TOPIC 21. UKRAINE AND THE WORLD ECONOMY. EXTERNAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS UKRAINE
§ 34. World economy and international division of labor
1. Remember, called the National Economy country.
2. What is the geography of the country?
3. What kinds of natural resources do you know?
CONCEPT OF THE WORLD ECONOMY. None of the countries in the world current conditions can not be separated from other countries and be isolated from those processes that occurring in the region or part of the world where it is. Landus, their national economy interact in the production, economic, political, military, cultural, humanitarian, ecological and other areas. To implement these relations between installsyutsya diplomatic relations, negotiated agreements, that regulationleaving aside various areas of cooperation. Countries seeking to contribute in international organizations (the United Nations (UN), International Monetary Fund (IMF) World Organization Trade Organization (WTO) and others.), create inter-regional association - Economic (for example, the European Union (EU)), military-political (North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)) and so on.
Numerous international relations unite the world in a close systemth - World community, and their national economy - the world economy. World economy - a set of interactingthese national economies of the world, which operates on the basis of international division of labor. Major role in bringing countries into the global economic system play international economic relations. They expressed movement of goods, services, capital, labor, information between countries regions and parts of the world.
INTERNATIONAL DIVISION LABOUR. National economies interact in system global latous under the laws of the international geographical division work. Geographical division of labor shows:
а) in formation economic specialization territories that produis moved a product intended for export to other areas. Thus certain territories "fixed" the sectors spezation for which it has the best natural and socio-economicCharts conditions;
б) in commodity exchange between areas Economic results activity - Export products and import sectors of specializationmestic production of other industries. It imported products, production which at this territory or even impossible (because of its natural features), or insufficient for its own use, or unreasonable (More expensive than imports from other areas).
The geographic division of labor can be inter (between different territorialcontinent, located within the same state) and international (between the individual statewe). Household specialization Areas defined as finished products (Eg, cars) and its parts (Parts, units, units), except This raw and semifinished products (iron ore, coke, pig iron, steel, etc.). Specializes in the territories can be branches of material productiontion (Industry, agriculture and forestry, fisheries), and also non-production and production services nature (maintenance, construction, engineering, transport, communications, financial, scientific, technical, riverslamni, information, insurance, travel, etc.).
Thus, international division of labor is the specialization of individual countriesNear East in manufacturing certain types of finished products, their parts and Services and thereafter commodity exchange on the world markets. "Face" of the country in international determine the division of labor field international specialization, products which largely focused on exports (export to other countries).
Formation of the geographical division of labor affect various factors can be grouped into three groups:
1) geographical position of countries. For example, coastal country spetsializuyutsya on marine fisheries, maritime "hubs" country on maintenance of world maritime trade (Singapore Cyprus, Panama, Greece) intracontinental European countries - in internationala transit transport land transport;
2) natural resource base. Specialization of countries in the areas extractive industries, agriculture and forestry, medical and spa facilities, recreation and tourism;
3) socio-economic conditions. Various industry specific formmuyutsya under the influence of historical features of countries, nationaltional and religious traditions of the population, availability of mass or skilledtication of human resources accumulation of capital, scientific and technicalnight progress, new technologies.
FORMS OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS. International economic relations manifested in different forms. Oldest and the most advanced of these is Interstate, or outsideshnya, trade goods. Foreign trade of the country for the neastrologers time (eg per year) characterize these indicatorski: export (Export goods) imports (Import goods) zovnishnotorhovelnyy circulation (Total value of exports and imports), trade balance (To balancecost burden exports and imports), trade balance (The difference between value of exports and imports). If the value of exports exceeds the boilingeration of imports, the balance of active, if behind first second - balance inactive. The same characteristics apply to Foreign Trade Ambassadorgamma. There are other forms of international economic relations: credit and financial relations — loans and credits, export and import capital; scientific and technical cooperation — exchange scientific and technical infor-authorities, with technical, commercial and industrial knowledge and experiencehouse (so-called know-how), patents and trade licenses, exchange the latestwe technologies, training of specialists abroad, joint scientific developments and projects (such as in research cosmoSu, health environment, health); Joint Enterprise — creation enterprises, associations, bodies'organizations based on foreign capital investment for the joint productiontion and sales, services, etc.; International Tourism і international labor migration.
World Industry - A set of interacting onthese national economies of countries world, which operates on the basis of international division of labor.
International division of labor is the specialization of individual countriesNear East in manufacturing certain types of finished products, their parts and Services and thereafter commodity exchange on the world markets.
The main factors international division of labor is the geographic location of their natural resource base and socio-economic conditions.
International economic relations manifested in different forms, including oldest and most developed Interstate trade in goods.
Questions and Tasks
1. What is called the world economy?
2. Explain the nature of geographical division work.
3. As a seaside neighborhood and position Ukraine affects the formation of its international specialization?
4. Give specific examples of the effect natural resource base of Ukraine and neighboring countries in their International specialization.
5. Name the form of international economic relations.