Kyiv underground and above ground (The infrastructure of the city)
- What role in the life and also the city services?
- What is the essence transport problems in London? How will it be decided at different times?
- What problems solve city services?
City - a large organism. We do not even think about it, usually using conventional benefits of urban life - take a shower, turn on gas or electric plate, moving their cases to public transport. And all this is taken nowhere and does not work by itself. Everything is organized and served various City services.
(A) Company Kyivenergo that provides heat and electricity Kyiv, plans to complete connection to all consumers of heating to 27 October. As on 24 October 5540 is already connected consumers, of which 3751 - houses, others - office buildings, schools, kindergartens, hospitals etc.. ? Total of about 10 thousand Kiev apartment buildings. (24 October 2008)
- City services are mentioned in the sources?
- What they are doing?
- Can a modern city be without them? Give your opinion.
- What you need to make these services work smoothly?
- What should we do for this?
(A) October 17 at the city collector value of the avenue 40 years of October there was an accident? As a result Borschagivka and Holosiivskyi district (which is about 500 thousand inhabitants) may be left without sewer and water. In an emergency you need less than a month provided assignment. (October 2008)
(B) Elimination accident in an underground reservoir
- You understand what "collector"? What its dimensions? What is it serves?
- Which can lead to accident collector?
- Who eliminate accident?
Collector - here underground galleries, in which lay cables or pipes.
In Kyiv there is an entire underground city. Total length of collectors - underground tunnels - is more than 700 km, and pipes - 4 km. Many of them built in the late 19 - early 20 century. More half of them have served their term. So every summer in the counties place to check. At this time, shut off hot water supply homes. Kiyani call this period "dirty week. In the State Administration developed an extensive program of replacing heating systems, but it needs large sums of money?
"From time immemorial among Kiev there is an assurance that actually there are two of Kyiv - the city but we know there's a huge city underground. It supposedly is the extensive system of caves - natural and handmade. Back in the nineteenth century. Kiev said: "that no house, palace or monastery - Required under them is the entrance to the caves. And some asserted that there are even underground ways that can not leave the surface, to get from Kyiv, say, Chernihiv. And much told - that in Kiev underground living dropped during the baptism of Rus pagan gods that here countless treasures hidden (which is no underground treasures!)?
As always, legends are born not quite and have nothing. Indeed, many known caves in Kiev and its vicinity. Some are natural, but most - have dug in Kievan Russ. The most famous among them, of course, the Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra. Caves here form a whole city - for "laurel" in Greek - street. First, Lavrov was underground monastery - with cells for monks, temples and chapels. Elevated part of it came later. Known as a town in the cave area Menagerie, Vidubichi, interior of the church, Kitaev? One of the first underground World of Kyiv I. Fundukley studied and considered that the Kiev Caves "is much historical discoveries and findings will give Kiev ". Indeed, these caves hide many secrets and await their investigator. Maybe the future this will you? "
From a message Kiev press.
"? Kiev vodovozy, commercials in their barrels of questionable purity of the water in those where no domestic water supplies, manage to gain the water directly from the Dnieper River near the pier Podolski. Thus, vodovozy, supplying unfiltered water podolyane receive significant savings. Sanitary Commission issued an order for the strict supervision of Kyiv vodovozamy Prohibition and gain water from the Dnieper. (August 1908) "
- What are two types of water supply mentioned in the source?
- What are the problems raised tip?
- What are the benefits of water supply?
The first written mention of the water supply system Kyiv related fraternal monastery at the hem. Water supply mentioned in the deed 1636 Polish King WladyslawIVWhich allowed carry spring water to the monastery.
Kyiv water supply
In ancient times people of the needs of the water through wells. But in X-XI. As historians suggest, part of Kiev enjoyed pumping, which was at the hem. Water is served carved out of a tree with keys at the neighboring hills.
In the seventeenth century. in documents referred to water pipes that fed water from springs in Kiev mountains of the Dominican monastery and fraternal.
In 1748-1749 he famous Kyiv architect I.Hryhorovych Bar-built gravity water supply system, beginning from one source at the foot of Castle Hill and provided the water is all Division. Above the central wells, to which pipes summarized the water (and from him she received the same pipes to other wells), architect-built pavilion fountain. At the beginning of the XIX century. in center of the fountain installed wooden sculpture "Samson tearing the lion's mouth.
