§ 31. Water and air transport
1. Remember how favorable sea coast Line of Ukraine for construction of sea ports.
2. What are the major rivers that are good for navigation crossing the Ukraine?
MARINE TRANSPORTATION. Sea transport developed in the south country - on the coast Black and Azov Seas. Ukraine has three sea Shipping: Black, Azov, the Ukrainian Danube, with 19 leadkyh ports. Top of them - Odessa, Illichivsk, Kherson, Nikolaev, Sevastopol, Evpatoria, Southern, Kerch, Mariupol, Berdyansk.
Maritime transport plays an important role in export-import and cabotage traffic. Coasting call traffic between ports one state. Small cabotage - the transport between the portswe are one of the sea (eg iron ore from Kerch to Mariupol by Azov Sea). Great cabotage - a transportation within one state, but between the ports of different seas (Black and Azov). OSforms of Internet usage in marine cargo transportation - oil and petroleum products bylizna ore, building materials.
Fig. In Ukrainian ports of call modern naval ships
From the ports of Ukraine set up three international railway ferry nerepravy: Illichivsk - Varna (Bulgaria) Ilyichevsk - Poti (Georgia) Kerch - Taman (Russia).
Maritime transport. River transport carries mainly intra- exceedsSenn, J.; loads and, slightly, interstate. Total length-on the river waterways of the country declined from 4 to 2.3 km. The most important Shipping artery of the country - Dnipro. International PErevezennya carried out mainly by was DanubeWhich connects Ukraine with many European countries. The main goods that ne-revozyatsya river transport, is building materials, ore, coal, grain, metal. Major river ports - Kyiv, Cherkassy, Kremenchug, Dnipropetrovsk, Kharkiv, Kherson, Izmail, Reni.
Air transport. The volume transport aircraft transport occupies the last place The transport system of Ukraine. This - the youngest species transport performs important functions in our country's relations with other countries world. He performs primarily carrying passengers and mail and loads of fast spoiled. Major airports are located in Ukraine Borispol, Kiev, Kharkov, Lviv, Donetsk, Simferopol.
Fig. Ukrainian Ан-124 Ruslan carry cargo in all corners of the planet
FEATURES ACCOMMODATION TRANSPORT. Transportation, unlike from other industries, has linearlynodular character placement. The main elements of its territories,sentatives structures are transport routes, transport stations and nodes. Among transport ways distinguish highway — to increase road-elevated capacity. Highways are specializedthem (rail, road) or those that combine two lines or even three types of Transport - the so-called polimahistrali. To polimahistraley include, for example, rail-car Kyiv - Zhytomyr - Exactly - Lions, road-rail-river Kyiv - Dnipropetrovsk-respiratory exercises - Osh et al.
To transport stations owned rail and bus station River and seaports, airports and others.
Transport units — a place of crossing or branching least three ways one or combination of different transport modes. They mo-zhut be specialized (rail, road) or integral (Road / rail, rail / road / river, etc.).. In-typical example of Automobile node is Uman, Rail - Bold. City Kyiv is a road-rail-river-air host.
Important for external traffic must transport Corridors. It - politransportni highway (Located along with these objects transport infrastructure), which made transportation of the country. Ukraine is connected with several neighbors Corridors. They are carried out through its territory andeach transit. However, the development and construction of trans-Corridor does not satisfy the growing needs Trans-European-goconnections. Now transport network of Ukraine involved in the formation of powerful international transport corridors zahalnoyevropeysity value - three road-rail (Dresden - Kra-Kiv-Lions; Triest - Budapest - Chop - Lviv - Kyiv; Helsinki - St. Petersburg - Kyiv - Bucharest) And the Danube waterway. In addition, tsoFirst, Ukraine together with countries of the Caucasus offers its territory for formation transyevraziyskoho politransportnoho corridor.
Maritime Transport Ukraine plays an important role in export-import and cabotage (between ports of their country) traffic.
River transport provides internal (Dnipro River) and external (Danube river) transport goods.
Air transport is youngest means of transportation performs important functions in our relations country with other states, primarily in the transportation of passengers.
Transport has a line-nodular character accommodation, the main elements of its territoriessentatives structures are transport routes (in including politransportni line), transport items and nodes.
Questions and Tasks
1. What important is marine transport?
2. That is small and a large coasting?
3. Name the largest ports of Ukraine.
4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the River and air transport modes?
5. With the economic map of Ukraine will determine the most polimahistrali and Integral transport nodes.
6. Identify card on which way Ukraine is connected with neighbors.