TOPIC 20. SOCIAL SPHERE UKRAINE
§ 32. Education, Culture, Science
1. Remember that the ratio of urban and rural population structure of the population of Ukraine.
2. In which regions of Ukraine in the system of moving a lot large and medium cities? Where is essentially dominated by small towns and rural village?
CONCEPT OF SOCIAL Area. Industries that provide various (Material and spiritual) for services population, form social sphere. Among They distinguish the field social, managerial and market infrastructure.
The functions of different social sectors. Some of them meet spiritual needs of people (Science, culture, health, recreation etc.), and others - individuals (human and catering, domestic service). That is why the social sphere has economic and social benefits for development. Its economic value-declareover expressed in that it provides the services necessary for the reproduction of working groupsislative power, growth productivity of labor. Social role of this Capacri is increasing and improving living conditions.
The level of social development is determined by demand at the Ambassadorgee, and they, in their turn, vary according to the real possibilitiesing society at a given stage. In modern terms general economic crisis, demand for many types of services decreased due to low incomes, but rising to certain types of services (information, advertising, recreation, including tourism, ohorohealth service, etc.)..
Social security has some differences in territorial developmenttion and structure. Significantly higher levels of development and broader sector structure in cities compared with rural areas, in economically more developed industrial regions compared to less developed agrarian. The most developed (quantitatively and qualitative) social spheres-RA and the administrative center of Crimea.
The leading place in the social sphere is the social infrastructureround, which provides spiritual-nyy development rights.
Education. Education in Ukraine is represented by pre-school and general educational institutions, vocational and higher education institutions (HEIs) at various levels accreditation.
Accommodation preschool entirely dependent on the availability of children of appropriate age and maternal employment in the public youduction. In Ukraine there are about 15 thousand such institutions, they covered almost 50% of preschool age. Most of these schools are in cities.
General Schools (Schools, gymnasiums, lyceums) placedyutsya according to resettlement of people. Ukraine has about 22 thousand such institutions, in which are six million students.
Vocational Educational Institutions and universities placed respectively to the needs of the region, as determined by the structure of their specialization economic complex. Due to limited activity or memorypinkie many enterprises and the emergence in Ukraine of a large number bezrobit people decreased need for preparing workers for various sectors of the economy in vocational (technical schools, colleges and schools). Instead, higher schools (Institutes, universitiestah, academies) sets and graduates increased (by period 1990 - 2003 is almost 2.5 times). Along with government departments and agencies, zdebilshoho are in regional centers and large cities, there Universities private forms of ownership, including in regional centers. A total of Ukraine has 340 universities, most them Kiev, Kharkov, Odessa, Lviv, Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk.
Fig. Chernovtsy State University (former residence of Bukovina Metropolitans 1864-1882 biennium)
Fig. Higher education institutions
Culture. Culture include agencies and facilities that produce goods bullets`s appointment, offer spiritual values for the population, etc. (libraries, theaters, clubs, museums, studios, TV, radio, newspapersno-journal publishers). Their placement is also associated personProtocol to resettlement of people: the highest concentration of cultural sitesи—у large cities. In Ukraine there are over 20 thousand libraries, 19 thousand clubs and houses of culture. They placed under administrative division (in towns - centers of administrativeworked actively units in urban districts) and producersthan the principle - in factories, schools etc..
Fig. National Historical Museum of Ukraine
Among the state museums (such as 400) is dominated by local history, historical, memorial. Most of them Kiev Lviv, Odessa, Poltava, Kharkov, Chernigov, Zaporozhye et al. Most professional theaters - in Kiev, Lviv, Odessa, Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk, Miko-layevi.
Fig. National Opera of Ukraine Taras Shevchenko
Fig. Culture and Arts
Science. Ukraine has a well developed scientific area. The state is onover 1300 scientific institutions. Their network of National InstitutionsAcademy of Sciences, industry research institutes, engineering and technology bureau of large enterprises research undersections of universities and other universities. Scientific activities are also involved academic libraries, astronomical observatories, government commandmentsnicks, botanical gardens etc..
Scientific institutions carry out both theoretical and applied researchtion, embody research in the national economy, udoskonalyuyut organization of production and management. Major-axisUkrainian science is rarely the same city, acting as mostmore educational center.
In many areas of science Ukraine occupies a leading place in the world, but minor funding leads, in general, its lag compared to highly developed countries.
To the social sectors are industry, providing population various material and spiritual services.
Social Institutions sphere placedyutsya according to the resettlement of people. Best secured their inhabitants large cities.
Questions and Tasks
1. Which sectors are part of the social sphere and what functions they usenuyut?
2. Describe the geography of education in Ukraine.
3. Tell us about the culture as the social sectors in Ukraine.
4. What are the difficulties of development of Ukrainian science?