«The fountain was a place where many people gathered. Kiev tradeswoman sold here Trivia: crosses, icons, tapes, artificial flowers, earrings and many other things. Many pilgrims rest near the fountain. They usually on chiplyaly Samson neck cross and sacred image, while their zahaduyuchy cherished desire. The water was clean and Samson Delicious pilgrims took her with him and brought his family "sip St. healing samsoniyevoyi Vodice. This custom was associated with an ancient Legend that combined with Jerusalem Kyiv special underground rivers. As told, the pilgrim from Kyiv dropped into the river Jordan, near Jerusalem silver ladle, and his return found him in a monastery in wells Hem. So there is a legend that the water source in Kiev comes directly from the Jordan River where Jesus Christ was baptized.
Inside Nineteenth century. water supply existed in Kievan fortress. Kyiv Governor-General M. Annenkov offered to build citywide water supply, but? Most homeowners were strongly against it unnecessary for them view of innovation. Only in 1870 next is the governor-general invited for the installation of water supply (and electric lighting), the famous engineer and entrepreneur A. Struve. He urged homeowners and concluded with the city contract 1950 to place the water, creating the special corporation. The need for water supply was already quite obvious - the city increased rapidly, appeared tall buildings. Moreover, most of the 300 Kiev wells were shallow and the water in them was not very good quality - it caused the danger of epidemics.
Already in 1872 first line of water was in order. The total length of 30-inch pipe reached 24 km. Water moved up after them? in 147 houses. In other water delivered, as still vodovozy - riding in special casks. In 10 years the length water supply increased by only 45 km. Water is taken from the Dnieper and zakachuvaly by pumping stations up and it also held a special filter. Filters should be changed often, and this reduced profits, and therefore was used artesian water (with Special ultradeep wells - 100 m deep and more). The city is so increased rapidly, which could not meet water supply needs of the population and industry. Soon there were private wells, small private water supply. Majority companies organized their own wells.
And remained vodovozy - for them it was even installed a special reduced fee - 10 kopecks. 50 buckets, while ordinary consumers pay 22 kopecks. 100 buckets. There were also many special outdoor equipment, where they could little water to residents. A Kiev fountains are "drinkers" for horses.
In 1908 in City typhus epidemic broke out and cholera. This forced to give up water intake from the Dnieper and go completely on artesian water.
And in 1914 city bought the water supply. But even in 20-30's Twentieth century. water supply used only a third of city residents.
In 1939 the Dnipro built, and in 1961 - Desnyansko waterworks. On They used modern technologies of water purification. This enabled again go to the water supply from rivers. But water quality is often caused and causes Kiev dissatisfaction, because in the 90-ies Twentieth century. unfolding construction of pump rooms. There are about 200. True and not always all okay.
From a message Kiev press.
Through information obtained Kiev politsmeysterom that the holder (holders) dung camp demanding the removal of sewage arbitrary fees, politsmeysterom order was issued, stating that payment for the export of sewage vacuum set the current mandatory Rule of 3 buckets of pennies? If homeowners request that holder (holders) require dung camp fee is higher than Sanitary Commission established rules, the order provides politsmeystera district police officer to draw up reports and bring the perpetrators to justice responsibility. August 4 (23 July) 1908
- Which raises a problem of tip?
- Why put such strict conditions of vacuum?
- Who should monitor that provides punishment for violation?
- How can I replace the vacuum?
For any problem of waste has always been difficult. In ancient Kiev rain took away the water in the Dnieper and other rivers, using specially dug ditches, and waste dumped in the pit, which, after filling just covered. In later times Sewage - waste removal - are performing so-called goldsmiths. They are for fee clean pit trap and deliver their content in special casks for city. There fields require fertilizers.
У ХVIII. primitive sewage system already existed at the hem. Waste of underground pipes and ground delivered in the gutters? stream and river bearing all the Dnieper. Therefore, most of them turned into dirty ditch (as eg Glybochitsa. It was so dirty and stinking that it had fill up and hold in its place first in Kiev boulevard). Not surprisingly, incidence of hem was significantly higher than in other parts of the city. Sanitary problem sharpened end of the nineteenth century. - The growth of the city. Doctors emphasized that the lack of modern sanitation leads to epidemics. At City Duma was created specifically sanitary, and then another and sewer Commission. The project developed a sewage A. Struve mentioned already, but it involved the dumping of waste in the Sky, which strongly satisfy both Commission. Only in 1890 your proposed project and the English engineer Sean in 1894 sewer system was put into operation. Waste gathered in special huge reservoirs, and from there to the city perekachuvalys special field. Approximately the same scheme operates today, although the scale and location dopravlyayutsya where waste is quite another.
