5. History - history of the country (textbook)

"History - the history of the country"                                                                                           

 

Kyiv - capital Ukraine. He - her heart. Even in tough times Kyiv remained its spiritual center of the Ukrainian lands. And his story like a drop of water in the history of Ukraine. And vice versa - the history of Ukraine is inseparably linked with the history Kyiv. This was a long history. Country and city knew ups and downs. There were times when the city lay in ruins and the country was devastated and ravaged. But held not too long and the reviving Kyiv, Ukraine and rebirth.

We are setting out in short trip in the history of Kyiv and Ukraine. So far, very short. More you get to know her in high school. Now just quickly, almost Looking back, go through this path and make sure the justice of the expression: "History - the history of the country."

Each subsequent letter reflects a certain period of history. The text in the middle briefly describes what happened in Ukraine.

 

- Carefully read the text.

- Make up a story about the history Kyiv, performing the following tasks:

To spread "Princely Era

- describe how Kyiv changed when it became the capital of Russia

- Know and tell, which are known churches, cathedrals and monasteries appeared in Kiev at the times of dukes. Fold story about one of them

- Consider why XII-XIIIArt. Kyiv was conducted by constantly fighting among the counts.

To spread "Lithuanian-Polish Era

- Describe the changes that took place in Kyiv during the Grand Duchy of Lithuania

- Compare the situation in Kyiv Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Polish Kingdom

- Find out and tell us about activity of the Kyiv Brotherhood

To spread "In the Russian Empire"

- Describe the changes that took place in position Kyiv

- Consider why Kyiv was a place Orthodox pilgrimage from all over the Russian Empire

- Find out and tell us what changes held in Kiev in the life XIX- earlyXXArt.

To spread "Kyiv Soviet"

- Make the story about the first decade of Soviet power in Kiev

- What changes have occurred in the position of Kyiv in 30 years XXArt.

- Know the senior members of his family when your family moved to Kiev, where they lived and worked

 

Sovereign TIMES (V-XIV centuries).

 

Since its Foundation and by the ninth century. Kyiv was the center Polyany, one of the Slavic tribes. We can say little about those times. It is known that the Kyiv Prince was sitting with his army - his wife. The walls served as protection from enemies. On the streets city auction was conducted. Nestor the Chronicler said that because of Kyiv was very important trade route, called "Varangians to the Greeks. It connected Baltic Sea with the powerful Byzantine Empire - one of the the strongest and richest country at the time.

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Nestor Chronicler

Those who owned Kyiv - got to control this trade routes. In 882, the authorities in Kiev Varangian Prince Oleg captures and brings to power Rurik dynasty dynasty.

When Ryurikovich Kyiv became the center of a new powerful state - Kievan Rus. Oleg yet started unite around Kyiv and other Slavic tribes. The case was continued and his successors: Prince Igor, Princess Olga, Prince Svyatoslav.

3

Princess Olga

4

Prince Svyatoslav

 

The greatest flowering of Russia belongs to the reign of Vladimir the Great and Yaroslav the Wise, at the end X - beginning of XI century. The area covered vast areas of Russia from Baltic to the Black Sea. Strengthening the state and changed its capital. With a little reinforcement Kyiv turns in the second most populous city in Europe. Scientists estimate it lived up to 50 000. In major European cities, while the population of 10-20 thousand people. And the town itself is increased by several times. Appear first large stone building - a great rarity at that time. Impressed contemporaries Kiev beauty of temples, palaces of princes and nobles.

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Prince Vladimir Svyatoslavovitch

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Yaroslav Wise

 

5

Becoming Kievan Rus. The first princes

 

From Kyiv began Baptism of Rus. Here lived the Metropolitan - the main church person in Russia. In on the outskirts of town and there was plenty of churches and cathedrals. At Kiev cathedrals and monasteries were founded the first schools in Russia, worked copyist and translator of the book. Kyiv became the religious center of all Russia.

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Baptism of Kiev

 

3Products Kiev masters are renowned throughout Europe. High skill acquired smiths jewelers, masters of glass cases. Invited to Kyiv and foreign masters. And still impressive mosaics of St. Sophia Cathedral, a special set of glass - smalt.

Подпись: Мозаїчне зображення БогоматеріBut after death of Yaroslav the Wise begins the struggle for power in the state between the descendants. Rus split into separate principalities. Kyiv is a stone of contention among the counts. Everyone wanted to become Grand Prince of Kyiv and possess the largest city in Russia. The struggle between the princes of a weakened Russia. Private not Principality could have so successfully do resistance to enemies. When in the thirteenth century. Russia invaded the land at Batu Khan's hordes, they one by one the Russians conquered the principality. Thus all who resisted were destroyed. Did not avoid this fate and Kyiv. A few weeks continued defense of the city.

