighing, but not sovsem slip and skoree appetytnaya. MODERN kyevlyanka Usually operates in the area services or management staff. She is BOSS, not because the wants to take himself lyshnyuyu responsibility, but not the very nyzkuyu took the post. The average gets $ 600-800 a month. Ymeet higher education, and umna samouverenna, can silence zone for nearly a beloved male. She nezavysyma. In the apartment there nee (Chasche dvuhkomnatnaya) machine ten years.

"Kievlyanin this is vicar office, which wants to either Part do this, privatize business, either at least a vыrasty of service believes psychologist Oleg Pokal'chuk. If opysыvat his character, then this is enough vыsokoy People v. эpatazhnostyu, but not to prove to the scandal. Loving thy pokazыvat a financial status, but money spend on bigger themselves, something to, various charitable purposes. Эta fashion to us doshla not yet. "

 

Let us consider:

- as you understand the term "average" kievlyanin?

- Why sociologists believe that this is a woman?

- What features medium kievlyanina seen: who he is, where is that education has more.

- What, in your opinion, this portrait is missing?

 

Task:

Rozpytayte adults and tell us: which category of people we can distinguish in modern London? Make the results of his research as a montage (fotohazety) or electronic presentation.

 

Kyiv has always been a city that attracted the people from everywhere. From the first centuries of its existence, who was not only here - Slavs Varangians (Scandinavians) merchants from Arab countries. Later - Jews, Lithuanians, Poles and Russians. And also Germans, Czechs, Hungarians, Italians, Frenchmen? Someone lived here awhile, then leaving, and someone osidav here zakohuvavsya in this city, born here his children, grandchildren.

 

Source 2

To whose house we go, what language:

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(A) Vladimir cathedral

 

1

(B) Catholic St. Nicholas

 

25

(C) Volcanic Carpathians St. Catherine

 

3

(D) Choral Synagogue

 

Source 3

(A) National composition of population of Kyiv at the end of XIX - beginning Twentieth century., fixed number of contemporary censuses:

 

Year                  Ukrainian        Russians        Jews             Poles         other

1874               30.3                47.0                11.0                8.2                  3.5

1897               22.1                54.4                13.0                8.0                  2.5

1917               16.4                50.0                18.6                9.1                  5.9

1919               25.1                42.7                21.1                6.8                  4.3

1920               14.3                46.8                32.2                3.8                  3.1

1923               25.0                36.2                32.1                3.0                  3.3

1926               41.6                25.5                26.3                3.3                  3.3

 

(B) The population of Kyiv at the beginning XXIArt. (Wikipedia on census materials)

In Ukrainian, who form the majority population (83%), residing in Kiev 130 nationalities. Among them - Russians – 337,300 (13.1 %), Jews – 17,900 (0.7 %), Belarusians – 16,500 (0.6 %), Poles – 6,900 (0.3 %), Armenians – 4,900 (0.2 %), Azerbaijanis – 2,600 (0.1 %), Tatars – 2,500 (0.1 %), Georgians – 2,400 (0.1 %), Moldovans- 1.900 (0.1%). However, localization minority neighborhoods is not happening.

Kyiv residents call themselves Kyivans. In this form Polyton used with princely times.

A linguistic basis, in 2002 67% believed Kiev native language UkrainianBut only 18% speak only Ukrainian, while only 48% communicate Russian and 34% communicate in both languages as appropriate.

 

Let us consider:

-              as evidenced by the presence in Kiev churches of different religions?

-              Based on the statistics say that most churches in the city?

-              What changes have occurred in the national composition of population in Kyiv XX century? What was the problem? Representatives whose nationalities were in the most?

-              Why call themselves residents of Kyiv Kiev? Do you think that you need kievlyanina to be?

 

Task (Mini-sociological study):

- Rozpytay their parents or friends - since when they live in Kiev, how, when and why here find themselves.

- Lift up together received results and count what percentage of respondents are Kiev in the first, which second, that in the third and older generations?

- Draw conclusions from your research (you may need to help parents)

 

We sometimes can be heard angrily: "come in large numbers here!" Kiev is no longer place in the hometown. Kyiv - not rubber!

According to official statistics the city's population is 2.7 million. More 300 thousand to Kyiv arrive daily from the suburbs to work. In fact, all wrong simple. Obviously, that people in Kiev much more. After capital as a magnet attracts people from all over the country - there are more work better living conditions, more opportunities to make a career or start your own business. It is indeed often creates problems.

But in all times the population of Kyiv, the number of people who came the city and its inhabitants are much dominated the number of people in Kiev born. And who says so, no doubt, or parents, or grandparents, too, once came to Kyiv - the village or small town, with another region or country. These were people of different nationalities, preferences, wealth. And many of them, being Ukrainian, Polish, Russian, Jewish, became a citizen of Kyiv. And national communities and their individual representatives done a lot for our city. Without them, this city can not imagine! A coexistence of different cultures, habits, traditions created unique Kyiv spirit.