Museum exhibits. Water meters
Let us consider:
- what these devices? Why do they serve?
- Is your apartment a appliance?
- Why should I pay for the consumed water? Where the money go?
Visit with adults.
1. MP Water Information Center (Museum water)
Ukraine, 01001, Kyiv, str. Hrushevskoho 1B (Independence Square subway station, park Khreshchatyi) tel. 38 (044) 279-53-33, fax: 38 (044) 279-80-59. Wed., Wed., Fri. of 10001700Sat., Sun. of 10 001800. Enter the last group for 60 minutes before closing. Sanitary days: Monday, Tuesday.
2. Museum of sewage
Address: Stopping Institute of Chemistry, route 45 (metro Darnitsa), 31.
With the Kiev press reports at intervals of 100 years
(A) During the last days gang city workers perform street cleaning dust and dirt. Unfortunately, Street cleaning is very interesting. For example, about 12 am First school house near the intersection of Grand Street and Vladimir Bibikovskoho boulevard a squad of workers armed with brooms raised such terrible dust that most passers moved to the other side. Elsewhere repeats of the same. On the elimination of such inconvenience should pay attention to our town administration and require the contractor to Cleaning streets and squares to perform cleaning in the morning, as it happens with adequate in all cities. The accumulation of dust on the streets may significantly Change the time clean the dirt from the bridge. Unfortunately, cleaning the dirt is very teachable, and gathered into piles of mud often is on the side streets nezamoschenyh in places. In such a composition can indicate dirt on the corner Nesterovs Bibikovskoho street and boulevard. August 18 (6 August) 1908
(B) 2008 Kyivavtodor pohyzuvavsya new special equipment Yesterday Kyivavtodor arranged exhibition recently bought modern equipment for street cleaning. ? Only for 2008 and Park could expand to 200 machines, and even in the enterprise There are 1,5 thousand different kinds of special equipment. ? Yesterday Kyivavtodor demonstrated modern cleaning and repair techniques, which recently bought to organize the streets. Most cars are equipped with computers that are based weather conditions controlling costs of salt, sand and gravel. It also could see also avtopylososy, avtodvirnyky, sprinkle.
(C) Yesterday in first attempt was made special watering street car, which Kiev is tap (water-) union. You can not say that this watering was considered successful. Initially the car was pour Nicholas street, and then started refreshing Catherine Street, but here at The governor's house, a minor damage in the office car, the last had to stand from 12 am to 5 pm. Only for 5 hours to correct the defect and send a car to its parking place. Irrigation takes place on both sides of the street in front of the car established special openings, where while driving strong pressure departs small drops of water, reaching lengths of up to 3 fathoms during a stop and repair Catherine street car on a large crowd gathered. October 14 (October 2) 1908
(D) Parade special Kyivavtodor the capital. 2007
- uniting all these sources? What is the problem up?
- What changes have occurred over 100 years in dealing with it?
- What are outraged by notes (a)? Have you met a similar phenomenon too?
- How do you think that technology can solve issue raised in the spring 6 (a)?
- Offer your way to fix it.
It is very difficult, almost impossible to cover all aspects of city life. So even touch upon only a few usual comforts of our everyday life.
The city completely illuminated by electricity. A central streets literally bathed in electric light - even light up the tree. It is hard to imagine that some 100 years including electric light still remained exotic. To construct the first two power plants in 1890 and 1891 was given the most prestigious places downtown (on the streets of modern European and Independence Square). First electric lantern light in the capital. Now the first street lights appeared in Kiev at the end of XVIII century. They were originally hnotovymy and tucked them mainly sunflower oil, partially kerosene. Over time there were gas lights. They are lit every evening lihtarnyk. He and hasyv them. The first lighted lantern with green glass tower on fire - This was the signal for the start of street lighting. In the houses to the emergence of electricity used for lighting candles, lamps, lamp later. Not surprisingly, firefighters work always enough!
Amanda E. Struve (1835-1898)
Family Struve came from Germany, but apparently hard to find a family that would give its new homeland as distinguished inventors, engineers, military. Amanda Struve started out as a soldier, but military career is not attractive to young men - was more like engineering, he studied at the leading educational institutions of Russia and abroad.
The first trydtsyatydvorichnoho project engineer was the construction of railway bridge over Dnepr River in Kiev. Struve performs this task in two years, using the latest in While scientific and technical solutions.
