§ 21. Chemical Industry (textbook)



§ 21. Chemical Industry


1.     What are the minerals belong to the chemical raw materials?

2.     Where they are common in Ukraine?


Factors of development. The factors of Chemical industry includes those industries that for production using chemical methods processing of raw materials.

Chemical industry, as well as engineering, refers to haluzey that provide scientific and technical progress, because it always paid to the development considerable attention. The role of determining the chemical industrydefined by the wide use chemical technologies and materials in all branches of national economy.

For the development of certain branches of chemical industry in Ukraine is rich raw materials - a variety of minerals, timber, industrial waste agricultural products and others.

The chemical industry is generally related to materialomisttorments conditional significant cost of raw materials for production products. For some of them also need plenty of water (Eg, production of synthetic fibers) or fuel and electricalroenerhiyi (Production of polymers). Private sector, especially the ones youallowed malotransportabelnu product targeted to consumersmanual. Important factor allocation and development in all fields of chemical industry is environmental.


Fig. Chemical and petrochemical industry


SOME LOCATIONS BRANCHES. Basic chemistry is one of the leading galuzey chemical industry in Ukraine (Approximately 40% gross output). Its aboutinduction - fertilizers, acids, soda etc.. Is developed based on as local processing (potassium, magnesium and kitchen salt sulfur, phosphorus, waste coke and steel production) and imported (Apatites, natural gas) resources.

The basis for its development is mining and chemical industry. It is forymayetsya extraction of natural chemical drug - potassium salt and sulfur (Carpathian), Sodium (Donbass, Crimea, Transcarpathia), phosphorite (Average Transnistria, Sumy and Kharkiv region).

Mineral is among the leading industry peoplehelpful basic chemistry. In Ukraine, producing various kinds of fertilizers: nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, combined.

Generating Nitrogen fertilizer based on ammonia, who receive Natural gas and coke production waste. Therefore, whenventure that producing such fertilizers are placed along the gaswires (Exactly, Odessa, Odessa) Or in the centers of coking (Alchevsk Horlivka Severodonetsk, Lisichansk, Zaporizhzhya, Dnipropetrovsk). Production kaliynyh fertilizers tends to raw materials (deposits potassium salt). The main centers - Kalush and StebCLOCK. Recently, in connection with environmental and recreational factors ining plant in Stebnyk not work. Production of phosphate fertilizers oriented before placing consumer (Agricultural production). It develops based on processing of imported raw materials (apatite from Russia, phosphorite from North Africa) and blast slag. Own production phosphate has no industrial value. Top companies concentrated in Vinnitsa, Kostyantynivtsi, Odessa, Sevastopol, Mariupol.

Among acid production leading place belongs sirchanokyslottion, because its products have wide application in various fields economy. This developing production-based processing of sulfur (deposits in Lviv area, most of which - Yavoriv) waste coke, oil industries, ferrous and Metalurhiyi (sulfur gases). It justifies its positioned at consumer, because sulfuric acid malotransportabelnabecause of high chemical activity. The main area of consumption of sulfuric acid - youmanufacture of superphosphate. The center of sulfuric production - the same as production of phosphate fertilizers and New Section Novoyavorovskoe, Dnipropetrovsk, Rivne.

Soda materialomistke because placed near deposits of raw materials - salt. In Ukraine, produce kaltsyno-Wan, and caustic soda. Major companies located in Ly-sychansku, Krasnoperekopsk, Kalush.

Because of economic crisis Enterprise principal chemistry, etc.shyh areas significantly reduced production. They did not meet the needs of the country, especially in fertilizers (their volumes reduced). Considerable number have imported from abroad. All this requires a number of measures to increase production industries technicNorthern upgrading of enterprises and others.

Organic Synthesis Chemistry presented factories that produce forpivprodukty for polymers. It uses main way oil and gas. Application of waste wood, agriculeconomy and who coke production significantly reduced. Its main branch is Petrochemical industry with the largest centersin tram Lisichansk, Kremenchug, Odessa, Kherson, DrohobychWhere installation locationsscheni powerful oil plants. Coke production developmentfault in Gorlovka, Severodonetsk, Dniprodzerzhinsk and others.

Production polymers developing where is the raw material, electricity and water. Synthetic resin and plastics are produced mainly in petrochemical plants and nitrogen fertilizer plant (Severodonetsk, toDonets'k, Dnipropetrovsk, Zaporizhzhya et al.). Chemical fibers producedtoll in Chernigov, Kiev, Odessa, Sokal(Lviv). The largest manufacture of plastics processing is the production of tires and rubber-asbestos products (Dnepropetrovsk, White Church).

In Ukraine, as well developed paint and varnish industry (Dnipropetrovsk, Odessa, Sumy, Vinnytsia, lived in Chernivtsi), producersranda synthetic dyes (Rubizhne).

Pharmaceutical (Production of medicines) and Microbiology (Manufacturecial vitamin feed additives, etc..) sector targeted to conZhyvachiv and placed in largest cities in Ukraine: Kyiv, Lviv, Kharkiv, Dneprodzerzhinsk.


Fig. Pharmaceutical company Darnitsa in Kiev


Most of the chemical industry are located in three areas: Dnipro, Donetsk and Carpathian Mountains. Much of their concentrationHH causes severe environmental pollution chemicals that adversely affects the health of people living in these regionsstates. Necessary measures for treatment of these contaminants, use the little bezvidhidnyh and technology to all enterprisesChemical se industry.



Chemical industry includes those industries that for production using chemical methods processing of raw materials.

For the development of specific chemicals in Ukraine various raw materials represented in minerals, timber, production waste.

Most of the chemical industry are located in three areas: Dnipro, Donetsk and Carpathian Mountains.


Questions and Tasks

1. Name basic chemical industry of Ukraine and their principles placement.

2. Describe the geography of the main branches of chemistry and organic chemistry synthesis of Ukraine.

3. Select the areas of chemical industry in Ukraine and define their specialization. What are the environmental concerns associated with the development of chemical industry, there in these areas?