8

Acquired Mongols Kyiv

 

Fights followed each reinforcement, for each building. Recently Abroad Defense was the Tithe church, whose walls withstood the assault and not buried and defenders attackers under their rubble. After the battle had turned Kyiv the still smoldering. Until a few centuries the ruins were once magnificent buildings. In city remained only about two thousand. Kyiv is a long time to recover from the terrible pogrom. But life in the city is not dead. Kiyani slowly begin to rebuild their homes, temples, to restore the workshop.

 

Polish-Lithuanian TIMES (XIV - and half of the seventeenth century.)

 

In XIII-XIV centuries. Europe in the Northeast increased new state - the Grand Duchy Lithuania. Its territory is growing rapidly due to the weakened Rus principalities. Most of them voluntarily passed under the rule of Lithuania, which gave protection against Tatars. Year in 1363 to Lithuanian state was added and Kiev principality.

 

6

Ukrainian land in 14-15 centuries

 

Some historians called the Grand Duchy of Lithuania - Lithuanian-Ruthenian state. Coming the land of Russia Lithuanian princes adopted local laws, customs, language, faith. The difference was that the princes were not Russians, and Lithuanians. But the significance Kyiv has changed. With the once mighty capital of Russia, he became the center separate principality within the Lithuanian state. And in 1470 he instead principality was established Kyiv province. Princely power was transferred in inheritance, and the magistrates appointed himself Grand Duke of Lithuania.

 

 

7In Fourteenth century. city again began to grow and develop rapidly. In Kiev lived for about ten thousand people. New fortifications were erected, constructed new castle, where the prince and his army. Center for Urban Life The division moved on. Here lived the majority of the city: carpenters and traders.

Подпись: Колона Магдебурзького праваSituation Kyiv improved after giving it in 1499 Magdeburg law - right to self-government. Kiyani got the right to choose their managers and not obey orders from the magistrates. Their duties were to help palatine objection to the guards and building fortifications.

In 1569 the Grand Duchy of Lithuania combined the kingdom of Poland in one state Commonwealth. Kiev Voivodeship came under Polish administration. In Kiev, there are Polish officials know.

 

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Ukrainian land in the 16 century

 

The economic life and management of the city of Poles had changed. But in the cultural and religious life changes. Orthodox Church loses its position as the state, as in the Commonwealth these positions Catholic Church held. To maintain orthodoxy in many cities commoners began to unite in brotherhood. At the donation brothers kept Orthodox Church, introduced in the printing office of school.

With the formation of the Commonwealth to Ukraine begins penetrate and Polish culture, which at that time experienced a boom. Polish Children educated at elite Jesuit college - schools that were under control Catholic Church. They were very high education level. These colleges have started occur in Ukraine. Wanting to give a good education, local notables gave their children to study it to them. But learning from them, these children were influenced by Polish culture often forgetting about her.

 

 

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9Подпись: Будинок Києво-Могилянського колегіуму. Гравюра XVII ст.To counter this fraternity are beginning to open funds for their own schools. In 1632 was established in Kiev Mohyla Collegium. It was the first institution that gave education average. It combined the best traditions of both Polish and local education. At the College gathered a large number of scientists, artists, major role in the development of culture.

Kyiv again revives their positions with religious, educational and cultural center. Was located in Kyiv higher Orthodox clergy. Were open schools with high education, lived and created religious and cultural figures.

 

In the Russian EMPIRE (XVIII - XX centuries).

Подпись: Емблема Київщини 1672 р.

In 1648 at unfolded in Ukraine uprising against the Commonwealth led by Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky. Active participation in it and took Kiev. In December 1648 Bogdan victorious army of unprecedented splendor met in Kiev. Then in Khmelnytsky finally matured thought of creating your own state. Naturally, its center would become Kyiv.

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Getman Bohdan Khmelnytsky

 

Rebellion has grown into real war, which lasted even after the death of Hetman nearly half a century. As a result of this war Left Bank Ukraine and Kyiv came under the power of Russia. Kyiv confirmed Magdeburg right. Instead of Kyiv province was established Kiev Governorate. In the city place the provincial offices, the residence of the governor.

 

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In Ukraine second half of 18 century

 

9For Eighteenth century. Kyiv was on the border with the Commonwealth, so taken many measures to defend the city. At the Cave was laid fortress, which improved during the nineteenth century., always large garrison was soldier.

In the eighteenth century. was built and restored many churches and monasteries. Many of them built in the style of the so-called Ukrainian Baroque style. Such temples were also and lush, rich and some home, cozy. Lavra is pilgrimage site Orthodox Christians from all over Europe.