Amanda Struve, like many of his contemporaries, successfully combined the talents of engineers talent of the entrepreneur. And when demand appeared - in the construction of water supply, sewage systems, trams, street lighting - he proposed a technical solution problems and was set to its implementation. For this he created the relevant company attracted capital, organized the construction. And - getting revenue?
Exactly by Struve Kyiv became the first city in the Russian Empire and the second in Europe where is electric tram. Kyiv owes him that was among few cities of the Russian Empire, which had in the early twentieth century. water, telephone and sewer. Connected with his name and activities of the society, which provide coverage of many gas lamps (it was found 1500 lamps).
Home -wide line was opened in Kiev in 1886 The phone then was a symbol of progress, prosperity, such as in relatively recent times its great-grandson - a mobile phone. Monthly fee was 150 rubles. on month (a fortune in those days - 150 rubles. you can rent a year quite a decent apartment). Connection subscribers was as follows: should was dial telephone, called "phone baryshni" number of its subscriber and wait until it put the plug in the appropriate slot. Released even special instructions, which required not to keep unnecessary conversation with telephonist and girls did not even greet them - to save time and efforts. With the development and improvement of the telephone network telephone service became cheaper, and the number who wanted to join the achievements civilization, constantly growing - urban telephone network could not meet everyone. To some extent, solved the problem of street phone booth. However, many dreams have been fulfilled only own phone with quick development of mobile communication.
The first cars appeared in Kiev 1897 Quite a long time cars were a great novelty and every appearance in the streets City sparked furious excitement - especially in boys.
In 1911 in Kiev, the first taxi in the amount up two pieces. Mostly they waited passengers at the railway station. It was a three-wheeled auto plant "Cyclone" (Germany), and they resemble more motorcycles than cars. Kiyani called tsyklonetkamy them.
Satirical picture of one of Kiev newspapers
As we can see auto transport has not yet, but already has generated problems. Not by chance in 1908 City Council approved the first rule of road transport. And how - the number of cars in the city by far exceeded two hundred By These guidelines were established speed limit - 10 miles per hour on downtown streets and 20 on the secondary. In 1910 the capital is even standing traffic controller.
Verst – old East title large distance measure, which was 1.06 km.
Transport problem arose prior to each city that grew. Kievlyanin days of Prince Volodymyr or Jaroslav could get anywhere on foot Kyiv. But to the Cave laurels is easiest to be reached boat on the Dnieper River. Over time, wealthy people of a small distance riding or overcome coach, less rich - in wheelchairs or on foot. But from the middle Nineteenth century. When the population and the town began rapidly increase, there was an urgent need for public transport. In 1879 appeared in Kiev Omnibus - great coach and horses. They were transported immediately many passengers, but were very bulky, fast horses vybyvalysya of forces steep rise of Kyiv. They were in 1891 Konka hiding - City Cavalry railway. Cars were pulling competition usually two horses, and still on the rise prypryahaly two or even four.
Konka began called "tram" - "road cars" - Americans with light hand.
But competition, as well as the locomotive that appeared subsequently were not useful for the relief of Kiev - those little ups and most famous slopes. May 8, 1892 was the first test flight of electric Urban railway - known to us tram. The first line was laid by one the coolest in Kiev Alexander descent (between modern European and Postal Square). The next day the newspaperKievlyanin "reported:" Cars overflow audience, the way many passengers ride several times up and down, showing interest in this important news for Kyiv.
Kiyani proud of this miracle - the first in Russian Empire in Europe and second electric streetcar. Unfortunately, at the end of XX - the beginning of. tram came to hard times.
In 1913 in Kyiv for 20 tram tracks, three tram depot, the total length of lines exceeded 100 km. On 1980 there were 28 tracks, length of lines exceeded 285 km.
Since messages Kiev press.
(A) "In the metropolis, where the tram from abandoned long ago he returned. London, Paris, New Orleans, Athens, Toronto, Minneapolis, Milan, Prague, Geneva? In English Nottingham track is dismantled in the 40-ies Twentieth century. - For the sake of motorists. In 2004, electric vehicles returned to the city to relieve the road. "Now again the Nottingham European city ", - said at the opening of a new line of Minister of Transport UK
But in Kiev tram rails becomes smaller. Their removed to free the streets internal combustion engines. Trams disappeared from the center, move to the suburbs on the left coast. Instead of paving and rails appears asphalt and road markings. Instead of the destroyed depot grow skyscrapers. Hangs above the intersection exhaust smog. "(July 2008)
Alexander Street (present Sagaidachnogo), beginning of XX century. and now
(б) "Kyiv Mayor Leonid Chernovetsky City Administration announced its intention to develop this type of environmentally friendly transport. And not only renew the rolling stock but also to reconstruct the tram using silent track technology. According to the mayor, "it will opportunity to bring properties up to modern Kiev trams standards for passenger vehicles. "(June 2008)
Let us consider:
- Why the number of tram tracks decreases in Kiev?
