Sophia Cathedral - the symbol of Kyiv
- Why Sophia Cathedral became a symbol of the city?
- As and therefore changed the cathedral and the square in front of it?
- What changes in the life of the city of Kiev and reflect?
Journey to the Past (historical journey in Kiev).
Much has changed in Kiev for more than 1500 years. He experienced the heyday and decline, time freedom and captivity. The pages of history entered its many names, events and dates. We call on witnesses in the history of Kyiv architectural monuments. Here's one of those witnesses – famous Hagia Sophia. It is no exaggeration to call symbol of the city. Together with Sofia we take a trip into the past of Kyiv and trace changes that occurred in and around the cathedral as reflect the changes occurring with the most Kyiv.
"The city of Vladimir, the end of X - the beginning of XI century. D. Layout Mazyukevych
Consider the layout. On it you do not see Cathedral Sv.Sofiyi. And where it is - a field outside the hail, "as the chronicler wrote. It was here in 1036 battles with the Pechenegs (indicated arrow). In memory of her prince Yaroslav the Wise ordered to build a temple for Painter Cv.Sofiyi temple in Constantinople.
Vladimir City - new fortifications built on the orders of Prince Vladimir (980-1015 years). Seize the territory between modern streets Vladimirskaya, Tithe, Zhytomyr, Michael and square slopes on both sides of the ravine Potters Andrew Borychevoho descent and current.
- What important events in history Kyiv and Kyiv Rus connected with the name of Prince Vladimir? Why he went in history as "Vladimir the Holy"?
"The city of Yaroslav, middle XI. D. Layout Mazyukevych
And it is the middle of XI century. - The heyday of Old Rus. It became a symbol of Sofia. A place to build a cathedral was selected so that no part of which would come into town, the first thing noticed travel - a building Sv.Sofiyi. Before her, gathered from four main roads all entrances to the city, so here formed town square.
During this period, were built not only Cathedral Sv.Sofiyi but new walls to Golden Gate - the front entrance to the city, Heorhiyiyivska and Irininskaya church in honor of Yaroslav and his wife, many other buildings. Around the city of Vladimir has grown a whole new city, surrounded by new fortifications. His so-called - "the city of Yaroslav. Most impressed contemporaries Sophia Cathedral and Golden Gate.
Source 1. Contemporaries of St. Sophia Cathedral:
Nestor Chronicler: "And He decorated it mnohotsinnymy icons, and PLN, and silver utensils and the Church "
Metropolitan Hilarion: "Church is a strange and glorious all district and country do not similar in all the northern lands? "
Let us consider:
- What impressed contemporaries in St. Sophia Cathedral?
- What stays up to this day?
Hilarion (Rusin) - Metropolitan (Head of the Church) in Kyiv 1051-1054 biennium The first Metropolitan of local origin, which manifests itself in his prizvisku: Rusyn. In 1051, during the ceremony of ordination in St. Sophia Cathedral gave a famous speech, known as "word of law and grace. She became one of the earliest works of literature of the Old Rus. Numbered among the saints buried in the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra.
Visit State Historical and Cultural Reserve "Sophia" and read history of the glorious temple. Note the differences between modern and initial view of the cathedral. Find out which elements of its vessels (mosaic murals) remained with 11 centuries. Find out about graffiti Sophia Cathedral.
Sofia - the central temple in both Kyiv and throughout Russia. Here - the residence of the Metropolitan, it has been a solemn ceremony; school here and collected Yaroslav the Wise biblioteka.U 1240 Kyiv was captured by the Mongol-Tatars.
The Italian traveler Dzhiovanni del Plano Carpini wrote about Kyiv at that time: "After a long siege they took it and destroyed the city residents? city that was pretty big and crowded, and now reduced almost to nothing? ".
Surprisingly, Sofia was not completely destroyed, but it is not planting ceremony took place on the throne of Kiev princes, announcement of public acts, that it is no longer the political and cultural center. For a while it still remained the residence of the metropolitan and the main temple Kyiv, but she stood among the ruins. Life in Kiev is revived slowly. And Tatar attacks never stopped.
(a) Wereszczynski Joseph (Kyiv puts everything Catholic from 1589 to 1598)
"Temple This was built luxurious and had no price. ? Many agree that in all Europe no temples that would value and sophistication, decoration were higher than would Constantinople and Kyiv (both built on one plan). ? Unfortunately, This shrine is now not only became dormitories cattle, horses, dogs and pigs, but loses its decorations by rains that penetrate through the holey roof. Here and there where the walls have started to fall. "
(B) From the "Description of Ukraine?" Guillaume de Beauplan (1640)
"Temple Sophie Sv.Myhayla and restored to their ancient form. Church of Hagia Sophia has a nice facade and magnificent view, which side do not look at him? "
(C) In pictures Van Westerfeldt. 1651
Let us consider:
- How describes the state of cathedral J. Wereszczynski? With what he compares it? What causes destruction of the Temple you could call?
- Compare the description of G. de Boplana previous. What changed? Whether it proves a source 2 (c)?
- Compare the source 3 of the original appearance of the cathedral. What's new? Or can agree that the cathedral rebuilt in its original form?
- What can you say about an area in front of the church?
Renaissance St. Sophia associated with the activities of Metropolitan Peter Graves in biennium 1632-1647 He organized the restoration of the cathedral, gave monastery with him. For reconstruction and completion of the church were invited Italian Octavian architect Mancini. Cathedral rising usual we want. Perestroika and continuing later in the XVIIIth.