In the nineteenth century. in Russian Empire was abolished Magdeburg Law. Management in transferred to the City Duma, who was also elected. She took care upgrading of the city, the development of education and culture, and medicine.

Подпись: Церква Всіх Святих (Києво-Печерська Лавра) Growing the town. The composition of Kyiv entered Kurenivka, Luk'yanivka, Syrets, Solomyanka, Shulyavka, Protasov Yar. In the second half of the nineteenth - early twentieth century. the city begins construction boom. There are numerous private mansions, various offices, banks. multi-dwelling buildings.

Rapidly growing and population. If the early nineteenth century. Kyiv lived only 22 one thousand man, that by mid century the figure had reached 70 thousand people. And 1910 year lived in Kiev for nearly three hundred thousand people He becomes the fourth most populous city in the Russian Empire.

In the nineteenth century. Kyiv becoming an industrial center. I get a lot of factories and plants. Some and working out.

 

 

 

5Growing number of schools, colleges. There are higher education - University Polytechnic and Commercial Institutions, Institute of noble maidens. Significant role in the life of the city begins to play an intelligentsia.

P1020742Подпись: Національний університет ім. Т. ШевченкаOn the rise were cultural life of Kyiv. There are high school. Created museums, libraries. As mentioned contemporaries, although Kyiv and was the capital city, but it senses something special that is not allowed to call it provincial.

Changes that took place in City in the late nineteenth century. change and its inhabitants. It is not because City water supply system is, electricity, telephone, finally lights on the streets. In that for urban resident was a commonplace, without which he could not imagine my daily life.

 

 

KIEV SOVIET (1921-1991 biennium)

Beginning Twentieth century was difficult enough for Kyiv. Saturated years to events and changed the face of the city and its inhabitants. In 1914 started The First World War, during which Kyiv was pryfrontovym city. This huge stream of soldiers, wounded, refugees. For the Russian Empire war ends revolution. After it has started even more terrible war - civil. In Ukraine many political forces, fought among themselves. The government in Kiev has changed several times a year. The city suffered damage. There was not enough food, there were problems with heating. Declining population. Someone died, someone just escaped from the horrors War. On the streets had a significant number of homeless children.

After these heady years to the events in Kiev utverdzhuyutsya Soviets. Later, Kyiv became capital of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic within the Soviet Union - the state created by the Bolsheviks.

The first decade Soviet power can not be measured unambiguously. On the one hand increases the area Kyiv, which crosses and the left bank of the Dnieper. The number residents. Resume operation factories and plants, creating new enterprises. Implemented a program to eliminate illiteracy. Opens School professional schools and universities. Start to work great number of research institutions and design bureaus. There were literary and artistic community.

But on the other hand, new government very often rejected gained through the years. In Kiev was destroyed many historical and cultural monuments that remind of the pre-revolutionary past. Particularly affected Kiev churches. Persecution suffered many political and cultural leaders who do not support the new government.

Great suffering became the Great Patriotic War. 72-day defense of the city, the Soviet retreat and the occupation troops, fighting for the liberation of the city have brought considerable damage. Many Kiev died on the fields of war or during the occupation. It destroyed many residential homes, businesses, bridges, education and culture.

 

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Ruined Khreshchatyk

 

In the early postwar years I had to rebuild very quickly lost. Dealt blockages, restoring the work of an enterprise oblashtovuvalos least some accommodation for Kiev.

In the last decade Soviet Kyiv becomes normal for us to look. Reconstructed center city. One indication of this period is a massive housing development. After Most Kiev got their own apartments in the 60's and 70's of the last century. To This was typical of the accommodation, communal apartments. Thus in new residential areas immediately opened schools, kindergartens and sports playgrounds, medical facilities, movie theaters.

For 60 to 80 years in flats in Kiev are conventional gas or electric stoves, televisions, refrigerators, telephones.

The new arrays laid subway lines, new high-speed roads - highways with multi-transport solutions.

At the end of 80-ies lived in Kiev for nearly three million people. Its territory has achieved today sizes. Kyiv has traditionally remained industrial, scientific and cultural center. Finally in Kyiv finally secured the political status Center of Ukraine.

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Near the demonstration after the explosion at Chernobyl. Kyiv, 1986

 

Capital of the independent UKRAINE

In 1991 Kyiv became the capital of independent Ukraine. This is our day. The status of capital provides location within the city government offices, embassies of foreign countries.

3

Ministry Foreign Affairs of Ukraine

 

The new era has changed city, its squares and streets decorated with beautiful new buildings, monuments, restored temples, houses numerous new architecture.

P1020640

 

Players narrative Life in Kyiv Nowadays, about his role in the establishment of independence and its place in today's Ukrainian state.