- Why tram returns to many cities in the world?
- What will be the future of trams in Kiev?
The first permanent bus line was in Kiev opened in 1925 on modern European Square to the street Saksahansky. Trolleybus in Kiev began operating November 5, 1935 On the route ran on the current Great Vasylkivska street, drove four trolley production Kiev factory electric.
The first area subway opened in 1960 and counted 5 stations: Dnieper, Arsenal, Khreshchatyk, university, train station - total length about 5 km. Today, Metro has 46 stations. Stations Kiev Metro ornate - they are the real underground palaces. Stations Metro in Paris, London, Rome other city looks much smaller. Every day, subway to about 1 million 900 thousand people. For one hour in both parties are held on 42 trains. But Metro can no longer cope with increasing flow of passengers.
Let us consider.
- With means of transport transport problem is solved city?
- Which one do you think most efficient and convenient?
- What transportation you use?
A special place among the species public transport takes the funicular. First mode of transportation traction rope for transporting people - a funicular - began operating in 1854 , in Italy and soon in Austria. Often they built in the mountainous countries and spa centers.
Kyiv boasts such infrequent mode of transport in cities like funicular. It opened in 1905 and he had the name "Michael electric rope climb. On the first day it passed about 20 thousand people. Feature Kiev Cable car is that it simultaneously and mode of transport, walking and agent.
As each city near the great river of great significance to Kyiv have bridges. Even when Kyiv is quite umischavsya on the right bank was willing enough to get the right Bank on your left or vice versa. They sometimes had to wait a few crossing hours. Especially in bad weather, and when on the banks of the Dnieper stikalosya several thousands of pilgrims who were heading to or returning from Lavrov pilgrimage home.
Since the end of XVII century. Every spring built in the Cave ("Induced" – hence the name streets and Staronavodnitskaya Novonavodnytska) temporary floating bridges. They were only to fall. Winter also arranged special crossed the Dnieper.
Historian Kyiv Sementovskyy, Mid XIXArt.
"It happened so often that those who came to the left bank of the Dnieper River in spring and autumn during stormy weather expected on board a ferry for a few hours or even days or more. ? At this time on the banks of the Dnieper stikalosya in July and August, several thousand pilgrims who expected crossing.
- Why people had to wait?
- Offer a way to solve the problem.
- Why, in your opinion, do not build permanent bridges?
Oleg Anisimov, Kyyevoznavets
"August 30, 1848 was held to lay the first permanent bridge across the Dnieper. Seat Askold's Tomb has been selected by chance. According to engineers, there were strong bottom current and moderate rivers.
The construction of this huge buildings in 365 fathoms in length (776 meters) required enormous effort. The total weight of the object reached the 100 000 pounds. Tested finished construction a long time. Constant is opened only in 1855 year. By order of Emperor Alexander II was named Nicholas.
The surface of the bridge rested for five brick "bulls" set in a large granite base depth. By the way, went deep into the remains of the construction of the monument pedestal Bohdan Khmelnytsky. The upper part of the "bulls" were a form of arches with towers on either side, that were made in the architectural style of medieval English Gothic. "Bulls" z'yednuvalysya together with iron chains, so large that the weight individual level reached 12 pounds (192 kilograms). All metal parts of the bridge was produced in Birmingham. At sixteen ships brought them to Odessa and thence through numerous carts that pulled the oxen, delivered to Kyiv.
By 1900 cities had wrenches section for the passage of sailing ships. Acting on principle "Reverse the circle", she moved through the efforts of only four. Later, the surface of the bridge slightly raised, dredged channel. The need for adjustable side anymore.
The bridge was so strong, that could withstand the load of three per square pudy ft, or 310 000 pounds for the whole building. "
Nicholas Chain Bridge
"One of the most famous bridges in the world - Brooklyn, New York. It is possible that it was the prototype of Kyiv Nicholas (chain) Bridge. He, moreover, that was good in itself; considered (and was!) engineering miracle of the time. His model was exhibited at Exhibition in London in 1854 Think that this is where it could see Reblinham American engineer who designed the famous bridge over the East River, which opened in 1883 The appearance and technical solutions Brooklyn Bridge, according to experts, very similar to the famous Kiev bridge.
