- Why can not we do without trade?
- As a related trade, craft and industry?
- What are the types of trade?
- Why Kyiv has always been a great commercial city?
Kyiv has always been a city trade. Trade in his life played a huge role. Trade - one of ancient inventions of mankind. It allows people to exchange goods and services to meet their needs. Trade connects producers and consumers which may be at great distances from one another. Sells its products bought and people have long needed. Today, when we need something we just go and buy without ever wondering how to hit the shop or another thing.
Visit the nearest supermarket and research products of only one groups (such as confectioneries, canned vegetables and fruits, dairy products, etc.). Make a list of countries and cities of Ukraine, where these goods are produced.
Which way were these products before you get on the counter? Who or what is provided?
(A) G. Ivakin (Archeologist, historian) on trade in ancient Kyiv.
"Kyiv was great and the all international trade center. ? Through the town were important trade routes that linked Europe with Asia, the Baltic countries and the Byzantine Empire. Comfortable Kiev Harbor ? Was on Hem. Hence owns the caravans set out on a long journey to Constantinople. It placed numerous stores, trade buyers from other colonies Ancient cities and foreign countries. Most of the hem occupied Kiev torhovysche where, gathered "guests" - with merchants all over the world. "
(б) P. Aleppskyy, traveler, the middle XVIIArt.
"We brought beer and honey in large tubs? vodka much. Bread deliver carts? because its a lot. The fish is cheap and nadyvovyzhu many different varieties and species. ? Merchants here brought olive oil, almonds, olives, rice, figs, tobacco, red morocco, spices, fabrics and Persian cotton fabrics - in large numbers of Turkish land, a distance of 40 days' journey. But it is very expensive? "
(C) Oleg Anisimov, Kyyevoznavets.
"Much later (in late nineteenth century.)? Kyiv informally called "sugar capital of the world." With the development of this type of industry and by creating a powerful network of railways, Kyiv performed annually billions trade transaction for the sale of sugar, which were involved in dozens of countries world.
- Kyiv traded with whom? As changed trade routes?
- How is it defined a place in Kyiv international trade?
- How and why varied assortment goods? Which of them remained unchanged for centuries? Why?
Today it is hard to imagine the city and our lives without supermarkets, large and small shops. Previously, the most important role in meet everyday needs playing markets.
Urban markets of the Kievan Rus had almost the great importance for the life of the city as the town's fortifications. Markets then were called trades torzhyschamy. Torzhysche - the most vibrant place where people not only exchanged goods. It is here proclaimed prince orders a variety of news, one found that time-one workers and employers. It is at torzhyschi been established price. The most famous Kyiv market during Kievan Rus - Babin Torzhok Torhovysche and Podolsk.
- As the artist depicted, the trading in the market?
- What can you say about buyers and sellers, who are they?
For centuries, the commercial life Kyiv focused on the hem. In the same city, where in ancient times Torzhysche flourished. The most successful auction for buyers occurred at the hem at the beginning of spring. These tenders were called Contracts fairs. The first fair was held in 1797. The area (modern Kontraktova), among Tolkuchoho market in 1828 was erected Contract building that became the center of the fair.
During the fair during the month (the first of February until the first of March) all vacancies grew to marketplace where you can find anything. Sales of that time could not rely on modern transport and communication, so that in winter it was possible to bring most products and generally get to Kyiv, but because of direct trade on Contract fair trade agreements drawn up for the future - mainly to buy large quantities of bread and sugar. Such agreements were called contracts, which gave a Fair name and was his calling card. Number of participants rahuvalasya thousands. It came from all over Europe - from Austria, Prussia, Britain, Italy, Switzerland, of Denmark and Greece. Therefore contract Fairs brought considerable income Kiev, as all visitors had to settle, feed and entertain.
With the development of transport gradually increased the duration of Contract fairs. Since the late 19 century. need for seasonal fairs fell, agreement drawn up during the year in the house got a Kontractova Trading Exchange. Fairs traditionally held some time in the spring, but former scale was no more.
(A) About rented and goods in trade Contract House premises in 1835 (Per F. Ernst).
"Foreigner Perard of gloves and skin, Tula gunmakers, Polish jewelers, German-optics Petersburg, boots Berdicheva, "buharets Dawlat Shahmaratov with kerchiefs and shalyamy, Kyiv master clocks, Moscow haberdashery, Nizhyn Greek Tobacco Manufactory with Bogorodskaya Yeltsya and several book vendors kievlyanin Fishing with icons, "Cohn Austrian subject of chemical things," with Hungary's Gas Industry of wine "," Chernihiv province town Pochep knyahini Barbara Repnina with straw hats.
(B) Ostap Cherry, "Fair", 1925
"Zahryas Gharbi, carts, miseries, horses, cows, sheep, oxen, calves, pot, bowls, chickens, wool sacks, hops, wing, cloth, boots, candy, gingerbread, kvass beer, Ruthenian bitter, combs, hair, leather belt, cast iron, fabric, napkin, cloth, tar, gasoline, shingle, shirts, skirts, carpets, bristles, tubs, horns, shirts, wax, honey, molasses, Taran, herring, wheels, drains, glass, eggs, spare wheel, wrap-arounds, pies, lard, meat, sausage, fried fish, line, trunk, nails, hammers, pigs, merchants, gypsies, slaughterer, people, children and the blind ... "
(C) Contract Fair. Photo 20 x rr.20 century.
Let us consider:
- Compare inventory. What changed that was left?
- What was bloom associated haulage contractors? Why have they declined?
End XIXArt. Kyiv became the city's markets, as trading anywhere and on anything any space. Even the Guide – space for tourists at that time was that Free auction was only the square in front of Sofia Cathedral. Sometimes his filth and stench, trading places is greater hash appearance of streets and squares. So city government took care markets and cared for compliance with sanitary standards, and beginning XXArt. has its first indoor market (Bessarabsky). Then it was built and others. But the remaining traditional outdoor markets.
(A) Bessarabsky market
(B) Galician market
(C) Market Street
Let us consider:
- Compare two markets. Which is better? Why?
- What forced city authorities to look after their markets?
- Why built indoor markets? Who attended them?
- Why remained and others? Who bought and sold them?
Know and Tell.
- What is the situation with the markets in Kiev now? As the city government care of markets and trade?
End XIXArt. shopping center City life has moved on Khreshchatyk. He became the main commercial city streets. To see this, look at what has long been called the engine trade - advertising.
Khreshchatyk beginning of the twentieth century.
- Prohulyaysya Kreschatiku Experiments and signage and advertising. Calculate the number of retail establishments by type.
- Compare with Kreschatiku early twentieth century.
- Make a conclusion about the development of trade and urban city general. Just my opinions as a message.
Congratulations! You had probably first in his life science Research! Pohvalitsya parents and friends!
We think about and discuss
- Why Kyiv has always been a great craft, industrial and Shopping Centre? What contributed to this?