TOPIC 9. INDUSTRY OF UKRAINE: GENERAL DESCRIPTION
§ 14. Overview of the Industry of Ukraine
1. Remember, called the industry sector.
2. Which areas economy and a sector of economic activity is industry?
INDUSTRY IN INDUSTRY Material production. Industry is one of the major industries, which is closely linked with technological progress and has a decisive impact on development. This Industry material production, which is a set of enterprises (factories, plants, power plants, mines, mines, etc.), which produce tools and other products for most industries and other industries, as well as extracting raw materials and fuel, producing energy, storing wood handle and processed products obtained in industry or agriculture economy.
Industry is the leading sector Gospodarstva Ukraine. In its stock emit mining and processing industry. Mining industry engaged species-Butko different fuels and raw materials from the ground, because its development and distribution depend from the placement and mineral resources.
To manufacturing related industries that are engaged atopment or processing raw materials and semi. This - mashynobugovernance bodies, metals, wood and other industry.
By type production, heavy industry together in, light and food industry. Set of industries that produce raw materials, fuel, tools, is heavy industry. It includes fuel, electricity, metallurgical, chemical, manobudivna, Forestry and wood processing, industry building materials. To light include industries that produce goods contion - clothes, shoes, textiles, perfumes and so on. Food indus-lovist combines industry that produce food.
Sometimes in order to distinguish the use of their field ofsales, resort to separation industries to industry groups "A" and "B". To Group "A" include industries that produce capital goods, and to Groups "B" - Commodities. In this case, the first group fall of heavy industry and some light industry, and the second - some field heavy, light and food industries.
Branch structure. In sectoral structure of industry in Ukraine has traditionally occupied a leading position heavy industry - 73% in 2004 (Fig. 6). Its significant prevalence over Production of consumer goods constant-but led to problems with the provision of products readilykoyi and food industry. In recent years, in all industries was a significant shorteningshortening production, most - in engineering, xiones, in light industry. With the implementation of market reforms Ukraine will gradually increase the competitiveness issuetion products, for that it has a considerable natural resources and highly skilled staff. Already many industrial products (metal, aircraft, launch vehicles, textiles, garments, food, etc.) great demand on world markets.
FACTORS PLACING. A disposition
enterprise specific industrial sectors affect the work of variousticipants, including:
а) natural (relief, water resources); б) techno-economic (energy, raw materials, transport, consumer, economic and geographical position); в) demosotsialni (Labor, consumer, social infrastructure). These factors closely interconnected and peculiarly affecting accommodation enterprises in various sectors, depending on the technological particularities.
The main factor placing industrial donedaVNA was economic, that desire the maximum amount of productment with minimum costs. Now become major factors of socio-economic (jobs, satisfaction demand for goods contion) and socio-ecological (conservation net environment).
ELEMENTS The territorial structure. In Ukraine industry developmentmischena unevenly. The main elementsnents of its territorial structure of the industry iscatching points, centers, nodes, and the agglomeration areas.
Industrial point - This town, which is only one industrial enterprise.
Industrial Center - This town, which posted whereseveral industrial companies, not connected to each other producerschymy ties.
Industrial site - One or several closely spaced industrial centers, in places where enterprises have a close industrial and economic ties. If there are significant center node can become an industrial agglomeration. Combineschasing units and agglomerations that relationships, in particular thatterritory In Ukraine, formed four Consumer Industrial areas: formed Industrial District.
Donetsk, Pridneprovsky, and Precarpathian Prybuz'kyi. Largestnecks of them - Donetsk - specializing in coal, electricity, metallurgy, machine building and chemical industries. Prydneprovsk industrial area development observed electronroenerhetyky, chemical, engineering and metallurgical industry. Precarpathian industrial area stands out oil and gas, timber, machinery, and chemicals. Prybuz'kyi Industrial District specializing in coal, chemical and electric-power industry.
Many industrial units and agglomerations are located within aboutindustrial coal districts. Donetsk-Makiivs'ka, Gorlivs'ka-Yenakiivs'ka, LuGanska industrial metropolitan area includes, for example, in Donetsk onin industrial district; Dnipropetrovsk Dneprodzerzhinsk, Zaporozhye, the criticalvorizka - to the Dnieper district; World agglomeration - to Carpathian and Novovolynskaya and Chervonogradska - to Pribuzhskoe industrial area.
Outside the industrial areas are Kiev, Kharkov, Odessa Industrial agglomeration, many industrial units (Vinnitsa, PoltavaSKII, Nicholas, Kherson, Simferopol, etc.).. All these elements of the territorial organization industry coupled with each other various bonds and form industrial complex of Ukraine.
BASIC PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPMENT. In Ukraine, the structural rearrangement (Dstructuring) is recognized as a priority sector for the heritage of socialistfoot of managing the economy remained with outdated energyand intensive technology, a high proportion of environmentalbut hazardous activities of their low efficiency.
In the process of reforming the industry was that its structure is not rational: in it - a large proportion of heavy industry, primarily Galazey that serving the military-industrial complex, and a small percentage of branches that produce consumer goods. It also results inreflection of the need for the development of light industries and food industry, in its turn, would reduce Ukraine's dependence on imports most urgent products. For Ukraine is also characterized by high share of mining production in industrial production, and hence - and export various minerals (construction materials, iron and manganese ore, salt, sulfur, etc.).. It leads to large losses for raw sold on world markets at low prices. It couldtion development of processing industries increase its jumpingentozdatnosti on world market.
The importance of a restructuring of computer engineeringsubunits, because It created the means of production for vsoOn the national complex of the former state. Necessary for the bodytion of new plants, which would complete the technological cycles, re-orientation of enterprises on production of new types of machinery and equipment using most popular in Ukraine and abroad. Important role in this played by converting the military-industrial sector and foreign investment investment.
Important for Economy of Ukraine is the improvement of the structureTours of fuel and energy complex reduction enerhozatratnosti industries.
Development of light and food industry in Ukraine is connected with the introduction of new forms of production, establishment of a network of small businesses that would producing products of wide assortmentment and could quickly on pereoriyentovuvatys market needs. With enough manpower, strong raw material base Ukraine can not only solve its internal problems of undersecurity of inhabitants industrial consumer goods, but also become an important exporter of products to the world market.
Industry is the sector of material production in which produce tools and other products for various industries economy as well as extract raw materials and fuel, handling and processing products obtained in industry or agriculture.
Industry is divided into mining and manufacturing, and also difficult, food and light. Each of these groups is a collection of smaller industries, sectors, industries.
In sectoral structure of industry in Ukraine has traditionally occupied a leading position heavy industry.
Under the influence of various factors (natural, feasibility, demosotsialnyh formed territorial structure industry. The main elementsnents of its єIndustrialcatching points, centers, nodes, and the agglomeration areas.
Questions and Tasks
1. What is called the industry?
2. How important industry in the development of the country and society in general?
3. Which sectors are leading position in the industry?
4. What elements of the territorial structure of the industry are common in Ukraineacterised?
5. Name the indicator of industrial production in Ukraine.
6. Enter key, in your opinion, how industrial restructuring in Ukraine.
Practical work 5
Make a chart of the sectoral structure of industry in Ukraine.