- Doberit Photo corresponding story experts.
- Spend competition Presentations bridges.
- Do you recognize cities.
- Doberit to cast photo relevant expert report.
(A) M. Kalnytskyy, kyyevoznavets.
"Length the famous bridge. Paton 1543 feet, which exceeds the length Khreshchatyk. For the first time in world practice, this grand structure appears welded - the installation of all elements of the bridge was conducted by automatic and semiautomatic welding.
Construction bridge, which was started before the war, stipulated end end 1940
Architects have discussed the details of design entries and pictures jewelry nearby. Now, with almost revolutionary initiative was made by 70 year old engineer Eugene Paton - refuse taken riveted connections and go to welding. It gave great advantages in weight, durability and reliability. Opposition supporters traditional technologies was desperate. But the chairman of the Ukrainian Central Committee of the Communist Party Nikita Khrushchev infiltrated arguments Paton and gave "good". By the summer of 1941 began assembling the first part. However, war interrupted construction?
Leaving Kyiv, occupation forces blew up each of the pillars of the future bridge. Yet, support rebuilt. Builders started construction works, following directions Yevgeny Paton. On the eve of 10 anniversary of liberation from Nazi capital Invaders mighty structure was successfully constructed. The main creator is lived three months to complete construction, but open the bridge was granted the name of Academician Paton.
(B) H. Fuchs, bridge builders.
"At this time in Europe a number of very bold decisions: they built bridges with the broad big problems hanging on the ropes. For the idea to build a bridge in Kiev representatives immediately uhopylysya water transport - this would avoid obstacles to navigation. Moscow bridge consists of two major bridges: across the Dnieper and across Desenka, starorichchya Dnieper. Both projects are bridges to the time - late 60's - early 70's - have been almost revolutionary. "We are barely achieved a permit to build a cable-stayed bridge length of 700 meters and without bearing span of 300 meters, says - George B.. - But this difficult and risky work bull very interesting! For the time construction of the bridge bull unique. Instead of reinforced concrete slabs under the road surface guy bridge is a thin metal plate that allows bridges curve. Until then, in country does not implement anything like this.
Moscow city - truly unique structure. Concrete pylon inside blank for that staff can climb up. From it both ways scattered rays of guys who also hold an enormous number of cities in almost hanging position. Every Vantaa - a bunch of 91 galvanized wire 5 mm in diameter each. One such cable has a breaking load of about 300 tons.
(C) H. Fuchs, V. Vishnevsky for "Governmental Courier"
"December 26, 1990 - In Kiev, South Bridge was opened on South Bridge Project length (Actually it is correct to call the South bridge) is 11,2 km length same bridge - 1 250 c.? first Former Soviet Union decided to build a cable-stayed bridge under track vehicles (ie, - metro). By the time the project itself and in itself South bridge construction were used the most recent decision, the stewards international standards. And now, 15 years after the start of the Southern bridge it meets almost all possible requirements. In particular, it is important that oncoming lane (and in their each direction is made by three) separate subway line. On the approaches to Bridge barrier fence. So even if you want here is not onto the counter lane. As a result, Southern cities are safest from others in Kiev. This despite the fact that it now moves on to 90 thousand cars a day that half timeи over the project. In the last year or two on the bridge were formed "cork" and "Tyagun, due with a huge delay in construction of these bridges after the South.
(D) Magazine "Architecture and hradostroytelstvo "
Metro Bridge opened November 5, 1965 Its built near the place where was the Chain (Mykolayevskyy) cities? Metro bridge is design for two levels of underground trains (upper tier) and vehicles (lower part). The bridge length over 700 m in width - 29 pm
Legends of Moscow bridge.
"Since its existence, shrouded cities legends of the "catastrophic" flavor. After opening the bridge circled over the city Rumors: bridge nearly collapsed in the tests, with him falling parts already killed several people. And anyway - this cursed city, ride it dangerous, it sags, vibrates and can be mislaid? And much more. In this case we have a unique opportunity to see how legends are born.
(A) bridge them. Paton: Opening in 1953
late 50's of 20 centuries. and in 2007
- Has changed over the years?
- Why is that?
- What is the problem occurred and why?
(B) Since messages press. 2007
Get to know and tell
- is scheduled to decide the issue raised in the spring 8.