 

Here for example:

 

brodskiy24Jews. Israel and Lazar Brodsky.Migrated to the city of Brody. (Small town in Galicia). They were called sugar kings. Some of the richest Kiev once (on their plants produce a quarter all refined sugar of the Russian Empire). They obliged the advent of our city Brodsky Synagogue and the famous covered market Bessarabskogo, he sacrificed huge amounts of construction and maintenance of hospitals, handicraft College, bacteriological institute, high schools, the Polytechnic Institute. They sacrificed to the needs of the city and its citizens hundreds of thousands of rubles. Although in Russian Empire, Jews were oppressed in the position of Lazarus Brodsky was awarded the Russian Order of - it is by contribution to charity.

Well-known entrepreneurs and philanthropists, charitable organizations were also Jewish community representatives such as Lev Ginzburg, Joseph Reid, David Margolin, James Berner et al.

Russians. Michael Dehterov. Kupets, honorary citizen of Kyiv. Came from Russia. He was known as a very rich but very scanty one. In fact, he generously helped the poor. A particularly impressed He contemporaries that bequeathed all his movable and immovable property - and this was huge amount of almost 5 million rubles - the city. With this money was built and raised a lot of houses for wealthy Kiev, shelters poor. Dehterova name of the City Duma was named a street in Kiev.

 

Poles. In the second half XIX - Early XXArt. probably not the best libraries in Kiev than library Idzykovskyh (It was on Khreshchatyk - about place modern metro station). She was very popular among young people, because there you can find almost anything - the number of books was far greater than even in the town library. Although the library was a private, cost per use was quite reasonable - 50 cents per month. In addition, there you can find Polish and Ukrainian books, music. Here was the bookish shop with a large selection of books and prices.

tereshchenko_nikolaUkrainian. Family Tereschenkos. Nicholas (Nicolas) Tereshchenko moved in Kyiv with Glukhova. He got rich by trading operations and diabetes production. Already in his native Gluhove he spent a lot of money for charity in Kiev on his money was built on 4 and 5 high schools, taught more for deaf, Women's gymnasium, male and female business school, trade school at the hem number of churches. 150 thousand earmarked for the construction of M. Tereshchenko Polytechnic Institute. M. Tereshchenko total donated to community needs about 5 million rubles, half of them - Kyiv. The case continued his father's sons. Tereschenky assembled a large collection of Russian and Ukrainian art - now this collection is the basis for the exhibition of the Kiev Museum of Russian and National Museum of Fine Arts.

 

Let us consider:

            - To which Representatives of these churches went families?

            - What language they speak at home?

            - What unites these people despite all the differences between them?

            - All these people are not born in Kiev. Can they be called Kiev? Justify.

 

Kyiv has always been a cosmopolitan city. In these families in great need his life has left the Swiss Semadeni, Struve German, French Termen, Czechs and Chvojka Kryvanek Italian Beretta and many others.

Not always the relationship between national communities of the city were straightforward. Certainly, and it came to bloody confrontations. But they all lived in our town, all its history and a piece of his life. These people of Kiyani always, regardless of origin, nationality, religion. And they always found a common language, no matter what language they speak it.

 

Source 4

K. Paustovskiy about Interethnic Relations in the First Kiev Gymnasium (beginning XXcent.)

"Before the examinations in the garden was arranged meeting. They gathered all of our high-school class, except the Jews. The Jews of These meetings had nothing to know.

A meeting decided that the best students from the Russians and Poles are the exams with at least four grab one subject, not to get the gold medal. We decided to give all the gold medals Jews. Without these Medals are not accepted to the university.

We vowed to keep the decision secret. In honor of our class, we do not prohovorylysya about it then or later, when were university students? I violate this oath, because almost none of my high-school friends are not left alive. "

 

Us consider

- Members whose nationalities studied in school?

- What decision was taken at the meeting and therefore?

- Why did you decided to keep a secret? Why by memories of her courage to break?

- How can you evaluate the high-school work?

 

Source 5

In an interview with the Kiev newspaper M. PetrovskyAn outstanding scientist and literary critic, Kyiver 2008

            "- What are connecting with Kyiv?

-      Nothing but a lifetime. I though not born in the city, but got it two years, and thus to the realization of peace, life and himself awake already here, any other can not imagine myself? I first opened eyes to the world in Kyiv and Kyiv became for me? Fatherland in tangible material sense. All life was there. Misfortune City were my personal unhappiness. Here my children were born, my parents are buried here, and I would like for me find a place in this land? "

 

Us consider

            - What is Kyiv for the author? As he explains it?

- You probably noticed that M. Petrovsky was not born in Kiev. Why he feels kievlyanina?

 

For discussion

- What do I need to kievlyanina be? Is it enough to be born in Kiev?

- What for you - kievlyanina be?