In 1685-1707 he Hagia Sophia charge of Ivan Mazepa. In his church funds over completion, following flavors and customs of the era. The form of domes appear. Unfortunately, not always masters were trained, and sometimes they simply destroyed or distorted ancient paintings. Yet, in essence, Sofia has kept its majestic appearance. Next to the church formed a complex of buildings - metropolitan Chamber Kelme monastery, gates. So consider Sofia landmark and XI, and XVIII centuries.
Gradually revived and the city. Again St. Sophia Cathedral became the chief of his house.
Source 3. Consider rozdyvlyayuchys and comparing.
Sofia was ploscha.1840
Sofia area in 1851
- How changes you noticed?
- From what circumstances in the history of the city is that?
Changing and the area outside the cathedral. In the second half of XIX century. it was cleared and it was just great - from Sofia to Michael Cathedral. But not for long. In 1857 house was built for a large number of public institutions - so called "Prysutstvennih jobs.
In 1888, establish a monument to Bohdan Khmelnytsky.
Now the area looked like.
But it is early 20 cent.
Consider rozdyvlyayuchys and comparison.
- Compare with previous images. What else changed? What's new in the appearance of the area? What changes in life Kyiv and Kiev are reflected in it?
Twentieth century. in the history of Kyiv was far too rapid. Revolution, War - All somehow affected and at the Sofia area. In 1918 Kyiv bombard cannons Bolshevik troops - several shells hit and in the cathedral. In 1919, zakripyvshys for a while in Kiev, the new government sets new monuments. In Sofia Square obelisk set heroes revolution. At the next change of government it was destroyed.
Do you recognize? Well, that Bogdan though not touch. Although all pre-revolutionary monuments in Kiev left only two - and Bogdan St. Volodymyr's Hill.
In 20-iesSophia Square renamed. It was called Red Square Heroes Perekopa and looked so.
In 1934 in St. Sophia Cathedral service was suspended and the entire territory former monastery was declared a state reserve. But it does not interfere to place its facilities in various government offices.
In the same year, Kyiv became the capital of Soviet Ukraine (it was in Kharkov). This moved the government. Then it was terrible for the taken Kyiv solution - a huge and stately government center.
It - One project perbudovy Sophia Square. Michael and Sophia monastery had to be destroyed. With the first and was done. Sofia is lucky.
D. Malakov, kyyevoznavets.
"In the twentieth century. Hagia Sophia was under three threatened.
For the first time saved Ukrainian art historian Nikolai Makarenko (1877-1936). It happened In 1934, when Soviet authorities destroyed the old historic landmark in Kiev. But it cost the life scientist.
During World War in preparation for the delivery of Kyiv in autumn 1941, engineering parts Soviet 37 th Army minuvaly important buildings of the city. Was bound and Sv.Sofiya. The second time it has saved the then director of the reserve Alex Povstenko (1902-1974) - answering minerals of the basement in Sv.Sofiyi no.
Since Independence, St. Sophia Cathedral Nazis threatened when autumn of 1943 minuvaly and destroyed Kyiv before vidstupom.Todi Hagia Sophia watched from fire keeper Paul Yemets. "
After the war, Kyiv quickly rebuilt. Sophia Cathedral remains the reserve. The area in front of him is now called B. Khmelnitsky Square.
Consider rozdyvlyayuchys and comparing.
Area Khmelnytskoho 50-ies Twentieth century.
Area Khmelnytskoho 80's Twentieth century.
Sofia area, 2003
And this is the time of independence - 2003 And the area is called Sofia. In the background plan - restored St. Michael's Cathedral.
- Which changes you noticed?
- Or can be argued that the area became better? Why do you think?
- What, in your opinion, renamed the area?
It would seem that all is well. Sofia kraschaye each year. It has the status of national historical and cultural reserve, included in list of World Heritage by UNESCO (international organization which cares about the development of culture in the world) in 2001 restored Belfry. Rebuilt St. Michael's Cathedral. The area became a pedestrian - to Shipping not waste valuable mosaics and frescoes. In 2007, Sofia joined the list of 7 Wonders of Ukraine. But again, the restoration?
Not only in the restoration of the right.
The hotel "Hayat" at the Sofia area.
M. KalnytskyyKnown kyyevoznavets.
"? In Sofia area? on a former fountain now arranged pedestrian zone. Here Head Office of Heritage? wants to see something kshalt square before the cathedral of San Marco in Venice - a pool with fountains, surrounded by cafe tables, playing alongside the orchestra?
To these romantic dreams I would like to add just one thing. I think Venetians drowned in a canal Grande that a fool who decided to right on the square San Marco glass leviathan planted in the spirit of the Hotel Hayat, among vtyknuty This area of commercial fitness center with underground parking or arbitrarily overbuild surrounding buildings.
And We, at St. Sophia all this happen? "
- kyyevoznavtsya disturbing?
- Why is he so strongly against the construction of Sophia area?
- How do you feel about this issue? What are your suggestions?
- discuss the problem of historical buildings Kyiv part of your family members, classmates. Spend a little sociological research: gather different opinions and the calculated number supporters of different points of view. Draw conclusions.
When you enter the St. Sophia cathedral, the first thing you see - famous mosaic image Oranty - Mother of God, praying with raised hands. She prays for all people. This mosaic is made Greek masters in the 11 century. She always impressed all who saw it. And despite all destruction, fire, shelling continues to impress.
Maybe that's why even in ancient times, was born legend that Oranta raised their hands stop all misfortune Kyiv, keep it. And the city will stand until Oranta stands.
Beautiful legend? But recently there messages from the traffic and vibrations from nearby construction mosaics of the cathedral began its collapse? not lose a legend?
- Visit the National Historical and Cultural Reserve "Sophia" and observe the glorious history of the house. Find out which elements of its decoration (mosaics, frescoes) remaining from the XI century. Try read graffiti Sophia Cathedral.