Nature (environment), Kyiv
- In a natural environment is Kyiv?
- As people of used and use natural resources?
- How human activity affects on the environment?
Each city is unique. But there are many cities, something nevlovymo similar to one another. If the city is located outdoors, it is easily spread in different directions. Streets in such city wide and straight, houses usually low. If the city is situated on islands or mountains flattened, then the streets will be narrower, and homes – higher. Cities such as in the line up. Thus, each city "is inscribed in the natural environment, its appearance, features largely determined by the terrain in which it is located.
Relief - A set of diverse shape, size and origin earth's surface irregularities (mountains, lowlands, hills, valleys, etc.).
Habitat - Set natural phenomena and objects that surround people.
Map: The relief of the city of Kyiv.
- Using a name card determine what information it contains mostly.
- What special relief is allocated and why?
- What are the water bodies (rivers, lakes, channels) are located in Kyiv?
- Define the map left and right banks of the Dnieper.
- Using the card, decide on which the bank made these photos.
- Use a map and photos Tell us about the relief of Kyiv.
Having studied the map, we see that the main feature is Kyiv presence of a large river that divides the city today in two parts - a high right bank and left bank low.
Dnipro - One of the the largest rivers in Europe. Now Sky - calm wide river. But it was not always. If kievlyanin of ancient Kyiv suddenly got in our time, he did not recognize to Sky. River within Kyiv became much wider, changed its channel. A the main thing that impressed to this seeming old kievlyanina - no floods. After each spring before they flood the lower part of the city, and sometimes turned into a real disaster. In the twentieth century. was on the Dnieper built several dams. The reservoirs formed at the same time you made called seas. Reservoirs make a great spring water, and thus flooding in the district of Kyiv ceased to be a constant threat to the city. This, in its turn, allowed to build up the right lowlands and low left bank Dnieper.
But Reservoir and created several problems for the city. The water in the shallow seas handmade stagnates and it leads her to "blossom" - the widening of a large number algae. Large water masses near the city much changed climate in Kiev. Humidity in the city is now much higher than it was before and than it should be for our region. This is especially felt by people with chronic diseases.
В different historical periods Sky called differently: the Greeks called it Borisfen, Romans - Danapris, Slavs - comprehensive directory. All these names are used and now. For example, Rusanivka, near the Dnieper River, the Hotel Slavutich. Just named one of the most famous beer brands in Ukraine. Football Club one of the towns Kyiv is a proud name "Borisfen. As long times it Latina (language of the Romans) was the language of science and education in general was named "Sky" - adapted for the Latin word Slavic ears.
But Kyiv - is not just Sky. Like every great river, it has many tributaries. Many of them flow through the territory of Kyiv. Rather be say, Kyiv grew around them.
- What River Kyiv already mentioned in this book?
- What role they played in the history of Kyiv?
Source 2. The fate of river Pochayny.
(A) Lina Kostenko, Ukrainian poet.
I opened the truth sad:
life fades as the river Pochayna.
Through ages, and even through the years
river has become a memory river.
I only know the old willow:
Kiev was baptized in it, not Dnieper.
(B) Dmitry Lavrov, Modern kyyevoznavets.
"In times of the great harbor Pochayny was filled with ships.
Now in place gilded bows where once zvyvalas 8-kilometer Pochayna, lies a giant housing array. Sometimes people are not aware that walk on their own ancient history, and have no idea about the fateful drama of the river. "
(C) John Fundukley, kyyevoznavets, the nineteenth century.
"Even in the XVIIIth. Pochayna represented a fairly deep river that flowed near the hem. On the Dnieper viddilyalas narrow sandy braid it, which when fully spills Dnipro pokryvalas him. "
(D) Max Berlin, kyyevoznavets, the end of XVIII - Top XIX Art.
"State-owned barges with various military supplies to tyhovoddya ringleader in the upper and Pochayny prychalyuvaly to wooden framings. For full cutoff was prokopano by funds from the city Dnieper turn on the sandy ground shipping channel and thus not only absorbed the Sky Pochaynu, zmyvshy island, which was formed, but also destroyed much of the hem.
- Why the fate struck Pochayny poet?
- What and When was this river?
- Who is to blame for this?
- Do you think fate Pochayny exclusive, or typical of other small rivers Kyiv?
- The fate of other small rivers Kyiv.
- About Kiev lake.
- About handmade "river", images in the photo.
References will help you and Electronic sources:
1. Sketches from the history of Kyiv.
2. Kyiv. Encyclopedic Reference.
- Interesting Kiev
- Environmental atlas Kyiv
- Your Kiev. Stary Kiev
- Remember the legend of the founding of Kyiv. Where to settled?
- Contact back to the source 1. What can you say about the right bank of the Dnieper?
(A) I.Nechuy-Levitsky, writer. From the story "Night on Dnipro.
"The left bank of the Dnieper, equal, plyskovatyy, society, overgrown with thick bushes and lozamy, green, as if planted rye, and synily more dense pine trees, like the sea, wrapped in blue and syzu mists. Southward syzily mountains and the mountains could see Kyiv? The sun struck from the forest red rays on Kiev Mountains.»
(B) I. Syundyukov,"Day", Rome: to touch eternity. June 6, 2003
Rome for many parameters can be compared with Kyiv. The city stands on seven hills (Romans all seven knew the name, famous –Vatican, Palatynskyy, Aventynskyy ...). But the names are specifically Kiev hills? …
- What unites these two excerpts? What are they?
- How to call the authors of what they write?
- And can you answer the questions posed by Igor Syundyukovym?
Interestingly, in many people survive on remittances founding of the city is on hills, mountains (as Jerusalem). And very often it at seven - except for Rome, for example, Moscow. And it is not accidentally. Seven always considered special, sacred number. And transfers of establishment of the mountains, and also to highlight the seven had special significance of this holy city.
mountain? It is commonly called the right bank of the Dnieper sublimity. In fact, it
more hills. The highest of them have a height less than
«In Kiev, there are street that only climbed until the middle of them, stops the heart ", – wrote a famous Russian writer AM LeskovThat many he lived in our city.
- Locate on the map Kyiv streets whose names contain the word "descent", "Descent", "floor".
Protasov Yar (place between Baykovom and Batyyevoyu mountains)
Scramblers ravine. Photo top Twentieth century.
- What about this area? Describe it.
- What does the word "yar"? Doberit synonyms.
- Are there many such areas in London?
Protasov Yar, Babi Yar, Kmytiv ravine Smorodinskii ravine, the ravine and Kozhemyaka Potters - all names of historical locations in Kyiv. Sometime, where now Khreshchatyk was yar. He and called - Khreshchatyi. Yar, tract, beam - a depression between the mountains. Their many Kiev - only about 50 large. Most are filled and built up. If you say, go Khreshchatyk, it is not perceived as a ravine. However, Hreschatika left or right of any street can only rise.
Ask the parents.
- Take the card-scheme Kyiv. Find the name on it streets on both sides Khreshchatyk.
- Take a walk these streets. Follow where they lead. What features did you notice?
"I have become expensive for the slopes Dnipro - unofficial anthem sung in Kyiv. There are many enthusiastic descriptions these famous Dnipro Dnipro slopes or steep slopes. These steep nothing like slopes are known to us Kiev Mountains. Indeed, it is hard to find something beautiful for kievlyanina.
The song "What you do not love my Kiev" - lyrics by D. Lutsenko, music I. Shamo.
(B) In 1761 in Kyiv was established "Special office for drawing up proposals for fixing the most reliable steady shore Dnepr, ceasing rozmyvanoho bottom over the Dnieper and upper streams of melt and rainwater flowing down from the mountains.
- Describe what you see in the photo source 5 (a). Where could be made photo?
- What is the phenomenon to see them? Why does it occur?
- What suggestions would you have provided the institution that cares for the safe securing steady bank of the Dnieper (Source 5 (b))?
Zdvyzh-land - this name happens even in ancient chronicles. "Why sliding slopes", "Kyiv slips? "," Kyiv aged slowly slip? "- these are some headlines Modern Kiev newspapers. Since this phenomenon Kievites always struggled. In First of all - derevonasadzhennyam on the slopes. The roots of trees, pereplitayuchys, strengthens the slopes. We built special landslide protection works, drainage did wells (for water drainage), scored in the slopes of the pile. Starting with the aforementioned The source 5 (b) office in Kiev and there are special institutions that deal with this.
But with time problem only worse.
"Monster on the street. Hrushevsky"
Let us consider:
- Why is this house called "monster"?
- To what consequences this construction of such facilities Dnipro on the slopes?
- The history of this building and combat.
(A) From the "Tale of Bygone Years".
"And the forest around the city and the forest is great, and they fished [Here] beast ".
(B) From the description of Kyiv P. Aleppskoho, Syria travel, mid XIIth century.
"Then we came to the big city? with great number of gardens? At each house, as the palace is a large garden, where all Fruit trees that grow only here. Many of them nuts and grapes. On ordered furrows sown with cucumber Crocuses, Ruth and cloves? near the road to Vydubytsky monastery all slopes overgrown with wild fruit trees? "
(C) From the description of Kyiv Bulgakov Russian writer beginning of the twentieth century.
"And there were gardens in the city as much as in any city or world. They spread throughout the huge spots, with rides, chestnuts, ravines, maples and limes. Gardens lie to the great mountains, which hung over the Dnipro? "
Let us consider:
- what is common and perfectly in descriptions of these different times?
- what words are used authors to describe the vegetation of Kiev? Explain them.
- what a garden for P. Aleppskoho and Mikhail Bulgakov? What plants are they to remember?
Kyiv - green city. In Kiev, trees, flowers and shrubs are an integral part of streets, but not concentrated only in parks and squares. Preserved many natural and not ordered people vegetation. The city looms on all sides by woods.
Kyiv has arisen among forests. The same Khreshchatyk, which we have mentioned, was covered by princely times wild forest. He was called Perevisyschem, because it perevisy been established - made from mesh traps for wild animals. Rozshyryayuchys, the city devouring forests and ravines. But often the city "obtikalo" large woodland and they found themselves surrounded by urban areas. Therefore, in Kiev is ? Real forests: Kiev forest Pushcha Voditsa Syretsky grove Kyrylivsky grove. Many of these plots on the left bank - Park Partisan Glory ", a park "Victory", Bykovnyanskie forest and others. Often these forests are not large and do not even have names. And there is the Dnieper with the island almost untouched nature. Such places are called parks, but they retain their natural look only at the edges and laid the alley, found seats, pavilions, attractions and more. Such parks are a sign of Kyiv. It is unlikely that you will meet like in many other cities.
The habit of Kiev to Green turned around so strong that new stone paving and street they obsadzhuvaly their trees. In the new urban quarters oblashtovuvaly new parks and public gardens. They, unlike the old, were regular, ie dissolved in advance with the plan.
With the Resolution of Kyiv City Thinking on planting trees (1896)
"Smb Street: Khreshchatyk, Alexander the Great and Vasyl'kivs'ke - elm globular shape; Old Town and Bezakivsku - chestnuts; sticky - limes, "New House" - maples, skirts and flat area - Tatar maple; Luk'yanivka - elm usual.
Let us consider:
- Why City Duma concerned green city?
- How to explain that different streets proposed plant different tree species?
- What trees grow in the parks, on the streets now?
Symbol of Kyiv - Chestnut or poplar.
"Blossom Again chestnuts? "So begins one of the most famous songs dedicated to our city, - Kyiv Waltz "
Chestnut has long Green was one of the symbols of Kyiv. Who is admired in the spring of candles brown color, not collected in autumn with great pleasure as the brilliant fruits like patent leather. Chestnut stylized letter was even while the main element in the arms of Kyiv.
But really Kiev chestnut tree was relatively recently - on the verge of 19-20 centuries. By urban legend chestnuts were planted Boulevard Highway (now Shevchenko Boulevard). But it is strongly like King Nicholas I, who took care of the Kiev University that located on the boulevard. According to King, with chestnuts Boulevard looked too cozy, informal. Kyiv Governor General Bibikov charged for one night dig chestnuts and replace them with Lombardy poplars (on the boulevard today By tradition it is their plant). But the discarded trees pozbyraly Kiev. Through few years this unpretentious trees already in many gardens of Kiev. Him obsadzhuvaly new streets, planted it in parks and squares - very soon it has become so commonplace that seemed to grow in the town forever.
- Doberit captions from the list name (hint) that below. Give them.
- What types of green space, above, presented at these photos?
Garden in Monastery,
Central Botanical Garden,
Working with map
- name this map
- fold its legend
- what can tell the map
Kiyani love their city, keep its parks and public gardens. It would seem that those who do not agree with that statement? But not so simple.
(A) Member of the Kiev city council F. Yasnohurskyy, The beginning of the twentieth century.
"The current city administration stricken with a kind of mania destroying trees? Only enemies can do this meanness. "
(B) Leader of NGO "Voice of community in Kyiv " V. Ivanchenko, Beginning XXI century.
"Green Development Programme
Kyiv area, decided that her district, will reduce the area of parks and gardens
Let us consider:
- What problem indicates source 8 (a) and 8 (b)?
- Why this problem existed and early twentieth century. and there now?
- How do you think you need do? Who should be on protection?
- Is anything being done? What about you knows?
Let us consider:
- What is the problem of trying organizers of similar events and decide?
- Why is this a problem?
- Offer more ways to solution.
- Submit a caption to the photo.
- Complete contest "Preserve the nature of Kyiv"